ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION

TOPIC 2:

OBJECTIVES
At the end, students should:

Understand cosmological perception in Islam. Memahami pandangan semesta Islam.  Explain the main concepts in Islamic civilization. Menghuraikan Konsep Tamadun

Islam.

 

Understand the Jihad concept and its role in Islam. Memahami konsep Jihad dan
peranannya dalam kebangkitan Tamadun Islam.

Analyze the development of Islam in Malaysia. Menganalisis kebangkitan semula Islam
dan penerapannya di Malaysia.
2

2.0. INTRODUCTION

To understand about Islamic civilization. Untuk
memahami tamadun Islam

Understand about the meaning of civilization in Islam.
Melihat/Mengkaji tamadun dalam konteks Islam

Islam is the way of life. Melihat/Mengkaji
Islam sebagai satu cara hidup

4

Islam means submission to the will of God and obedience to His law.2. purity.1 ISLAMIC WORLD VIEW (cosmological perception ) Islam is also the teaching brought by all prophets since Adam a. Islam is derived from the Arabic root WHAT IS ‫? إسالم‬ ( ‫سلم‬ ) "Salema": peace. In the religious sense.s. submission and obedience. 5 .

peace pure Surrender Salama = salima ISLAM MEANING OF ISLAM 6 .To place the will of Allah at the utmost level.

Ibadah (Worship) 3. Aqidah (Belief) 2.2. CONTENTS OF Islām Basic principles in Islām. Akhlak (Ethics) 7 . Prinsip-Prinsip Asas Islam 1.1.2.

.

.

1. Waqi’iyyah (Hakikat/Realistic) 6. Thabat wa Murunah (Constant and Flexible) 5. ‘Alamiyyah (Universal in diversity. Inqilabiyyah (To Replace) 7. Tolerance to all cultures???). Syumuliyyah (Complete/Comprehensive) 4. Wasatiyyah (justly balanced position/stand/track) 10 .3. 3. Rabbaniyyah (Godliness) 2.2. Tawazun (Balance between material & spiritual) 8. Ciri-ciri Keistimewaan Islam 1. Special Characteristics of Islam.

Rabbaniyyah Definition: Islam comes from Allah.1. Manusia hanya sebagai pelaksana segala ketentuan yang ditetapkan 11 . Man simply executes based on Allah’s orders Ianya membawa erti bahawa Islam ini datangnya daripada Allah.

Rabbani in terms approach and resources  One’s approach and resources should be based on the divine revelations to Prophet Muhammad (s.w) 12 .Category of Rabbaniyyah : 1. his/ her ultimate goal in life is to get Allah’s pleasure.e.a. Rabbani in terms of goals and intentions  One’s intentions has to be specifically for Allāh i. 2.

Alamiyyah (Universal) Definition: The teaching of Islam is not for a certain race or community but it is for all ummah from all layers of society. Risalah Islam ditujukan untuk semua umat dan bangsa serta untuk semua lapisan masyarakat.2. Ia bukan risalah untuk bangsa tertentu. 13 .

. 14 . Sesuai sampai ke hari qiamat. space and geographical boundaries. Khatulistiwa dan sebagainya.Universal/ Suitable in the sense that the teachings of Islam transcend across time.Alamiyyah also means: . Sesuai di semua tempat sama ada di Kutub Selatan.Ia juga sesuai untuk semua zaman sama ada zaman Rasulullah SAW atau zaman teknologi moden yang canggih ini.Applicable anywhere and anytime from past to the present and the future.

Ajaran Islam lengkap dan menyeluruh. The scope of Islam is all-encompassing with guidance for all aspects of human life not excluding the smallest to the biggest of human conduct.3. Syumuliyyah Definition: The teaching of Islam is complete and comprehensive. Ruang lingkup ajaran Islam adalah mencakupi seluruh aspek kehidupan manusia tanpa kecuali dari sekecil-kecil urusan sampailah ke sebesar-besar perkara. 15 .

Thabat & Murunah Definition: Fixed and firm in principles and flexible in practice.4. etc. Tetap dari segi prinsip dan hukum tetapi anjal atau fleksibel dari segi perlaksanaannya. 16 . sleeping.g. he/ she can pray by sitting. Solat/ prayer is an obligation to all Muslims (thabaat) but its practice could be done in flexible ways such as by jama’ and qasar for travellers. Another situation: A Muslim who faces illness. E.

Contohnya: Manusia dari segi fitrahnya ingin hidup berpasangan..5. Islam adalah mengikut realiti.g: Islām recommends marriage and its also allows polygamy for man .. Waqi’iyyah Definition: Islam is realistic. maka Islam mensyariatkan perkahwinan bagi lelaki dan perempuan dan berpoligami hanya bagi lelaki… 17 . e.

Islam menggantikan zaman jahillyah 18 . Islam tidak boleh bercampur dengan jahiliyyah. Inqilabiyyah Definition: Islam should be strictly practiced in all situations. It is clearly distinguished and should not be intermingled with any jahiliyyah practice or system Menegakkan Islam atas keruntuhan jahiliyyah. Islam juga tidak boleh ditempeltempelkan pada sistem jahiliyyah.6.

g.7. e. Struggle for properties for life. 19 . and at the same time pay the zakat and give sedekah. Kewujudan keseimbangan dan kesepaduan antara kehidupan rohani dan jasmani. Al-Tawazun Definition: Balance and integrated state between spiritual and physical (material) of the human life.

social life. 2) Manage your life in properly and good condition such as time for study habit. sport etc. makan. Al-Wasatiyyah Definition: 1) Justly balanced position in everything. Seimbang dalam melakukan setiap perkara yang diharuskan oleh syarak seperti berpakaian.8. melakukan ibadah sunat dan seumpamanya. 20 . eating habit. worship. eating. not too extremes and not too simple. Keep it everything in which lawful according to Syarak such wearing clothes. pray etc in the justly balanced situation/ stand.

Richard E. then the society can be considered as Islamic & civilized society” -Syed Qutb Fi Zilalil Qur’an21 . Sullivan the element of humanity laid by Allah becomes the utmost value in the society. Malik Bennabi. Prof. CONCEPT OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION.2.2. KONSEP TAMADUN ISLAM Islamic civilization means… “When “A Society Which Has Achieved Its Distinguished Moral Values and Culture” -al Attas- “established based on Islamic teachings” Syed Qutb.

2.2.2. 22 . GENERAL OBJECTIVE OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION To uphold Islām is the way of life.

2.2. Membina hubungan sesama manusia Membina hubungan antara manusia dengan alam/ persekitaran 23 Develop relationship with the world/ nature.t Develop relationship with the God.w.2. Membina Develop relationship with human beings. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES hubungan antara manusia dengan Allah s. .

memelihara. Definition of Maqasid Shariah : It refers to process in protecting 5 main things shared by human beings: Religion. Nyawa. Akal. mind. Ia merupakan tujuan utama shariah (perundangan) dalam Islam yang melibatkan proses menjaga.2. menjamin dan melindungi 5 perkara utama iaitu Agama. soul. Its is the main objective for Islamic laws revealed. descendents/ dignity and property.2.3. Maqasid Shariah as manisfestation for Islamic civilization. 24 . Maruah/Keturunan dan Harta.

dikeji oleh org Islam atau org bukan Islam. Jaga/lindungi agama daripada dihina. 25 . and strengthening faith (iman). difitnah. Ia juga wajib tinggalkan apa yang dilarang oleh agama spt tidak murtad. b)Protecting religion from been deviated.-In protecting religion a)Doing all the obligatory deeds such as performing solat/ prayer. kuatkan iman dll. Buat suruhan wajib spt tunaikan solat.

2.3. MAQASID SHARIAH 1) Protecting religion 2) Protecting human live/ soul 3) Protecting mind 4 Protecting descendents/ dignity.2. 5) Protecting property 26 .

Qias Ijma’ (Ulama’ consensus) all cultures and civilizations provided they are not contradict to Islamic teachings.2.  Ijtihad. Etc  27 .  Al-Sunnah. SOURCES IN ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION  Al-Quran.2.4.

Main source: Al-Quran .

Primary Sources 1) THE QUR’AN (absolute & final authority) 2) THE SUNNAH (explanation of the Qu’ran) .

Al IJMA’ (unanimous agreement of the muslim community) 4. Al QIAS (reasoning) .Secondary Sources 3.

qara’a means.QUR’AN AL KAREEM Definition: The word Qur’an is an infinitive noun from the word.w. he read or recited) ‫ المعجز‬،‫اللفظ العربي المنزل على النبي محمد صلى هللا عليه وسلم‬ ‫ المتبع بتالوته‬،‫ المنقول بالتواتر‬،‫بسورة منه‬ ( al lafzul arabi. (He collected together.a. al manqul tawaturan. al muta ‘abbun bi tilawatihi) . al munazzal a’la Nabi s. al mu’ jizu bi suratin minhu.

7. 6. Legislative Worship Family Mua’malat Jenayat Akhlak (Ethics) etc . 3. 4.The Content of Al-Quran 1. 5. 2.

cover the same ground and defining the prophet’s actions.SUNNAH Literally means a way.AL. a manner of action or mode of life Both Hadith and Sunnah. sayings and silent approval . rule.

The Categories of Sunnah 1) Sunnah Qauliah: saying of holy prophet which has influence a religious matters e. case of eating “Dhab among Sahabah (Companions)” .g: none of you (truly) believes until he wishes for is brother what he wishes for himself.g: perform your prayer as you see me praying 3) Taqrir: his silent approval of the action or practice of another e. e. 2) Sunnah Fi’iliyyah: an action of prophet.g.

IJMA’ "Consensus" of legal scholars representing all Muslims (mujtahidin) Persetujuan di antara ulama-ulama Islam selepas kewafatan Nabi Muhammad mengenai sesuatu hukum syarak. .

for Allah loveth those who do good” (al-Qurān . 2: 195). but do good.(195 :2 ،‫ين )البقرة‬ ِ‫س‬ ِ ْ‫المُح‬ َ ‫ن‬ “And spend of your substance in the cause of Allah. 36 .E. The prohibition of cigarette smoking based on some evidences particularly the āyat/ verse of the Holy book al-Qurān: َ َ َ ‫ه‬ ‫ه‬ ْ ُ ُ ُ ُ ُ ُ ‫ه‬ َ َ َ ْ‫ح‬ ْ ْ ُ ‫هللا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫س‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ل‬ ‫إ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ي‬ ‫د‬ ‫ي‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ت‬ ‫َل‬ ‫و‬ ‫هللا‬ ‫يل‬ ‫ب‬ ‫س‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ف‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وأ‬ ُّ‫حب‬ ‫نه‬ ِ ‫ي‬ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ َ َ َ َ ْ ِ َ ِ ِ ِ ِ ْ .g. and make not your own hands contribute to (your) destruction.

. Bermaksud menyamakan sesuatu yang tidak ada nas hukumnya dengan sesuatu yang tidak ada nas hukumnya kerana adanya illat hukum.QIYAS Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nas) to a new injunction Menerangkan hukum sesuatu yang tidak ada nasnya dalam al-Quran dan Hadis dengan cara membandingkannya dengan sesuatu yang ditetapkan hukumnya berdasarkan nas.

“Wahai orang-orang yang beriman! Bahawa sesungguhnya arak.Example for Qiyas  Legal evidence from the Qurān: ْ ‫و‬ ْ ‫و‬ ْ‫و‬ ْ ‫ما‬ َ ‫ش ْي‬ ْ َ‫اْل‬ َ‫ز‬ ُ‫م‬ ‫ل ال ه‬ ‫نوا إِ ه‬ َ ‫ال‬ ٌ ْ‫رج‬ ْ‫خ‬ ‫ان‬ ُ ‫ْس‬ ُ‫م‬ ُّ َ‫ َياأ‬ ِ ‫س‬ ِ ‫مي‬ ِ ‫ها اله‬ َ‫ع‬ َ ْ‫من‬ َ ُ‫صاب‬ َ ‫اْلَن‬ َ ‫ر‬ َ ‫ال‬ َ ‫ر‬ َ‫ن‬ َ ‫ين آ‬ َ ‫ذ‬ َ‫ي‬ ُ ‫َل‬ ِ‫م‬ ِ ‫ط‬ ِ ‫م‬ ْ‫ت‬ ُ ‫م‬ ُ ‫عله‬ َ (90 :‫ المائدة‬،‫ُون )القرآن‬ ِ ‫فاجْ َت‬ َ ‫فلِح‬ َ َ‫نبُوهُ ل‬ ْ‫ك‬  “O ye who believe! intoxicants and gambling. adalah (semuanya) kotor (keji) dari perbuatan syaitan. dan mengundi nasib dengan batang-batang anak panah. that ye may prosper”. 5: 90). dan pemujaan berhala. dan judi. oleh itu hendaklah kamu menjauhinya supaya kamu berjaya” (alQurān. SMOKING/ . (dedication of) stones. are an abomination of Satan's handiwork: eschew such (abomination). and (divination by) arrows.

and they do come by many names such Carlsberg. So intoxicant drink is prohibited in Islām. etc. At the time it was from grapes and its name was “al.  ‘Illah (‫)علّة‬/ reason for justifying this Qiyas: is the intoxication and harmful for brain/ mind. 39 . Stout.Khamr” (‫)الخمر‬. etc… they are all harām in Islām based on the Qiyās concept. Beer. pineapple. coconut. whereby nowadays there are so many materials that could become intoxicant drink whether it is from rice.

India and Asian continental 40 .  During Umayyah /Abbasiyyah periods.2.  The spread and development of Islam to Africa. EMERGENCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION  Beginning of Islamic Civilization  Islamic Civilization at prophethood time (Prophet Muhammad SAW) & Khulafa’ al Rasyidin. Europe.3.

1 Factors that leaded to excellence of Islamic civilization  Upholding the teachings of al-Quran dan al-Sunnah (Insan Rabbanigodliness individual generation).2.4.   Political stability Cooperation between the Muslims especially among their Muslim scholars and intellectuals. Galakan Pemerintah. Kerjasama Para Ulama dan Cendikiawan.  Good rulers/ ministers. 41 .

 Diplomatic relation.3 Intellectual activities occurred in:       Economy. 42  . Architecture Etc 2.4.2. Development of Islamic knowledge to Europeans Hubungan Diplomatik.  Translation activities.2. Astronomy. Universities such as at Sicily.4. Math. Medicine.

capitalism.5. ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION DURING COLONIAL ERA  Teaching and Learning. darwnism. Sistem Pengajaran dan Pendidikan  Maas media especially newspaper: materialistic generation . etc.  Alien ideologies such sekularisme.social problems. 43 .2.

JIHAD IN ISLAM  Jihad in upholding the Islamic teachings.6. Etc 44 . intention (Nafsu). Mempertahankan Kesucian Islam. Ilmu  dan pendidikan.2.  Jihad against lust/ bad  Jihad in education.

ari  Its application in economy 45 .7 Islamic development in Malaysia.2.  Cultivating Islamic values in the administration. Penerapan Nilai-Nilai Islam dalam Pentadbiran – Islam Had.

8. Islamic civilization brought one distinguished civilization to the world the history ever seen whereby its main concept as “the way of life” gives a new dimension to religion perception.2. 46 . Its emergence brought good changes to human beings and the world whereby its teachings address a lot on good values and behaviours. It later on paved a way to European renaissence and development. CONCLUSION Islam is a universal religion for all man kind.

Any Reminder / Debriefing about the topic in Topic 2 .

THANKS 48 .