GSM Call Flow

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GSM Call Flow
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Call processing means all steps which set up, maintain, and then end a call. According to the Telecom Glossary put out by the American ational Standard !or Telecommunications, call processing means" 1. The se#uence o! operations per!ormed by a switching system !rom the acceptance o! an incoming call through the !inal disposition o! the call. 2. The end$to$end se#uence o! operations per!ormed by a networ% !rom the instant a call attempt is initiated until the instant the call release is completed. . . .
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GSM Call Flow contd..,

The !irst part to mobile call processing is initiali'ation. (t)s what happens when you !irst turn on your phone. *ou get a connection to a nearby cell site, then the cellular networ% chec%s your account. (! you ha+e a +alid telephone number and your account is good then your call proceeds. ,et)s ta%e this step by step.
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GSM Call Flow contd..,

*ou turn on your phone. Assume that you)re in your home location. First o! all a connection is to be established with near by .TS. (t is not possible to ma%e a call unless your mobile has a lin% to a cell site. So a connection to cellular system is to be established which means that a !re#uency is needed to transmit on.
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GSM Call Flow contd..,
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So the mobile tries to !ind out broadcast channels. Again, the .CC0 is not a dedicated radio !re#uency. (t is rather a channel within the bit stream carried by any o! the !re#uencies in a cell. A base station)s .roadcast Control Channel continuously sends out identi!ying in!ormation about its cell site and helps the mobile to get some in!ormation about the cell site. For the initial period mobile acts as a recei+er chec%ing !or a signal !rom any base station with in the range. /

. Finally the GSM system decides which cell has to handle the mobile station which is usually the cell site deli+ering the highest signal strength to the mobile.. As a ne2t step. 1 .    The mobile scans the a+ailable !re#uencies and measures the recei+ed le+el on each channel. the mobile recei+es corresponding bursts on FCC0 and SC0 and synchroni'es with the cell site.GSM Call Flow contd.

.ocation Management  (n+ol+es two basic operations  4aging    Search by system to trac% the mobile MSC broadcasts message Target replies in the uplin% channel Mobile sends update message on the uplin% channel when it changes its location 3  5pdate  .

A powered-on mobile is informed of an incoming call by a paging message.   Location management in GSM is handled by Mobility Management layer in the GSM protocol architecture. then networ re!uires updating each time it changes the cell which increase the burden on the system 6 . If the paging is done exactly for one cell.

Also mobile stations are paged in the cells o! their current location area. 7 .ecause o! that a compromise solution used in GSM is to group cells into “Location areas” 5pdating messages are re#uired when the mobile station mo+es between location areas.   .

. 18 . short message trans!er etc.MS States An MS can be in one o! the !ollowing states"       Detached: MS is powered o!! Attached: MS power is on An attached MS can be" Idle: MS has no dedicated channel allocated and listens to .CC0 and 4C0 Active: MS has a dedicated connection to the networ% Changing !rom idle to acti+e mode can be a result o! location updating. call setup.

 9hen mo+es to new .= updates the current location 11 sends a message to the old MSC/VLR to .M  5pdate message sent to new MSC/VLR  (! MS authori'ed in the new MSC/VLR then   subscriber:s 0. IMSI Attach Procedure . Location updating  9hen mobile powered ‘ON’  4er!orms update indicating it:s IMSI( International Mobile Subscription Id )  The abo+e procedure called .ocation Area or a <i!!erent 4.

   9hen a mobile station is power o!! it per!orms an (MS( detach procedure in order to tell the networ% that it is no longer a+ailable. 12 . Re i!tratio": This is the process in which an MS in!orms a networ% that it is attached.

The >. This in+ol+es the !ollowing steps" 1. 2. The MS sends an (MS( attach message to the networ% indicating that it has changed state to idle. the (MS( attach procedure is e2ecuted.= !or a copy o! the subscription in!ormation.= contacts the subscriber:s 0.(MS( Attach    9hen an MS is switched on. 1& .= determines whether there is a record !or the subscriber already present. (! not. the >.

.   &. 1- .= updates the MS status to idle. Ac%nowledgement is sent to the MS. The >.(MS( Attach contd. -..

9hen the channel is allocated.acti+eC in the >.=. ?+er S<CC0 all signaling preceding a call ta%es place. using AGC0.Mobile ?riginated Call @M?CA 1. The MS sends a call set$up re#uest +ia S<CC0 to the MSCB>. The MS uses =AC0 to as% !or a signaling channel.SC allocates a signaling channel. it sends its (MS( and >. &. -.= The authentication procedure Start ciphering D#uipment identi!ication 1/ . This includes"     Mar%ing the MS as .= is signed as busy. The . 2.

arring o! outgoing callsC acti+ated /. The MSCB>.SC to allocate an idle TC0.= !orwards the called party number to an e2change in the 4ST .TS and MS are told to tune to the TC0.  Sending the called party:s number to the networ% Chec%ing i! the subscriber has the ser+ice . 1.= instructs the . 3. The . which establishes a connection to the subscriber. (! the called subscriber answers. The MSCB>. the connection is established.. 11 .

M?C @Call set$up MS to 4ST A 13 .

16 . There!ore.Mobile Terminated Call @MTCA    The maEor di!!erence between an MTC and M?C is that in a call to an MS the e2act location o! the mobile subscriber is un%nown.elow is the description o! the call set$ up procedure !or a call !rom a 4ST subscriber to a mobile subscriber. . the MS must be located using paging be!ore a connection can be established.

. The GMSC analy'es the MS(S< and #ueries the 0.=. The MS(S< is analy'ed in the 4ST .      1.MTC contd.. A connection is established to the MS:s home GMSC. ow the call has entered the dialled party:s networ% 2. which identi!ies that this is a call to a mobile networ% subscriber. 17 . The 4ST subscriber %eys in the MS:s telephone number @MS(S< A.= !or in!ormation about how to route the call to the ser+ing MSCB>.

= translates MS(S< into (MS(. 28 .    &.= is currently ser+ing the MS..MTC contd. and determines which MSCB>. -. the call is rerouted by the GMSC to that number. The 0.Call !orwarding to CFnumberC is acti+ated. The 0.=. i! so.= re#uests an MS= !rom the ser+ing MSCB>. . The 0.= also chec%s i! the ser+ice..

= %nows which .SC. The GMSC analyses the MS= and routes the call to the MSCB>. The MSCB>.=. The MSCB>.= returns an MS= +ia 0.. 3. 21 .. A paging message is sent to the corresponding .MTC contd.A the MS is located in.    /.= to the GMSC. 1.

.SC pro+ides a S<CC0.MTC contd.SC:s distribute the paging message to the .TS in the desired . 22 .     6. it sends a re#uest on =AC0 !or a S<CC0.. using AGC0. S<CC0 is used !or the call set$up procedures. 9hen the MS detects the paging message. 18. The . 7. 11. The .A.

The MSCB>.=  The authentication procedure  Start ciphering  D#uipment identi!ication 12... 2& .MTC contd.acti+eC in the >.   ?+er S<CC0 all signaling preceding a call ta%es place.= instructs the . This includes"  Mar%ing the MS as .SC to allocate a TC0.

TS and MS are told to tune to the TC0.  The .MTC contd. 2- . the connection is established... The mobile phone rings. (! the subscriber answers.

Call to MS !rom 4ST @MTCA 2/ .

Mobile ?riginated Call @M?CA     1. -" security chec% /$6" chec% resources @!ree circuitA 7$18" set up call VLR 3 4 6 PSTN GMSC 5 8 MSC 7 MS 2 9 1 10 BSS 21 . 2" connection re#uest &.

7" get current status o! MS 18.= 1" !orward responsible MSC to GMSC 3" !orward call to current MSC 6.Mobile Terminated Call @MTCA 1" calling a GSM subscriber 2" !orwarding call to GMSC &" signal call setup to 0.= calling station -. 11" paging o! MS 12. 13" set up connection HLR 4 5 7 VLR 3 6 1 PSTN 8 9 14 15 MSC 2 GMSC 10 BSS 10 13 16 BSS 10 BSS 11 11 11 12 17 MS 11 23 . 1/" security chec%s 11. /" re#uest MS= !rom >. 1&" MS answers 1-.

MTCBM?C MS MTC paging request channel request immediate assignment paging response authentication request BTS MS MOC channel request immediate assignment ser$ice request authentication request BTS authentication response ciphering command ciphering complete setup call confirmed assignment command assignment complete alerting connect connect ac no!ledge data"speech e#change authentication response ciphering command ciphering complete setup call confirmed assignment command assignment complete alerting connect connect ac no!ledge data"speech e#change 26 .

Se#uence o! ?perations !or an (ncoming Call PSTN/ISDN 1 8 6 7 9 GMSC 5 2 3 MSC BS 10 MS HLR 4 VLR MSC/VLR where MS &" '(rre $)* )o'+$e. GMSC/HLR o MS!" ho#e e$wor% -&. C3)) 27 .(re 6 Se/(e 'e o0 12er+$&o " 0or + I 'o#& .

Call !low when MS is in roaming &8 .

. At the end o! each call MSC produces a C<= and they are stored in a !ile and this !ile is sent to .G9 con+erts the data into standarti'ed !ormat and route them to the . &1 . .ut one slot is dedicated to controlling.SCS.G9A. 6 time slots pro+ides 6 calls simultaneously.illing Gateway @. .illing 4rocedures    GSM uses Time <i+ision Multiple Access @T<MAA technology to di+ide all channels to eight time slots !or carrying data.

y considering all these things. .SCs prepares a bill. its 'one location The duration o! the call (! there is a special campaign applied to target number . These in!ormations areG (! the target number is a constant or a mobile phone (! it is a mobile phone.illing 4rocedures @Cont:dA ..SCs produces the bill related to the in!ormation stored in C<=. &2      .

=oaming in the Cha" i"  etwor% Cell! #ithi" a" LA:   MS:s are constantly mo+ing around in the cellular networ%. The MS location in!ormation stored in the >.A. the networ% is not updated.A. && . (! an MS changes cells within a .= is the .

&- . (! they are the same.A by listening to the . The MS compares the last .CC0 in the new cell.A( recei+ed with the new . The .CC0 broadcasts the cell:s .A(.A(.    The MS %nows that the new cell belongs to the same .A)s and does not need to in!orm the networ%. it means that the MS has not changed .

the MSCB>.A( on the ..=.= determines whether it is an MS.CC0. &/ . 9hen the MS sends the .=A   (! an MS detects a change in . or i! it is an MS +isiting !rom another MSCB>.ocation 5pdating message. it in!orms the networ%.ocation 5pdating @Same MSCB>. which is already registered.

ocation 5pdate Accept .=A MS .ocation 5pdate =e#uest Authenticati on Ciphering .= &1 .TS .ocation 5pdating @same MSCB>..SC MSCB>.

Authentication is per!ormed.TS and MS to release the signaling channel. The MS establishes a connection with the networ% +ia S<CC0.. 2.ocation 5pdating and re#uests . (! they di!!er.A( in!ormation is compared to the old one.ocation 5pdating =e#uest to the system. -... The MS listens to . &3 .A(.ocation 5pdating contd. &. The recei+ed .     1. The system ac%nowledges . the MS sends a . (! authentication is success!ul. a location update is necessary.CC0 in the new cell to determine the .

ocation 5pdating @ ew MSCB>.= and it e2ecutes the procedure below. (! so the . location updating is per!ormed.ocation 5pdate =e#uest is recei+ed by the new >.A.. Also the .A may belong to a new MSCB>.=A    9hen an MS roams into a new . &6 .=.

=A contd.= instructs the old >. &. 2.= passes the in!ormation to the >. The 0. The >. Authentication is per!ormed when it is success!ul.= sends ac%nowledgement to the MS.= to delete the in!ormation it has about the MS subscription.     1. &7 .= stores its subscription in!ormation !or the MS including the latest location and status @idleA.. The >. the >. it sends a re#uest to the subscriber:s 0.ocation 5pdating @ ew MSCB>.= chec%s its database to determine whether or not it has a record !or this MS$subscription.= !or a copy o! the MS$ subscription..= !inds no record !or the MS. The 0. -.= and updates its location in!ormation !or the subscriber. 9hen the >..

+$e 12er+$&o -8 .+$e Lo'+$&o 3re+ 3'% Lo'+$&o 42.+$e 3''e2$ 3'% 3'% New MSC New VLR HLR 1).+$e Lo'+$&o C+ 'e) Lo'+$&o C+ 'e) Lo'+$&o I "er$ S( "'r&5er D+$+ I "er$ S( "'r&5er D+$+ 3'% 42. VLR -&.+$e Lo'+$&o 3re+ 42.(re 5 Lo'+$&o 42..+$e Lo'+$&o 42.+$e Re/(e"$ 42.ocation 5pdate MS Lo'+$&o 42.

(! an MS should miss such a registration.. -1 . type 4eriodic =egistration    4eriodic registration is a !eature which !orces MS:s to send a registration message to the networ% at prede!ined inter+als. This may occur i! an MS is out o! the area o! co+erage and ensures that needless paging is not per!ormed. the networ% will mar% the MS as detached.ocation 5pdating.

-2 . the MS will be in!ormed. 4eriodic registration has an ac%nowledgment message.ocation 5pdating. type 4eriodic =egistration contd.. The MS tries to register until it recei+es this message.    (! the networ% uses periodic registration.. on the .CC0 o! how o!ten periodic registration must be per!ormed..

At power o!!. o ac%nowledgement is sent to the MS. the 0. the MS sends an (MS( detach message to the networ%.= mar%s the corresponding (MS( as detached. ?n reception. -& .<etaching !rom the  etwor%    IMSI Detach: (MS( detach enables the MS to indicate to the networ% that it is switched o!!.

(! periodic registration is in use. no !urther attempt is made.ecause no ac%nowledgment is sent to the MS. (n this case.(mplicit <etach      (! the MS sends an (MS( detach message to the system and the radio lin% #uality is poor. mar%ing the MS as detached.= then per!orms an implicit detach. the system will soon determine that the MS is detached. the system still regards the MS as attached. . the system might not be able to decode the in!ormation. -- . The >.

-/ .= is about to remo+e a subscriber record !rom the >.= that the >.MS 4urging  MS purging is used to in!orm the 0.=.

The ser+ing ..TS measures signal strength and #uality on the uplin%.TS on SACC0 at regular inter+als. The measurement results are sent to the . -1 .ocating     An MS continuously measures signal strength and #uality on it:s own cell and signal strength on the .CC0 carriers o! the neighboring cells. The measurements are carried out on the downlin% while MS is in acti+e mode.

. This is called locating..SC decides i! a hando+er is necessary and to which cell.ased on these reports. a hando+er is attempted.ocating contd.TS and MS are sent to the . the ..     The measurements !rom the . -3 . . As soon as a neighboring cell is considered to be better than the ser+ing cell.SC in the !orm o! measurement reports.

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     There are se+eral types o! hando+er.= @(ntra MSCA 0ando+er between cells controlled by di!!erent MSCB>. including" (ntra$.=s @(nter MSCA -7 .TSB(ntra . but the same MSCB>...SC:s.Types o! 0ando!! contd.SC @(nter .TS hando+er 0ando+er between cells controlled by the same .SCA 0ando+er between cells controlled by di!!erent .

SC identi!ies another channel in the same cell which may o!!er a better #uality. (n that case the .SC considers the #uality o! the connection too low.(ntra$Cell 0ando+er    A special type o! hando+er is the intra$ cell hando+er. but recei+es no indication !rom the measurements that another cell would be better. /8 . (t is per!ormed when the . and the MS is ordered to retune to it.

the MSCB>. the MSCB>.SC   9hen per!orming a hando+er between two cells controlled by the same .= will be in!ormed when a hando+er has ta%en place. /1 .= is not in+ol+ed. 0owe+er.SC.0ando+er between Cells controlled by Same .

(ntra .SC 0ando+er MS BTSold BSC %&measurement %&measurement report result H) decision %&ch& acti$ation %& ch& acti$ation ac *&H) command *&H) command -& H) .&Release TCH /2 BTSne! .ccess '&Lin esta(lishment +&H) complete +&H) complete .

   1. The MS tunes to the new !re#uency.TS..SC 0ando!! contd. and transmits hando+er access in!ormation to new . /& .. containing in!ormation about the !re#uency and time slot to change to and also the output power to use. &.(ntra .TS. +ia the old . The . The .TS to acti+ate a TC0. This in!ormation is sent to the MS using FACC0.SC orders the new .SC sends a message to the MS. 2.

   -. it sends in!ormation about TA..SC +ia the new . 1.TS.SC tells the old ..SC 0ando!! contd.TS to release the old TC0.(ntra . The . The MS sends a 0ando+er Complete message to the .TS detects the hando+er bursts. This is also sent +ia FACC0. 9hen the new . /. /- .

// .SC:s.(ntra MSC 0ando+er  9hen another .= must also be in+ol+ed to establish the connection between the two . the MSCB>.SC is in+ol+ed in a hando+er.

(ntra MSC 0ando+er MS BTSold BSCold %& measurement %& measurement report result H) decision %& H) required *& H) request resource allocation -& ch& acti$ation '& H) command '&H) request ac '& H) command '& H) command -& ch& acti$ation ac MSC BSCne! BTSne! +& H) access .& Lin esta(lishment 1& Release TCH 0& Release TCH Release complete Release complete /1 /& H) complete /& H) complete .

TS to acti+ate a TC0.TS. &.SC sends a 0ando+er =e#uired message to the MSC containing the identity o! the target cell. /3 . 2.SC sends a message to the MS +ia the MSC and the old . -.(ntra MSC 0ando+er contd..SC controls this cell and sends a 0ando+er =e#uest to this . The ser+ing @oldA . The new .     1.SC. The MSC %nows which .SC orders the target .. The new .

/6 .SC an order to release the old TC0.TS to release the TC0. 1. 3. 6.TS sends in!ormation about TA. 7. MS tunes to the new !re#uency and transmits hando+er access bursts in the correct time slot.      /. MSC sends the old .. MS sends a 0ando+er Complete message to MSC +ia the new .SC tells the old ..SC. The old . The new .(ntra MSC 0ando+er contd.

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