Lecture 1: Computer System Overview

KE40703 Computer Architecture & Networks

Dr. Khairul
EEE, SKTM Universiti Malaysia Sabah

“Can I call you back? We just bought a new computer and we’re trying to set it up before it’s obsolete.”

 Is the computer fast enough to run necessary programs?  Is the computer cost-effective?  Will it be obsolete in 6 months?

From Components to Applications
Software Hardware
Electronic components
Lowlevel view

Application domains

Application designer

Computer designer

System designer

Highlevel view

Computer archit ecture Computer organization

Subfields or views in computer system engineering.

Circuit designer

Logic designer

. with what we normally mean by the word “computer” highlighted.Computer Systems and Their Parts Computer Analog Digital Fixed-function Stored-program Electronic Nonelectronic General-purpose Special-purpose Number cruncher Data manipulator The space of computer systems.

.Classification Price/Performance Pyramid Super $Millions $100s Ks $10s Ks $1000s $100s $10s Mainframe Server Differences in scale. not in substance Workstation Personal Embedded Classifying computers by computational power and price range.

appliances.Automotive Embedded Computers Embedded computers are ubiquitous. . They are found in our automobiles. and many other places. yet invisible.

Personal Computers and Workstations Notebooks. are much smaller than desktops but offer substantially the same capabilities. a common class of portable computers. What are the main reasons for the size difference? .

Structure & Function Computer is a complex system. designer is concerned with structure and function  Structure is the way in which components relate to each other (hardware)  Function is the operation of individual components as part of the structure .The designer deals with a particular level of system. how to describe them? . At each level.

Computer Function     All computer functions are: Data Processing (process data) Data Storage (storing data) Data movement (move data between itself and outside world Control (control of the 3 functions above) .

Functional view .

Input-Process-Output Model (IPO) • Input: keyboard. magnetic tape . mouse. scanner. diskettes. punch cards • Processing: CPU executes the computer program • Output: monitor. optical media. fax machine • Storage: hard drive. printer.

Architecture Components  Hardware  Processes data by executing instructions  Provides input and output  Software  Instructions executed by the system  Data  Fundamental representation of facts and observations  Communications  Sharing data and processing among different systems .

Hardware Component     Input/Output devices Storage Devices System interconnection CPU  ALU: arithmetic/logic unit  CU: control unit  Interface unit  Memory  Short-term storage for CPU calculations 1-13 .

Typical Personal Computer System 1-14 .

Top Level Peripherals Computer Central Processing Unit Main Memory Computer Systems Interconnection Input Output Communication lines .Structure .

CPU: Central Processing Unit  ALU: arithmetic/logic unit  Performs arithmetic and Boolean logical calculations  CU: control unit  Controls processing of instructions  Controls movement of data within the CPU  Interface unit  Moves instructions and data between the CPU and other hardware components  Bus: bundle of wires that carry signals and power between different components 1-16 .

The CPU CPU Computer I/O System Bus Memory CPU Registers Arithmetic and Login Unit Internal CPU Interconnection Control Unit .Structure .

each of which hold a value of either 0 or 1 (8 bits = 1 byte)  Holds both instructions and data of a computer program (stored program concept) 1-18 . working storage.Memory  Also known as primary storage. and RAM (random access memory)  Consists of bits.

Structure .The Control Unit Control Unit CPU ALU Internal Bus Registers Control Unit Sequencing Logic Control Unit Registers and Decoders Control Memory .

Software Component  Applications  Operating System  API: application program interface  File management  I/O  Kernel     Memory management Resource scheduling Program communication Security  Network Module 1-20 .

Communications Component  Hardware  Communication channels   Physical connections between computer systems Examples: wire cable. phone lines. TCP/IP. radio waves Handles communication between the computer and the communication channel Modem or network interface card (NIC)  Interface hardware    Software  Network protocols: HTTP. ATAPI 1-21 . infrared light. fiber optic cable.

Computer Systems All computer systems. no matter how complex. consists of the following:  At least one CPU  Memory to hold programs and data  I/O devices  Long-term storage 1-22 .

Protocols  Common ground rules of communication between computers. I/O devices. and many software programs  Examples  HTTP: between Web servers and Web browsers  TCP/IP: between computers on the Internet and local area networks  ATAPI: between a CPU and CD-ROMs 1-23 .

SQL.Standards  Created to ensure universal compatibility of data formats and protocols  May be created by committee or may become a de facto standard through popular use  Examples:     Computer languages: Java. MPEG-2. JPEG. Unicode. XGA. JavaScript Display standards: Postscript. GIF Character set standards: ASCII. RGB 1-24 . EBCDIC Video standards: VGA. C.

mouse. point/click Desktop/ laptop micro Invisible.Generations of Progress The 5 generations of digital computers. printer.sound SDRAM. flash Sensor/actuator. card Magnetic drum Magnetic core RAM/ROM chip Dominant look & fell Lever. text terminal Hall-size cabinet Room-size mainframe Disk. magnetic tape Drum. keyboard. Factory punched card equipment Paper tape. dial. CD. embedded 1-25 . Generation (begun) 0 (1600s) 1 (1950s) 2 (1960s) 3 (1970s) Processor Memory I/O devices technology innovations introduced (Electro-) mechanical Vacuum tube Transistor SSI/MSI Wheel. SOC SRAM/DRAM Network. Desk-size video monitor mini 4 (1980s) 5 (1990s) LSI/VLSI ULSI/GSI/ WSI. and their ancestors.

.2 cm Good die Microchip or other part Mounting (100s of simple or scores of complex processors) Dicer Die Die tester Part tester Usable part to ship ~1 cm ~1 cm The manufacturing process for an IC part.IC Production and Yield 30-60 cm Blank wafer with defects Slicer 15-30 cm x x x x x x x x x x x Patterned wafer Processing: 20-30 steps Silicon crystal ingot 0.

5D packaging now common Stacked layers glued together (b) 3D packaging of the future Packaging of processor.Processor and Memory Technologies Backplane PC board Die Interlayer connections deposited on the outside of the stack Bus CPU Connector Memory (a) 2D or 2. memory. . and other components.

6 / yr  2 / 18 mos  10 / 5 yrs Memory . Memory chip capacity Moore’s Law  1.TIPS Tb Processor Processor performance GIPS 80486 80386 68000 MIPS 80286 R10000 Pentium II Pentium 256Mb 68040 64Mb 16Mb 4Mb Gb 1Gb Mb  4 / 3 yrs 1Mb 256kb 64kb kIPS 1980 1990 2000 kb 2010 Calendar year Trends in processor performance and DRAM memory chip capacity (Moore’s law).

” Bill Gates.” Sol Libes. DEC founder.5 tons. 1943 “There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.” Microsoft.” Ken Olsen.” Thomas Watson.Worth Computer Technology Predictions “DOS addresses only 1 MB of RAM because we cannot imagine any applications needing more. 1981 “Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1. ByteLines . 1977 “The 32-bit machine would be an overkill for a personal computer.” Popular Mechanics “I think there is a world market for maybe five computers. IBM Chairman. 1980 “640K ought to be enough for anybody.

. . . (a) Cutaway view of a hard disk drive .Input/Output and Communications Typically 2-9 cm Floppy disk CD-ROM . .. . Magnetic tape cartridge (b) Some removable storage media Magnetic and optical disk memory units..

.Communication Technologies 10 12 Processor bus Geographically distributed I/O network System-area network (SAN) Local-area network (LAN) Metro-area network (MAN) Same geographic location Bandwidth (b/s) 10 9 10 6 Wide-area network (WAN) 10 3 10 9 (ns) 10 6 (s) 10 3 (ms) 1 (min) 10 3 (h) Latency (s) Latency and bandwidth characteristics of different classes of communication links.