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Computer Organization and Architecture + Networks

Lecture 2 Computer Architecture Basics

Computer Components Computer Function Interconnection Structures Bus Interconnection PCI

Learning Objectives
Understand the basic elements of an instruction cycle and the role of interrupts. Describe the concept of interconnection within a computer system Understand the difference between synchronous and asynchronous bus timing Present an overview of PCI

Computer Components
Hardwired Program hardware program constructed by connecting various logic components to store binary data and perform arithmetic and logical operations Concept of Hardwired Program
Hardwired systems are inflexible General purpose hardware can do different tasks, given correct control signals Instead of re-wiring, programmer supplies a new set of control signals

Computer Components
What is a program?
A sequence of steps For each step, an arithmetic or logical operation done For each operation, a different set of control signals is needed


Sequence of Arithmetic and Logic Functions


Programming in Hardware

Computer Components
Software Program
With the general-purpose hardware, there is no need to rewire the hardware but only to provide a new sequence of codes Software a sequence of codes/instructions Instruction codes Data Instruction interpreter


Control signals General Purpose Arithmetic and Logic Functions Programming in Software Results

Components of Computer

(Von Neumann Machine)

The Control Unit and the Arithmetic and Logic Unit constitute the Central Processing Unit Data and instructions need to get into the system and results out

Temporary storage of code and results is needed

Main memory (store data and instructions)

Computer Components: Top Level View

Program Execution
To store the address in memory for the next read or write To store data to be written/receives from the memory Specifies a particular I/O device Exchange data between I/O module & CPU

Computer Function
Basic Function of Computer executes program (a set
of instructions stored in the memory) done by the processor

Two steps for instruction processing: 1. Fetch processor reads (fetches) the instructions
from memory one at a time 2. Execute processor executes each instruction

Instruction Cycle the processing for a single instruction

- machine is turned off - unrecoverable error - program instruction halts computer

Computer Function

Instruction Fetch and Execute

Fetch Cycle Program Counter (PC) holds address of next instruction to fetch Processor fetches instruction from memory location pointed to by PC Increment PC
Unless told otherwise

Instruction loaded into Instruction Register (IR) Processor interprets instruction and performs required actions

Computer Function

Instruction Fetch and Execute

Execute Cycle 4 main categories of instructions execution: Processor-memory

data transfer between CPU and main memory

Processor I/O
Data transfer between CPU and I/O module

Data processing
Some arithmetic or logical operation on data

Alteration of sequence of operations e.g. jump

Combination of above

Computer Function

Instruction Fetch and Execute

Example of Program Execution PC/IR/AC = internal CPU registers

PC Program Counter (Address of instruction) IR Instruction Register (Instruction being executed) AC Accumulator (Temporary Storage)

Example of Instruction and Data

0 3 4




Instruction Format 4 bits 24 = 16 different opcodes, 212 = 4096 (4K) words of memory (address)


Integer Format Program counter (PC) = Address of instruction Instruction register (IR) = Instruction being executed Accumulator (AC) = Temporary storage 0001 = Load AC from memory 0010 = Store AC to memory 0101 = Add to AC from memory

Internal CPU registers

(decimal value = 1) (decimal value = 2) (decimal value = 5)

Partial list of opcodes

Add the content of 940 and 941 and store results in 941 (3 fetch + 3 execute cycles = 3 instruction cycles)

Example of Program Execution

Add the content of 940 and 941 and store results in 941 (3 fetch + 3 execute cycles = 3 instruction cycles))

PC contains address of 1st instruction (300) Loaded into IR and the PC is incremented Process involves the use of MAR and MBR (but ignored)

Example of Program Execution

The first 4 bits in the IR indicate that the AC is to be loaded The remain 12 bits specify the address (940) from which data is to be loaded into AC

Example of Program Execution

Next instruction (5941) is fetched from location 301 - PC is incremented

Example of Program Execution

Old contents of the AC and the contents of 941 are added Result is stored in the AC

Example of Program Execution

Next instruction (2941) is fetched from location 302 - PC is incremented

Example of Program Execution

The contents of the AC are stored in location 941

Example of Program Execution

Three instruction cycles -Each consists of a fetch cycle and an execute cycle -Execution cycle for particular instruction may involve more than one reference memory + an instruction may specify an I/O operation.
Task: PDP-11 instruction ADD B, A stores the sum of the contents of memory locations B and A into memory location A

Instruction Cycle - State Diagram

Any given instruction cycle, some states may be null and others may be visited more than once.









c. operation decoding (iod) analyze d. e. f. Data operation address fetch (of) (do) calculation fetch perform the (oac) operand the operation determine from in memory/read the address of g. Operand store (os) write result into memory or via I/O a. Instruction b. Instruction fetch address (if) calculation read instruction (iac) determine from its memory the instruction and determine ofexecuted operation and type of the from instruction operand I/O of address location into next the instruction processortype to be operand(s) to be used

Mechanism by which other modules (e.g. I/O) may interrupt normal sequence of processing Provided to improve processing efficiency Classes of Interrupts Program
e.g. overflow, division by zero

Generated by internal processor timer Used in pre-emptive multi-tasking

Generated from I/O controller (to signal completion/error)

Hardware failure
e.g. memory parity error/power failure

Program Flow Control

The user program performs a series of WRITE calls interleaved with processing ,, - sequences of instructions that do not involve I/O WRITE calls are to an I/O program that is a system utility and that will perform the actual I/O operation I/O program 3 sections
A sequence of instruction - prepare for the actual I/O operation The actual I/O command A sequence of instruction -to complete the operation
The user program is stopped at the point of the WRITE call for some considerable period of time

Program Flow Control

With interrupts, the processor can be engaged in executing other instructions while an I/O operation is in progress. The WRITE calls invoke the I/O program return to user program I/O module send an interrupt request signal (interrupt handler) respond by processor and ready to service the particular I/O device Short I/O wait time required for the I/O operation is shorter than in the user program

Program Flow Control

Long I/O wait time required for the I/O operation is longer than in the user program The user program reaches the 2nd WRITE call before the I/O operation spawned by the 1st WRITE call user program hung up New WRITE call is needed to start new I/O operation

Interrupt Cycle
Added to instruction cycle Processor checks for interrupt
Indicated by an interrupt signal

If no interrupt, fetch next instruction If interrupt pending:

Suspend execution of current program Save context Set PC to start address of interrupt handler routine Process interrupt Restore context and continue interrupted program

Transfer of Control via Interrupts

Interrupts: an interruption of the normal sequence of execution execution resumes when interrupts processing is completed

Instruction Cycle with Interrupts

Interrupt cycle processor checks to see if any interrupts have occurred, indicated by the presence of an interrupt signal. No interrupt processor proceeds to the fetch cycles and fetched the next instruction

Program Timing Short I/O Wait

The time required for the I/O operation is relatively short; less than the time to complete the execution of instructions between write operations in the user program

Program Timing Long I/O Wait

A gain in efficiency because part of the time during which I/O operation is underway overlaps with the execution of user instructions

Instruction Cycle (with Interrupts) State Diagram

Multiple Interrupts
Disable interrupts
Processor will ignore further interrupts whilst processing one interrupt Interrupts remain pending and are checked after first interrupt has been processed Interrupts handled in sequence as they occur

Define priorities
Low priority interrupts can be interrupted by higher priority interrupts When higher priority interrupt has been processed, processor returns to previous interrupt

Multiple Interrupts - Sequential

Multiple Interrupts - Sequential

Interrupts are handled in strict sequential order Drawbacks does not take into account relative priority or time-critical needs

Multiple Interrupts Nested

Multiple Interrupts - Nested

Defines priorities for interrupts and to allow an interrupt of higher priority to cause a lower-priority interrupt handler to be itself interrupted

Time Sequence of Multiple Interrupts (ISR Interrupt Service Routine)

while executing, communications interrupt occurs higher priority than printer Printer ISR is interrupted, it state is pushed onto the stack, and execution continues at the communications ISR


Printer interrupt occurs; info is placed on the system stack and execution continues at the printer ISR communication ISR is completed, the printer ISR is executed. But, higher-priority disk interrupt and control transfers to the disk ISR
only when routine is completed, printer ISR is resumed, and finally return to the user

All the units must be connected Different type of connection for different type of unit
Memory Input/Output CPU

Computer Modules
Types of exchanges that are needed by indicating the major forms of input and output

Data can be read and written to Memory

Computer Modules
Types of exchanges that are needed by indicating the major forms of input and output

2 operations: Read and Write; Send Interrupts

Computer Modules
Types of exchanges that are needed by indicating the major forms of input and output
Read data and instructions and writes our data; Receives and acts on interrupts; Control signal to control operation of the system

Memory Connection
Receives and sends data Receives addresses (of locations) Receives control signals
Read Write Timing

Input/Output Connection(1)
Similar to memory from computers viewpoint Output
Receive data from computer Send data to peripheral

Receive data from peripheral Send data to computer

Input/Output Connection(2)
Receive control signals from computer Send control signals to peripherals
e.g. spin disk

Receive addresses from computer

e.g. port number to identify peripheral

Send interrupt signals (control)

CPU Connection
Reads instruction and data Writes out data (after processing) Sends control signals to other units Receives (& acts on) interrupts

Buses Interconnection
There are a number of possible interconnection systems Single and multiple BUS structures are most common e.g. Control/Address/Data bus (PC) e.g. Unibus (DEC-PDP)

What is a Bus?
A communication pathway connecting two or more devices Usually broadcast Often grouped
A number of channels in one bus e.g. 32 bit data bus is 32 separate single bit channels

Power lines may not be shown

Data Bus
Carries data
Remember that there is no difference between data and instruction at this level

Width is a key determinant of performance

8, 16, 32, 64 bit

Address bus
Identify the source or destination of data e.g. CPU needs to read an instruction (data) from a given location in memory Bus width determines maximum memory capacity of system
e.g. 8080 has 16 bit address bus giving 64k address space

Control Bus
Control and timing information
Memory read/write signal Interrupt request Clock signals

Bus Interconnection Scheme

Three functional group data, address, and control lines (+ power distribution lines supply power to the attached modules)

Path for moving data To designate the source between system or destination of the module data on the data bus

To control the access to and the use of the data and address lines

Big and Yellow?

What do buses look like?
Parallel lines on circuit boards Ribbon cables Strip connectors on mother boards
e.g. PCI

Sets of wires

Single Bus Problems

Lots of devices on one bus leads to:
Propagation delays
Long data paths mean that co-ordination of bus use can adversely affect performance If aggregate data transfer approaches bus capacity

Most systems use multiple buses to overcome these problems

Traditional (ISA) (with cache)

Expansion Bus buffers data transfer between the system bus and the I/O controllers

High Performance Bus

High-Speed Bus to compensates for loss of performance when higher performance I/O devices are attached to the expansion bus

Elements of Bus Design - Bus Types

Separate data & address lines

Shared lines Address valid or data valid control line Advantage - fewer lines Disadvantages
More complex control Ultimate performance

Elements of Bus Design - Bus Arbitration

More than one module controlling the bus e.g. CPU and DMA controller Only one module may control bus at one time Arbitration may be centralised or distributed 2 types of Arbitration Centralised
single hardware device controlling bus access

each module may claim the bus Control logic access on all modules

Elements of Bus Design - Timing

Co-ordination of events on bus Synchronous
Events determined by clock signals Control Bus includes clock line upon which a clock transmits a regular sequence of alternating 1s and 0s of equal duration A single 1-0 transmission is a bus cycle or clock cycle All devices can read clock line Usually sync on leading edge Usually a single cycle for an event

Synchronous Timing Diagram

Occurrence of events is determined by a clock

Processor places a memory address on the address line + various status line

a Processor reads the data & drops the read signal

Once address line have stabilized, processor issues an address enable signal

Memory recognizes the address & places data on the data line READ operation: Processor issues a read command
WRITE operation: Processor puts the data on the data lines & issues a write command after data lines have a Memory copies the info from data lines during the 3 rd clock cycle stabilized

Asynchronous Timing Read Diagram

Occurrence of one events on a bus depends on occurrence of a previous event
Address placed by processor on the bus

After signals (address+status) are stabilize, read command is issued

Once the processor has read the data, it de-asserts (stops) the read signals

Memory decodes the address & places the data on the data line

Once data lines have stabilized, memory module asserts (inform) the acknowledged line that data is available Causes memory to drop the data & acknowledge lines Acknowledge line is dropped, master (processor) removes the address info

Asynchronous Timing Write Diagram

Processor places the data on the data line at the same time that us puts signals on the status and address lines

Master drops the WRITE signal and memory module drops the acknowledge signal

Memory module responds to the WRITE command by copying the data from the data lines and then asserting the acknowledge line

Peripheral Component Interconnection Intel released to public domain High bandwidth, processor independent bus that functions as a peripheral bus Gives better performance for high-speed I/O subsystems (network interface controllers/graphic display adapters) Current standard allows 64 data lines Economical and needs very few chips to implement May be configured as a 32- or 64-bit bus

PCI Bus Lines (required)

Systems lines
Including clock and reset

Address & Data

32 time mux lines for address/data Interrupt & validate lines

Interface Control Arbitration

Not shared Direct connection to PCI bus arbiter

Error lines

PCI Bus Lines (Optional)

Interrupt lines
Not shared

Cache support 64-bit Bus Extension

Additional 32 lines Time multiplexed 2 lines to enable devices to agree to use 64-bit transfer

JTAG/Boundary Scan
For testing procedures

PCI Commands
Transaction between initiator (master) and target Master claims bus Determine type of transaction
e.g. I/O read/write

Address phase One or more data phases

PCI Read Timing Diagram