PROCEDURES IN VENIPUNCTURE USING SYRINGE

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but it is also used to measure blood pH and bicarbonate levels for certain metabolic conditions. However. Blood tests focusing on cholesterol levels can determine LDL and HDL cholesterol levels.BLOOD TESTS:     A basic metabolic panel measures sodium. cholesterol. blood urea nitrogen (BUN). require fasting (or no food consumption) eight to twelve hours prior to the drawing of the blood sample. bicarbonate. magnesium. creatinine. other specialized blood tests. and sometimes includes calcium. For the majority of blood tests. blood is usually obtained from the patient's vein. Some blood tests. as well as triglyceride levels. glucose. require blood extracted from an artery. such as the arterial blood gas. or for determining the existence or lack of STD. While the regular glucose test is taken at a certain point in time. chloride. Blood gas analysis of arterial blood is primarily used to monitor carbon dioxide and oxygen levels related to pulmonary function. . potassium. such as those that measure glucose. the glucose tolerance test involves repeated testing to determine the rate at which glucose is processed by the body.

Protein electrophoresis (general technique—not a specific test)  Western blot (general technique—not a specific test)  Liver function tests  Polymerase chain reaction (DNA). DNA profiling is today possible with even very small quantities of blood: this is commonly used in forensic science. but is now also part of the diagnostic process of many disorders.  Northern blot (RNA)  Sexually transmitted diseases  .

Positive cultures and resulting sensitivity results are often useful in guiding medical treatment. Determination of blood type for blood transfusion or transplants  Blood cultures are commonly taken if infection is suspected.  .Cellular evaluation  Full blood count (or "complete blood count")  Hematocrit and MCV ("mean corpuscular volume")  Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)  Cross-matching.

preferably those with needle-stick prevention features. . Using a needleless system allows the blood to be drawn directly into specimen containers.PRECAUTIONS     Precautions Although obtaining blood specimens is a routine function. Do not use a needle when withdrawing blood from a peripheral intravenous line or from a central venous access device. Use vacuum tube bloodcollection devices instead. To increase the safety of blood collection. these precautions should be followed: Avoid using syringes. it is one of the riskiest procedures nurses perform.

It includes the use of a variety of protective barriers. gowns. Universal precautions help reduce the risk of exposure of the health care professional's skin and/or mucus membranes to infectious materials. Good hand washing practices before and after drawing blood also reduce the exposure risk. . such as gloves.  Do not use an exposed needle to inject blood into specimen containers or vacuum tubes. masks. When drawing blood. the health care professional should follow universal precautions as set forth by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). and eyewear.

tears. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). peritoneal. saliva. pericardial. . semen. and any other body fluids containing blood. vaginal secretions. These precautions were designed to prevent the transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). and vomit unless these visibly contain blood. cerebrospinal. nasal secretions. sputum. and amniotic fluids. and other bloodborne pathogens. sweat. Universal precautions do not apply to stool. Universal precautions apply to blood. urine. as well as pleural. They also apply to tissues. synovial.