• Most organizations are highly structured, have relatively clear lines of authority, stated objectives, and momentum to carry them forward • Why, then is leadership necessary, a need for incremental influence beyond the routine directives and formal job requirements?

“Of every one hundred new business establishments started, approximately fifty, or one half , go out of business within two years…by the end of five years, only one- third of the original one hundred will still be in business” - George R Terry

Incomplete organizational structure • A degree of incompleteness in every organization design • Social organizations not designed to be like machines: simply turned on and allowed to run untouched • Leaders needed to structure tasks, decide who should do what, delegate work assignments • Leaders help subordinates to accomplish collective goals External change • The organization exists in a changing environment. • As the external environment changes, leaders are needed to identify the strategic mission of the organization and help it adapt to its changing environment

and when they are present. motivate and transform subordinates into committed contributors to the organization is the function of leadership . particularly during periods of rapid growth or decline • Leadership is necessary to solve internal conflicts and settle differences of opinion Motivate and inspire • Need to motivate people and maintain their involvement in the organization • Individuals are not permanent fixtures within the organization: they come and go. their needs and interests change • Effective leadership provides meaning and purpose by creating a vision of where the \organization is going • Inspire.NEED FOR LEADERSHIP (cont) Internal change • Leadership is needed to coordinate the efforts of diverse organizational units.

LEADERSHIP “The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a particular goal” “Leadership is the art of accomplishing more than the science of management says is possible” “The process by which a person exerts influence over others and inspires. motivates and directs their activities to achieve group or organizational goals” .

MANAGEMENT Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members .

MANAGERS vs LEADERS Distinction between managers and leaders Managers establish and implement procedures to ensure smooth functioning Leaders look to the future and chart the course for the organization MANAGERS • Focus on things • Do things right • Plan • Organize • Direct • Control • Follows the rules LEADERS • Focus on people • Do the right things • Inspire • Influence • Motivate • Build • Shape entities .

what variables are important? • eg. Followers. Task. Environment • How much should the leader allow subordinates to participate in decisions? • How can you improve leadership? .LEADERSHIP THEORY ISSUES • Are leaders born that way or do they learn leadership behaviours? (Traits vs Behaviours) • Is there one best way to lead in all situations? (Universal vs Contingency) – If Contingency.


APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP • • • • Traits Behavioural Situational Functional .

physical or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from non-leadersrnde.TRAIT THEORIES • Theories that consider personality. relatively enduring way in which an individual differs from others” . • Leaders are born. not made • “A trait is any distinguishing. social.

TRAITS THAT DIFFERENTIATE LEADERS FROM NON-LEADERS • • • • • • Drive Desire to lead Honesty and Integrity Self-Confidence Intelligence Job-relevant knowledge .

LEADER TRAITS INTELLIGENCE • More intelligent than nonleaders – Scholarship – Knowledge – Being able to get things done • Physical – Doesn’t see to be correlated PERSONALITY – Verbal facility – Honesty – Initiative – Aggressive – Self-confident – Ambitious – Originality – Sociability – Adaptability .

TRAITS OF SUCCESSFUL LEADERS •Adaptable • Alert to social environment • Achievement oriented • Assertive • Cooperative • Decisive • Dependable • Persistent • Self-confident • Tolerant of stress • Willing to assume responsibility .

SKILLS OF SUCCESSFUL LEADERS •Intelligent • Conceptually skilled • Creative • Diplomatic • Tactful • Good speaking ability • Knowledgeable of groups • Persuasive • Socially skilled .

TRAIT THEORIES: LIMITATIONS * No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations * Traits successful in one situation not automatically transferable to other situations: traits do not generalize across situations * Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits * Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders * Better at predicting leader emergence than leader effectiveness .

BEHAVIOURAL THEORY • Leadership behaviours can be taught • Theories proposing that specific behaviours differentiate leaders from non-leaders Leadership behaviors can e taught .

because even if a leader gives a direct order. Tannenbaum and Schmidt recognized that in an interaction between a leader and his or her team there is a trade-off between the control exercised by the leader and the control exercised by the team. • As the team's freedom is increased. the team members retain control over. • They highlight four distinct leadership styles. selling. labeled telling. and the level of authority used by the manager. . No one ever has 100 per cent control. 1973): TYPE II • The Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum is a simple model which shows the relationship between the level of freedom that a manager chooses to give to a team. how enthusiastically they obey the order. consulting and participation.ROBERT TANNENBAUM & WARREN SCHMIDT (1958. for example. so the manager's authority decreases.



is unwilling. new or suffered a previous leader who allowed standards to deteriorate • Most people accept in a crisis For this style to work well you need to: • Be clear and precise about standards. • Monitor key performance indicators closely • Use frequent feedback to modify behaviour. • Give detailed instructions. • Help people over learning problems while being firm about standards . performance targets and expectations.TELL • Manager makes decision and announces it • An autocratic style in which the leader gives specific instructions and monitors staff closely: most useful when the team cannot tackle the task unaided.

skills and motivation • Monitor closely and be directive to keep performance to agreed standards. .SELL • Manager makes decision and then "sells" decision • A persuasive style: the leader gives clear direction and supervises closely but also explains decisions. monitoring how those skills are implemented. • Spend time with each individual addressing standards. • Listen to the team's feelings but stand your ground in relation to the goal. encourages suggestions and supports progress • Most useful when motivation is lacking: also the best style where a task is non-negotiable but where the team's motivation is vital to achieve the results required • For this style to work you need to: • Develop team skills. • Reward positive behaviour.

except in exceptional circumstances . and encourage 'buy-in' to major decisions while minimizing directives and suggestions from yourself.CONSULT/SHARE • • • • • • • • • • Manager presents ideas and invites questions Manager presents tentative decision subject to change Manager presents problem. get suggestions. makes decision A collaborative style in which the leader discusses the task and listens to the team's ideas and makes the key decisions Most useful when the team has sufficient skills and competence to make a contribution but where the leader feels a need to retain control from an imbalance between the team's competence and the risk involved in the task For this style to work you need to: Focus on morale and team spirit Encourage participation. straight comment and feedback. Specify objectives but let the team discuss how to achieve them Explain fully.

this is most useful when the team is competent and has a positive attitude towards the task. You can let them get on with it and use this style as an important part of their development • For this style to work you need to: • Act as a resource that the team can call on when needed • Delegate increased responsibilities • Allow team members to manage themselves once you have agreed clear objectives .allow them to administer day-to-day monitoring and control • Represent the team to others.PARTICIPATE/DELEGATE • Manager defines limits. asks group to make decision • Manager permits subordinate to function within limits defined by superior • A facilitating style in which the leader allows the team maximum responsibility. when necessary tackling anything that interferes with their performance .

These include: (a) Type of Organization (b) Group effectiveness (c) Nature of the problem (d) Time pressure . knowledge. and Experience and includes : (a) Value systems (b) Confidence in subordinates (c) Leadership inclinations (d) Feelings of security in an uncertain situation The Subordinates Personality of the subordinates and expectations from the leader influences their behaviour that includes: (a) Readiness to assume responsibility in decision-making (b) Degree of tolerance for ambiguity (c) Interest in the problem and feelings as to its importance (d) Strength of the needs for independence (e) Knowledge and experience to deal with the problem (f) Understanding and identification with the goals of the Organization The Situation The environmental and general situations also affect leader behaviour.TANNENBAUM & SCHMIDT: LEADERSHIP STYLES Choice of practicable and desirable leadership style will depend upon the following factors: The Leader Leader behaviour is influenced by personality. background.

.TANNENBAUM & SCHMIDT: ADVANTAGES • Gives managers a range of choices for involvement • Presents criteria for involvement and delegation • Focuses decision maker on relevant criteria (e. forces & time) • Emphasizes employee development and empowerment • Is heuristic--encourages research to see how effective delegation may be under the model .g.

TANNENBAUM & SCHMIDT: LIMITATIONS • Involves only the initial step of assigning a task to someone. not the following processes that may determine the effectiveness of the outcome • Assumes the manager has sufficient information to determine disposition to self or team • Assumes "neutral" environment without social bonds or politics • Simplifies complex decisions to a two-polar dimension. more simple than reality is .

MICHIGAN STUDIES (RENSIS LIKERT): TYPE II Identified two forms of leader behavior • Job-centered behavior • Employee-centered behavior • The two forms of leader behaviors were considered to be at opposite ends of the same continuum .

OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY MODEL: TYPE II Early research began in 1945 and identified two styles of leadership behaviour plotted on two separate axes as opposed to being on a single continuum : Consideration and Initiating Structure • These two dimensions are independent: Consideration and Initiating Structure exist simultaneously and in different amounts • Initiating structure behaviours were essentially task behaviours • Consideration behaviours were relationship behaviours A matrix was created that showed the various combinations and quantities of the elements • The Ohio State framework attempts to include behavioural concepts as well as attitudinal items .

and understanding. It includes behaviour indicating trust and warmth between the supervisor and the group and emphasizes concern for group needs • This leadership style is people-oriented • Being friendly and approachable • Treating all group members as his/her equal • Looking out for the personal welfare of group members • Making him/herself accessible to group members • leaders with high consideration and low structure use two-way communications and tend to share decision making .CONSIDERATION Behaviours by means of which the leader establishes rapport with employees. mutual respect. two-way communication.

initiating ideas. and decisions are made by the managers . scheduling. defining member roles. assigning Tasks. The leader does this by planning. organizing the work. and pushing for production • This leadership style is task-oriented • Letting group members know what is expected of them • Maintaining definite standards of performance • Scheduling the work to be done • Asking that group members follow standard rules and regulations • Leaders with high structure and low consideration behaviour use one-way communications.INITIATING STRUCTURE Behaviors by means of which the leader defines or facilitates group interaction toward goal attainment. criticizing.

OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY High Consideration Low Structure. Low Consideration Low Initiating Structure High . High Consideration High Structure. High Consideration Low Low Structure. Low Consideration High Structure.

with each dimension ranging from low (1) to high (9).BLAKE MOUTON MODEL: TYPE II • Robert Blake and Jane Mouton (1960s) proposed a graphic portrayal of leadership styles through a managerial grid (sometimes called leadership grid). • The Managerial Grid tends to be an attitudinal model that measures the values and feelings of a manager . • The grid depicted two dimensions of leader behaviour: concern for people(accommodating people’s needs and giving them priority) on y-axis and concern for production (keeping tight schedules) on x-axis. thus creating 81 different positions in which the leader’s style may fall.


• Such a style can definitely increase the output of organization in short run but due to the strict policies and procedures .LEADERSHIP STYLES: BLAKE & MOUTON Impoverished Management (1. 1) • Also called dictatorial or perish style • Leaders are more concerned about production and have less concern for people: based on theory X of McGregor • Employees’ needs are not taken care of and they are simply a means to an end • The leader believes that efficiency can result only through proper organization of work systems and through elimination of people wherever possible. 1) • Managers with this approach are low on both the dimensions and exercise minimum effort to get the work done from subordinate • The leader has low concern for employee satisfaction and work deadlines and as a result disharmony and disorganization prevail within the organization • The leaders are termed ineffective wherein their action is merely aimed at preserving job and seniority. Task management (9.

LEADERSHIP STYLES: BLAKE & MOUTON Middle-of-the-Road (5. 5) • Leader does not push the boundaries of achievement resulting in average performance for organization • Neither employee nor production needs are fully met Country Club (1. trust. the style is based on the theory Y of McGregor and has been termed as most effective style according to Blake and Mouton • The leader feels that empowerment. 9) • Characterized by high people and task focus. 9) • Collegial style characterized by low task and high people orientation where the leader gives thoughtful attention to the needs of people thus providing them with a friendly and comfortable environment • Leader feels that such a treatment with employees will lead to self-motivation and will find people working hard on their own • However. and respect are the key elements in creating a team atmosphere which will automatically result in high employee satisfaction and production. commitment. a low focus on tasks can hamper production and lead to questionable results • Basically a compromising style wherein the leader tries to maintain a balance between goals of company and the needs of people Team Management (9. .

critics have pointed to a lack of substantial research evidence for the effectiveness of Grid Organization Development programmes The Managerial Grid tends to be an attitudinal model that measures the values and feelings of a manager • . research consistently supports the 9. universally-applicable leadership style will fit all situations Blake and Mouton claim that when the Managerial Grid model is used. context. circumstances and situation There is an underlying supposition that a single.9 co-ordinates: but a question is whether this is always appropriate. either all the time or at different times There are more dimensions of leadership that can be relevant The theoretical basis of Blake and Moutons' approach has been questioned.BLAKE MOUTON MANAGERIAL GRID: LIMITATIONS • • • • • • The model ignores the importance of internal and external constraints.9 style as the one best style The grid itself suggests that management is best at a 9.


FIEDLER’s CONTINGENCY THEORY (Type III) Situational Variables • Leader-Member Relations – Good vs Poor • Task Structure – Structured (High) vs Unstructured (Low) • Leader Position Power – Strong vs Weak Leader Traits • Relationship-oriented Leader(High LPC*) -Close and positive relationships -Prioritize relationship before task • Task-oriented Leader (Low LPC) -Put task first and turn to relationship only after work-progress (Fiedler believed it is easier to change a situation than to change a leader’s characteristics) *LPC ( Least Preferred Co-worker: a person with whom a leader has worked and would now least prefer to work again) • A high LPC leader scores the other person as positive and a low LPC leader scores the other person as negative .


.FIEDLER’s RECOMMENDATIONS • Task-oriented managers more effective in very favourable or very unfavourable situations • Relationship-oriented managers more effective in moderately favourable situations.

Mobil Oil. Xerox. IBM.HERSEY AND BLANCHARD’s SITUATIONAL THEORY: TYPE IV • One of the most widely practiced leadership model • It has been used as a major training device by many corporations including BankAmerica. and the military • The theory focuses on followers’ maturity: the ability and willingness of people to take responsibility for directing their own behaviour • Maturity should be considered only in relation to a specific task to be performed and not in a total sense . Caterpillar.


COMPONENTS OF MATURITY Job Maturity • Related to the ability to do something • Knowledge. skill and experience • Autonomous functioning Psychological Maturity • Willingness or motivation to do something • Confidence and commitment • Sense of responsibility and self-confidence .

LEVELS OF MATURITY(Readiness) M1 People are both unable and unwilling to take responsibility to do something: neither competent nor confident M2 People are unable but willing to do the necessary job tasks Motivated but currently lack the appropriate skills M3 People are able but unwilling to do what the leader wants M4 People are both able and willing to do what is asked of them .

how. specific instructions: what. and where Closely supervise performance High task and Low relationship behaviour Selling For Low to Moderate maturity: subordinates unable but willing to take responsibility Confident but lack skills Provides both direction and supportive behaviour to reinforce willingness and enthusiasm Subordinates go along with a decision if they understand the reason: explain decisions and provide clarification High task and High relationship behaviour . unable or unwilling to take responsibility Provide clear.HERSEY AND BLANCHARD’s SITUATIONAL THEORY Telling For Low maturity: subordinates insecure. when.

when and where Low relationship and Low task behaviour .HERSEY AND BLANCHARD’s SITUATIONAL THEORY Participating For moderate to high maturity: subordinates able but unwilling due insecurity or underconfidence Main role of the leader is to facilitate communication: supportive. non-directive participative style Ideas and decision making is shared Delegating For high maturity: subordinates able. willing and confident to take responsibility Leader defines the problem but provides little direction and support: subordinates decide how.


trustworthy. permissive. participative decision-making. and supportive work environment will lead to happy and productive workers • Relies on teamwork. and work hard to accomplish meaningful goals and challenging work • Strives for a well organized and challenging work environment with clear objectives and responsibilities • Gets the job done by motivating individuals and groups to use their full potential in reaching organizational as well as their own personal objectives . trustworthy. and good harmony to get the job done Democratic Leader • HIGH emphasis on performance and people • Assumes that people are honest. human relations. self-motivated and want to be involved • A participative.FOUR BASIC LEADERSHIPSTYLES Human Relations Leader • LOW emphasis on performance and high emphasis on people • Assumes that people are honest.

Laissez Faire Leader • LOW emphasis on performance and people. • Assumes that people are unpredictable and uncontrollable • A leader’s job is to do enough to get by, keep a low profile, stay out of trouble, and leave people alone as much as possible. • Relies on abdicating to whomever will rise to the occasion to get the job done Autocratic Leader • HIGH emphasis on performance and a low emphasis on people • Assumes that people are lazy, irresponsible, and untrustworthy and that planning, organizing, controlling, and decision making should be accomplished by the leader with minimal employee involvement • Relies on authority, control, power, manipulation and hard work to get the job done

Human Relations Leader • This style may keep employees happy, but there is little evidence to support the notion that keeping employees happy and treating them well results in high productivity. • Preoccupation with keeping people happy and involved often interferes with high achievement, causes employees to lose respect for their leader, results in the emergence of informal leaders, and causes problems to be smoothed over • Such an atmosphere can be frustrating to goal-oriented people Democratic Leader • Results in high employee productivity, satisfaction, cooperation, and commitment. • Reduces the need for controls and formal rules and procedures • Results in low employee absenteeism and turnover • Develops competent people who are willing to give their best, think for themselves, communicate openly, and seek responsibility

Laissez Faire Leader • Employees become apathetic, disinterested, and resentful of the organization and their leader • Results in the lowest employee productivity and satisfaction of all the leadership styles Autocratic Leader • Although the emphasis is on high productivity, it often breeds counterforces of antagonism and restriction of output • Frequently results in hostile attitudes, suppression of conflict, distorted and guarded communications, high turnover and absenteeism, low productivity and work quality, and preoccupation with rules, procedures, red tape, status symbols, and trying to cater to the whims of the boss • Tends to develop dependent and uncreative employees who are afraid to seek responsibility

communicating. organizing.STYLE AND SKILLS Style • The emphasis a person places on performance and people and the characteristics. controlling. mannerisms. employees would be constantly confused in their attempts to predict and adjust to their leader’s erratic behaviour Skills • Specific techniques that a person uses to accomplish goals such as staffing. and personality of the leader • Blake and Mouton suggested. evaluating performance. if a leader continuously changed styles. attitudes. planning. handling problems and conflicts. and managing time • Each style of leader tends to apply these skills in a unique way and emphasizes some skills more than others .

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STYLE AND SKILLS What an effective contingency leader changes is not his or her style. for example. impersonal way • Thus. but rather the selection of skills and the way they are applied depending on the situation Examples • An autocratic leader tends to emphasize centralized planning. and controlling. . does not have to suddenly turn into an autocratic person to use skills such as close supervision and tight controls if they are appropriate to the situation. and to apply these skills in an authoritative. organizing. an effective leader may change skills depending on the requirements of the situation and still maintain a consistent leadership style • A democratic leader.


The style can also be mentioned as a ‘telling style’ The leader believes in motivating through a system of rewards and punishment If a subordinate does what is desired. a punishment will follow Exchange between leader and follower takes place to achieve routine performance goals -Max Weber (1947) & Bernard Bass (1981) • • • • • • . organizing. and short-term planning Famous examples of leaders who have used transactional technique include McCarthy and de Gaulle Transactional leadership involves motivating and directing followers primarily through appealing to their own self-interest Power of transactional leaders comes from their formal authority and responsibility in the organization Main goal of the follower is to obey the instructions of the leader.TRANSACTIONAL LEADESHIP • • • • Emphasizes the importance of the relationship between leader and followers. a reward will follow: if he does not. focusing on the mutual benefits derived from a form of 'contract' through which the leader delivers such things as rewards or recognition in return for the commitment or loyalty of the followers Most often used by the managers Focuses on the basic management process of controlling.

politics and perks • Mired in daily affairs • Short-term and hard data orientated • Focuses on tactical issues • Relies on human relations to lubricate human interactions • Follows and fulfils role expectations by striving to work effectively within current systems • Supports structures and systems that reinforce the bottom line.TRANSACTIONAL LEADESHIP • Builds on man’s need to get a job done and make a living • Preoccupied with power and position. and guarantee short-term profits . maximize efficiency.

TRANSFORMING LEADERSHIP “is a relationship of mutual stimulation and elevation that converts followers into leaders and may convert leaders into moral agents” “[Transforming leadership] occurs when one or more persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality…” Proposed that there is a special power entailed in transforming leadership with leaders “armed with principles [that] may ultimately transform both leaders and followers into persons who jointly adhere to modal values and end-values” -James MacGregor Burns Burns sees the power of transforming leadership a potentially a two-way process: more noble and different from charismatic leadership. and executive or business leadership . which he terms ‘heroic’ leadership.

TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP Bernard Bass developed Burns’ concept into ‘transformational leadership’ where the leader transforms followers – the direction of influence is thus one-way and ‘transformational leaders’ may: • Expand a follower’s portfolio of needs • Transform a follower’s self-interest • Increase the confidence of followers • Elevate followers’ expectations • Heighten the value of the leader’s intended outcomes for the follower • Encourage behavioural change •Motivate others to higher levels of personal achievement (Maslow’s ‘selfactualization’) .

and it is more likely to provide a role model with which subordinates want to identify” . It is a behavioural process capable of being learned” • Bass suggested that “Transformational leadership is closer to the prototype of leadership that people have in mind when they describe their ideal leader.TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP • Tichy N. and Devanna M (1986) in their book Transformational Leadership. New York: Wiley built further on the work of Burns and Bass in organizational and work contexts: described the hybrid nature of transformational as “… not due to charisma.


LEADERSHIP THEORIES: IMPLICATIONS • • • • Know your preferred Style (S) Know and care about your Followers (F) Know and care about the Task (T) Understand the Environment (E) affecting you and your followers .

or E. F.) • Enhance your Referent and Expert Power • Visualize the future and prepare your followers for it . and the Environment. T. the Task.LEADERSHIP THEORIES: IMPLICATIONS • Fit your Style to your Followers. (This may include making changes in S.


GUARANTEEED LEADERSHIP BLUNDERS • • • • • • • • • • • • • Keep them (subordinates) in the dark about the real purpose of their work Make sure you get the credit while they get the blame Never admit that you might be wrong Don’t give sincere praise Put them on work for which they are temperamentally unsuited Let them involve themselves in a really serious mistake before you pull them up If they come to you for real help give them platitudes Harp on details while ignoring the real issues Avoid giving advance information about changes that affect them Discourage new ideas Insist that they do their job your way Make it clear that it never pays to step out of line Demonstrate that promotion goes to those who ingratiate themselves rather than those who perform by using intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence .adapted from Rosabeth Moss Kantor (former editor Harvard Business Review) .