.  Faults may also be caused by either short-circuits to earth or between live conductors. or may be caused by broken conductors in one or more phases. flashover. physical damage or human error. or may be asymmetrical where usually only one or two phases may be involved. may either be three phase in nature involving all three phases in a symmetrical manner.  Sometimes simultaneous faults may occur involving both short-circuit and broken conductor faults (also known as open-circuit faults).WHAT ARE FAULTS  Faults usually occur in a power system due to either insulation failure. These faults.

EFFECTS OF FAULTS ON POWER SYSTEM  Flow of excessive current  Greatly increased damage at the fault location (Fault energy = 1² x Rf x t where t is time)  Danger to operating personnel (Flash products)  The heavy current due to shortcircuit causes excessive heating which may result in fire or explosion. . Sometimes short-circuit takes the form of an arc and causes considerable damage to the system.

slow electromechanical transients may cause instability of the interconnected system by pulling synchronous machines out of synchronism .EFFECTS OF FAULTS ON POWER SYSTEM  Higher mechanical and thermal stressing of all items of plant carrying the current fault  If allowed to persist for a long period.

. i) Solid fault ii)incipient fault Passive Faults: Passive faults are not real faults in the true sense of the word but are rather conditions that are stressing the system beyond its design capacity. This type of fault can also be further classified into two areas.Faults .Types Faults can be broadly classified into two main areas which have been designated: Active Faults : Active fault is when actual current flows from one phase conductor to another or alternatively from one phase conductor to earth .

NEED FOR FAULT ANALYSIS  Design of protection system requires the knowledge of fault current.  The information obtained from the fault studies are used to select the rating and sizes of protective devices such as:   fuses circuit breaker .


 Typical examples of transient faults include:  momentary tree contact  bird or other animal contact  lightning strike  conductor clash .  Many faults in overhead powerlines are transient in nature.TRANSIENT FAULT  A transient fault is a fault that is no longer present if power is disconnected for a short time.

 In this case. as the name implies. the equipment has to be repaired and reclosing must not be entertained.PERMANENT FAULT  Permanent faults. are the result of permanent damage to the insulation. .

equal fault currents in the lines with 120 displacement) is called a symmetrical fault.SYMMETRIC FAULT That fault on the power system which gives rise to symmetrical fault currents (i.e. .

where the three phases are not affected equally  In practice.SYMMETRIC FAULT  The symmetric. roughly 5% are symmetric  This is in contrast to an asymmetric fault. symmetrical or balanced fault affects each of the three-phases equally  In transmission line faults. most faults in power systems are unbalanced .

for example due to a broken insulator  line-to-ground .a short circuit between lines. also commonly due to storm damage . or when lines come into physical contact.a short circuit between one line and ground.ASYMMETRIC FAULT  An asymmetric or unbalanced fault does not affect each of the three phases equally.two lines come into contact with the ground (and each other). very often caused by physical contact. Common types of asymmetric faults. for example due to lightning or other storm damage  double line-to-ground . and their causes:  line-to-line . caused by ionization of air.

ASYMMETRIC FAULT Thus as mentioned there are three ways in which unsymmetrical faults may occur in a power system: (i) Single line-to-ground fault (L — G) (ii) Line-to-line fault (L — L) (iii) Doube line-to-ground fault (L — L — G) .

 The positive sequence set consisting of three components  The negative sequence set consisting of three components  The zero sequence set of the component of which being equal both in magnitude and and phase. . displaced by 120 & 240o respectively and having the phase sequence of abca.SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE PHASE SYSTEM  The calculation procedure known as method of symmetrical components is used to determine the currents and voltages on the occurrence of an unsymmetrical fault. having phase sequence of acba. of equal magnitude displaced by 240 & 120o respectively. of equal magnitude.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE PHASE SYSTEM The phasor representation of three phase system: .

CIRCUIT BREAKERS A circuit breaker is a piece of equipment which can (i) make or break a circuit either manually or by remote control under normal conditions (ii) break a circuit automatically under fault conditions (iii) make a circuit either manually or by remote control under fault conditions .

CLASSIFICATION OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS The most general way of classification is on the basis of medium used for arc extinction.g. Accordingly. (ii) Air-blast circuit breakers in which high pressure airblast is used for extinguishing the arc. (iii) Sulphur hexafluroide circuit breakers in which sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas is used for arc extinction. transformer oil) for arc extinction. circuit breakers may be classified into : (i) Oil circuit breakers which employ some insulating oil (e.. (iv) Vacuum circuit breakers in which vacuum is used for arc extinction .

which melts when excessive current flows through it and thus breaks the circuit.  Fuse is the simplest current interrupting device for protection against excessive currents.  In general.FUSES  A fuse is a short piece of metal. fuses may be classified into : (i) Low voltages fuses (ii) High voltage fuses . inserted in the circuit.

PROTECTIVE RELAYS  A protective relay is a device that detects the fault and initiates the operation of the circuit breaker to ioslate the defective element from the rest of the system. This results in the opening of the breaker and disconnection of the faulty circuit.  Having detected the fault. the relay operates to close the trip circuit of the breaker. .