# Dynamics of Machinery Inertia forces of reciprocating parts

The inertia force is an imaginary force, which when acts upon a rigid body, brings it in an equilibrium position. It is numerically equal to the accelerating force in magnitude, but opposite in direction. Mathematically, Inertia force = – Accelerating force = – m.a where m = Mass of the body, and a = Linear acceleration of the center of gravity of the body. The inertia torque is an imaginary torque, which when applied upon the rigid body, brings it in equilibrium position. It is equal to the accelerating couple in magnitude but opposite in direction.

Resultant Effect of a System of Forces Acting on a Rigid Body Consider a rigid body acted upon by a system of forces. These forces may be reduced to a single resultant force F whose line of action is at a distance h from the center of gravity G. Now let us assume two equal and opposite forces (of magnitude F ) acting through G, and parallel to the resultant force, without influencing the effect of the resultant force F, as shown in Fig.

and the moment of the couple (F × h) causes angular acceleration of the body about an axis passing through G and perpendicular to the point in which the couple acts . equal and parallel to the resultant force F passing through G.g. The force F through G causes linear acceleration of the c.A little consideration will show that the body is now subjected to a couple (equal to F × h) and a force.

Newton's second law for rotation Replace force by torque. m by I. and acceleration by angular acceleration and you get: .

straight-line motion equation by substituting the corresponding rotational variables for the straight-line motion variables : Angular displacement (θ) for displacement (s) Angular velocity (ω)for velocity(V) Angular acceleration(α) for acceleration(a) Torque(τ) for force(F) Moment of inertia(I) for mass (m) .

Let OC be the crank and PC the connecting rod. Let the crank rotates with angular velocity of ω rad/s and the crank turns through an angle θ from the inner dead centre (briefly written as I.D.Approximate Analytical Method for Velocity and Acceleration of the Piston (section 15.8) Consider the motion of a crank and connecting rod of a reciprocating steam engine as shown in Fig. after time t seconds.D.C.C). . during which the crank has turned through an angle θ. Let x be the displacement of a reciprocating body P from I.

Let .

.

.

Acceleration of the piston Since the acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. therefore acceleration of the piston P. .

From the geometry of the figure. we find that CQ = l sin φ = r sin θ .Angular Velocity and Acceleration of the Connecting Rod Consider the motion of a connecting rod and a crank as shown in Fig.

.

.

.

m. The crank angle at which the maximum velocity occurs.p.. Maximum velocity of the piston. Given : r = 300 mm = 0.m. determine:1.95 rad/s .3 m .p. N = 200 r. or ω = 2 π × 200/60 = 20. l = 1 m .Problem: If the crank and the connecting rod are 300 mm and 1 m long respectively and the crank rotates at a constant speed of 200 r. and 2. Solution.

.

It is denoted by FP in Fig. along the line of stroke. neglecting the weight of the connecting rod. Neglecting the Weight of the Connecting Rod The various forces acting on the reciprocating parts of a horizontal engine are shown in Fig. Piston effort. may be derived as discussed below : 1. It is the net force acting on the piston or crosshead pin. The expressions for these forces.Forces on the Reciprocating Parts of an Engine. .

the reciprocating parts are accelerated from rest. when the piston moves from outer dead centre to inner dead centre).e. It is. during the latter half of the stroke (i. The inertia force due to the acceleration of the reciprocating parts. when the piston moves from inner dead centre to outer dead centre). retarded during the latter half of the stroke (i. On the other hand.It may be noted that in a horizontal engine. helps the force on the piston. then. opposes the force on the piston due to the difference of pressures in the cylinder on the two sides of the piston. the inertia force due to retardation of the reciprocating parts. .e.