LEADERSHIP THEORIES

A Leadership Story:

“Management is doing things right, leadership is doing the right things”

(Warren Bennis and Peter Drucker)

What Is Leadership?
Leadership

The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals.
Management Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members.

Definitions  Leadership has been described as the ―process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task‖. Eisenhower  while leaders set the direction. .  Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it." – Dwight D. they must also use management skills to guide their team to the right destination in a smooth and efficient way.

• ex: a leader is the spearhead for that new direction – Management controls or directs people/resources in a group according to principles or values that have already been established.What is leadership. . the difference between leadership and management is: – Leadership is setting a new direction or vision for a group that they follow. and what is the difference between leadership and management?  In a nutshell.

without considering too much how the new direction is going to be achieved. .controls resources to maintain the status quo or ensure things happen according to already-established plans.. at the council of Elrond...  Management without leadership  . Other people then have to work hard in the trail that is left behind. Leadership without management  . but does not usually provide "leadership" because there is no new change.. – Ex: a referee manages a sports game. – Ex: in Lord of the Rings. picking up the pieces and making it work. Frodo Baggins rescues the council from conflict by taking responsibility for the quest of destroying the ring .sets a direction or vision that others follow. no new direction the referee is controlling resources to ensure that the laws of the game are followed and status quo is maintained.but most of the management of the group comes from others.

LEADERSHIP THEORIES Trait Theories Behavioral Theories •Ohio State Studies •Uni. Of Michigan State Contingency Theories •Fiedler Model •Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory Path Goal Theory New Theories •Leader Exchange Theory •Vroom and Yetton’s Leader Participation Model .

social. or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from non-leaders. Leadership Traits: • Ambition and energy • The desire to lead • Honest and integrity • Self-confidence • Intelligence • High self-monitoring • Job-relevant knowledge . physical.Trait Theories Traits Theories of Leadership Theories that consider personality.

• Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders. • Traits predict behavior better in ―weak‖ than ―strong‖ situations. • Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits.Trait Theories Limitations: • No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations. .

Behavioral Theories Behavioral Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific differentiate leaders from non-leaders. behaviors • Trait theory: Leaders are born. not made. . • Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.

the LDBQ was on version XII. which was designed to discover how leaders carry out their activities. They found two critical characteristics either of which could be high or low and were independent of one another. By 1962. .  The research was base on questionnaires to leaders and subordinates. starting in the 1950s. and the Supervisor Behavior Description Questionnaire (SDBQ).Ohio State Studies  A famous series of studies on leadership were done in Ohio State University. These are known as the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LDBQ).

respect for subordinate’s ideas. and regard for their feelings.Ohio State Studies Initiating Structure The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment. . Consideration The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust.

Consideration for Workers. focused on the human side of the business and was also called Relationship Behavior. . – Example: orientation of new employees  In this way the Ohio State Studies brought together the seemingly juxtaposed Scientific Management and Human Relations Movement. – Example: measuring production output.  The second element. – This means that consideration for workers and initiating structure exist simultaneously and in different amounts. A matrix was created that showed the various combinations and quantities of the elements.  An important finding of the Ohio State studies was that these two dimensions are independent. focusing on production issues.Ohio State Studies  The first element was tagged Initiating Structure and deals with Task Behavior.

is more strongly related to the – The followers of leaders who were high in consideration were more satisfied with their jobs and more motivated and also had more respects for their leaders.  Initiating structure was more strongly related to higher level of group and organization productivity and more positive performance evaluations.Ohio State Studies  Consideration individual. .

University of Michigan Studies Employee-Oriented Leader Emphasizing interpersonal relations. Production-Oriented Leader One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job. taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members. .

starting in the 1950s. Two types of leadership behaviors were identified: – employee orientation (stress the humanrelations aspect. the focus of the Michigan studies was to determine the principles and methods of leadership that led to productivity and job satisfaction. employees viewed as the means of getting the work done).University of Michigan Studies  A series of studies on leadership were done in Michigan University. Under the general direction of Rensis Likert. employees are viewed as human beings with personal needs) – production orientation (stress on the technical and production aspects of the job. .

which was the most participatory set of leader behaviors) as resulting in the most positive outcomes. Those with a production orientation focused on the task or technical aspects of the job. .University of Michigan Studies  Leaders with an employee orientation showed genuine concern for interpersonal relations. Likert eventually developed four "systems" of management based on these studies.  The conclusion of the Michigan studies was that an employee orientation and general instead of close supervision yielded better results. he advocated System 4 (the participative-group system.

The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton) .

. effective leaders would exhibit development-oriented behavior. Their premise is that in a changing world. Researchers in Finland and Sweden question whether there are only two dimensions (production-orientation and employee-orientation) that capture the essence of leadership behavior. and generating and implementing change.Scandinavian Studies Development-Oriented Leader One who values experimentation. seeking new ideas.

the capabilities and behaviors of followers and also various other situational factors. .  Contingency theories contend that there is no one best way of leading and that a leadership style that is effective in some situations may not be successful in others. including the leader's preferred style.Contingency Theories  The leader's ability to lead is contingent upon various situational factors.

.  This helps to explain how some leaders who seem for a while to have the 'Midas touch' suddenly appear to go off the boil and make very unsuccessful decisions.Contingency Theories  An effect of this is that leaders who are very effective at one place and time may become unsuccessful either when transplanted to another situation or when the factors around them change.

. The main difference is that situational theory tends to focus more on the behaviors that the leader should adopt. whereas contingency theory takes a broader view that includes contingent factors about leader capability and other variables within the situation. given situational factors (often about follower behavior).Contingency Theories  Contingency theory is similar to situational theory in that there is an assumption of no simple one right way.

. – A leader is the individual who is given the task of directing and coordinating task-relevant activities. Fred Fiedler's Contingency Model also predicts that the effectiveness of the leader will depend on both the characteristics of the leader and the favorableness of the situation.  Fiedler relates the effectiveness of the leader to aspects of the group situation.  The contingency model emphasizes the importance of both the leader's personality and the situation in which that leader operates.Fiedler‟s Contingency Model  Proposed by the Austrian psychologist Fred Edward Fiedler. or the one who carries the responsibility for performing these functions when there is no appointed leader.

Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire An instrument that purports to measure whether a person is taskor relationship-oriented. .Contingency Theories Fiedler‟s Contingency Model The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader.

and respect subordinates have in their leader. includes power to hire. Task Structure The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized. and give salary increases.Fiedler‟s Model: Defining the Situation Leader-Member Relations The degree of confidence. fire. promote. Position Power Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization. trust. . discipline.

Findings from Fiedler Model .

. Research Support: • Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals. • Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced people.Cognitive Resource Theory Cognitive Resource Theory A theory of leadership that states that stress can unfavorably affect a situation and that intelligence and experience can lessen the influence of stress on the leader.

.Hersey and Blanchard‟s Situational Leadership Theory  In contrast to Fiedler’s contingency leadership model and its underlying assumption that leadership style is hard to change. the HerseyBlanchard situational leadership model suggests that successful leaders do adjust their styles.

as indicated by their readiness to perform in a given situation. is largely based on two major factors – follower ability and follower confidence. .Hersey and Blanchard‟s Situational Leadership Theory  For Hersey and Blanchard the key issue in making these adjustments is follower maturity.  Hersey and Blanchard believe that leaders should be flexible and adjust their styles as followers and situations change over time.‖ in this sense.  ―Readiness.

Unable and Unwilling Unable but Willing Able and Unwilling Able and Willing Follower readiness: ability and willingness Leader: decreasing need for support and supervision Directive High Task and Relationship Orientations Supportive Participative Monitoring .Hersey and Blanchard‟s Situational Leadership Theory Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness.

Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard) Follower Readiness Able Unwilling Willing Supportive Participative Monitoring Leadership Styles Unable Directive High Task and Relationship Orientations .

 Delegating Style—  Allowing the group to take responsibility for task decisions. this is a high-task. this is a low-task. this is a low-task. highrelationship style. high-relationship style. lowrelationship style.  Telling Style—  Giving specific task directions and closely supervising work. low-relationship style. this is a high-task. .  Selling Style—  Explaining task directions in a supportive and persuasive way.Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard)  Participating Style—  Emphasizing shared ideas and participative decisions on task directions.

Hersey and Blanchard‟s Situational Leadership Theory  The participating style is recommended for low-to-moderate readiness situations. Here. As you might expect. followers are capable but also unwilling or insecure about the tasks. . this participation style with its emphasis on relationships is supposed to help followers share ideas and thus draw forth understanding and task confidence.

. followers lack capability but are willing or confident about the task. Here. In this case. the selling style and its emphasis on task guidance is designed to facilitate performance through persuasive explanation.Hersey and Blanchard‟s Situational Leadership Theory  The selling style is recommended for moderate to high-readiness situations.

The style is one of turning over decisions to followers who have high task readiness based on abilities.Hersey and Blanchard‟s Situational Leadership Theory  When follower maturity is high. . willingness and confidence about task accomplishment. the situational leadership model calls for a delegating style which might be described as offering minimal leadership intervention.

. by contrast. by giving instructions and bringing structure to a situation where followers lack capability and are unwilling or insecure about their tasks. The telling style works best in this situation of low readiness.Hersey and Blanchard‟s Situational Leadership Theory  When follower maturity is low. the model calls for the telling style with its emphasis on task directed behaviors.

they have to understand the maturity of followers in terms of readiness for task performance and then use the style that best fits.Hersey and Blanchard‟s Situational Leadership Theory  Managers using the situational leadership model must be able to implement the alternative leadership styles as needed. To do this. the situational leadership model suggests the following. . In terms of the appropriate style-situation match ups.

.Leader–Member Exchange Theory Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory Leaders create in-groups and out-groups. and greater job satisfaction. less turnover. and subordinates with in-group status will have higher performance ratings.

 This tendency is central to leader-member exchange theory.Leader–Member Exchange Theory  One of the things you may have noticed in your work and study groups is the tendencies of leaders to develop ―special‖ relationships with some team members. the group you are in can have quite a significant influence on your experience with the leader. or LMX theory as it is often called.  Instead. people fall into “in” groups and “out” groups in relationships with their leaders.  The theory basically recognizes that in most. leadership situations not everyone is treated the same by the leader. Obviously. or at least many. .

 You might think of the LMX concept in respect to a leader being more willing to find time to spend relating to and interacting with some followers than others.  Whether due to personality similarities or differences. time pressures and interaction opportunities. this role ends up being defined into a high-exchange or low-exchange relationship with the leader. Those that do get the leader’s attention end up forming a special in-group relationship with him or her. or the follower’s competencies and accomplishments. .Leader–Member Exchange Theory  The notion underlying leader-member exchange theory is that as a leader and follower interact over time. their exchanges end up defining the follower’s role.

access to information. Being in the out-group can have negative consequences on the same terms.Leader–Member Exchange Theory  One of the implications of the leader-member exchange theory is that the nature of the exchange is determined by the leader based on some presumed characteristics of the follower.  For the follower in a high LMX relationship. a low LMX relationship is based on just the opposite set of views. But the leader may also be missing out on lost opportunities of working more intensely with out-group members. compatibility. and other special treatments. . it is nice to be able to call on and depend upon the loyal support of those in the in-group. For the leader. being part of the leader’s inner circle or in-group can have positive implications in terms of getting rewards. A high LMX relationship is usually based on perceived favorable personality. and competency.

Leader-Member Exchange Theory .

Path-Goal Theory The theory that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide them the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization. .

The Path-Goal Theory .

.Leader-Participation Model Leader-Participation Model (Vroom and Yetton) A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations.

Leader-Participation Model
 Leadership is all about making decisions, conceiving vision, setting goals, laying paths to reach the goal, and making all efforts with followers in achieving it.  Effective Leadership requires taking situation based decisions. An individual will be accepted as Leader when his ideas, suggestions and advise are more appropriate to the situation. Decision taken under particular situation may not hold good for all situations & it may give different results in different situations.

Leader-Participation Model
– How will you get expected output from your decision on particular thing ? – What factors that affect making a good decision? – In what situations I need to get consultation from others or to make own decision? – How do I get commitment from my followers on particular decision?  Vroom-Yetton-Jago Normative Decision Model help us to answer above questions.

Leader-Participation Model
 This model identifies five different styles (ranging from autocratic to consultative to group-based decisions) on the situation & level of involvement. They are:
– – – – – Autocratic Type 1 (AI) Autocratic Type 2 (AII) Consultative Type 1 (CI) Consultative Type 2 (CII) Group-based Type 2(GII)

Here. . Here followers’ do not meet each other & leader’s decision may or may not has followers influence. This type is completely autocratic. followers involvement is just providing information.  Consultative Type 1 (CI) – Leader shares problem to relevant followers individually and seeks their ideas & suggestions and makes decision alone. here followers involvement is at the level of providing alternatives individually. Problem or decision may or may not be informed to followers.Leader-Participation Model  Autocratic Type 1 (AI) – Leader makes own decision using information that is readily available to you at the time.  Autocratic Type 2 (AII) – Leader collects required information from followers. then makes decision alone. So.

Here followers’ meet each other and through discussions they understand other alternatives. So. But leader’s decision may or may not has followers influence.  Group-based Type 2(GII) – Leader discuss problem & situation with followers as a group and seeks their ideas & suggestions through brainstorming.Leader-Participation Model  Consultative Type 2 (CII) – Leader shares problem to relevant followers as a group and seeks their ideas & suggestions and makes decision alone. Leader accepts any decision & do not try to force his idea. Decision accepted by the group is the final one. . here followers involvement is at the level of helping as a group in decision-making.

5. 4. 7.Contingency Variables in the Revised Leader-Participation Model 1. 6. Importance of using participation as a tool for developing follower decision skills . Importance to the leader of minimizing the time it takes to make the decision 12. 3. Time constraints on the leader that may limit follower involvement 10. Whether followers have the necessary information to make a good decision 9. Importance of the decision Importance of obtaining follower commitment to the decision Whether the leader has sufficient information to make a good decision How well structured the problem is Whether an autocratic decision would receive follower commitment Whether followers ―buy into‖ the organization’s goals Whether there is likely to be conflict among followers over solution alternatives 8. Whether costs to bring geographically dispersed members together is justified 11. 2.

PART II .

Leadership .

Types of Leadership Style .

there is a time. But like all leadership styles.Autocratic Leaders – Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else – High degree of dependency on the leader – Can create de-motivation and alienation of staff – May be valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively  In fact. . This style of leadership is often very stressful on fellow employees. and makes the work environment itself not a fun place to be. and a situation. it might be perceived that there are not a lot of good things to say about autocratic leaders. where the style is appropriate.

The feedback you would receive from this type of leader would generally be unplanned. but there are actually situations when this style is very effective.  The decision-making process is usually unilateral. They would simply tell you when you've made a mistake. and they accomplish goals by directing people. Now that might not sound like the type of leader you'd follow.Autocratic Leaders  Cons of Autocratic Leaders  The communication style of an autocratic leader is usually described as one way. They tell you exactly what they want done. .

and therefore have little trouble adapting to that style. some operating conditions may call for urgent action. in times of stress or emergency some subordinates may actually prefer an autocratic style. but very stressful on followers or coworkers when the added pressure is no longer necessary.the autocratic leadership style is very effective when critical business decisions or actions are needed. many individuals have already worked for an autocratic leader.  In fact. Surprisingly. So to summarize . an autocratic style of leadership may be the best style to adopt. . In these cases. They prefer to be told exactly what to do.Autocratic Leaders  Pros of Autocratic Leaders  In the workplace.

then an autocratic leadership style will only make the work environment worse. . Autocratic leaders are also not effective in situations where your employees might become resentful or fearful. or is interested in building employee relationships. several studies suggest that organizations with many autocratic leaders have higher turnover and absenteeism than other organizations.  Finally.Autocratic Leaders  Autocratic Leaders in the Workplace  On the down side.  So the autocratic leadership style should not be used when you want to get your employees engaged in the decision-making process. With today's emphasis on joint decision making and empowerment. employees just entering the workforce will be highly resistant to this management style. if your company is struggling with low morale.

she was meticulous and demanding. and in using her autocratic management style. Others might argue that even more success might have awaited Martha Stewart if she had not relied so heavily on the autocratic style. Whether you liked her or not.Examples  Martha Stewart  Martha Stewart built her empire with personal attention to every detail. She was also very successful in her endeavors.  Many industry analysts might argue that it was Martha's autocratically demanding style that allowed her to flourish in a competitive environment such as the entertainment industry. .

Think about the daily pressures associated with publishing one of the highest quality newspapers in the world.using all of the New York Times' resources to cover what he deemed were important stories. Raines was known for his policy of "flooding the zone".  Howell Raines is a classic example of how an autocratic style can be used successfully in a highly-demanding industry. Widely cited as a "hard-charging" Executive Editor.  Howell Raines was the Executive Editor of the New York Times from 2001 until 2003. but the autocratic leadership style is certainly efficient.Examples  Howell Raines  Newspapers and old industries often flourished under autocratic leaders that stood watch over factory workers to make sure their factories kept humming. The point here is that it might not be easy to work under these circumstances. .

Democratic Leadership  Encourages decision making perspectives – leadership may throughout the organisation. from different be emphasised – Consultative: process of consultation before decisions are taken – Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct • • • • May help motivation and involvement Workers feel ownership of the firm and its ideas Improves the sharing of ideas and experiences within the business Can delay decision making .

In these fast moving organizations. Ideas move freely amongst the group and are discussed openly. and then synthesizing all the available information into the best possible decision. The democratic leader must also be able to communicate that decision back to the group to bring unity the plan is chosen. and discussion is relatively free-flowing. encouraging people to share their ideas.  This style is needed in dynamic and rapidly changing environments where very little can be taken as a constant.  The democratic leadership style means facilitating the conversation. every option for improvement has to be considered to keep the group from falling out of date. . Everyone is given a seat at the table.Democratic Leadership  The democratic leadership style is a very open and collegial style of running a team.

democratic leadership offers a great deal of flexibility to adapt to better ways of doing things. It capitalizes on their skills and talents by letting them share their views. it might not do so very quickly. it is important to have the different areas of expertise represented and contributing input – this is where democratic leader shines. so while it may embrace newer and better methods.  Democratic leadership style can bring the best out of an experienced and professional team.Democratic Leadership  When is it Used?  When situations change frequently. Unfortunately. . it is also somewhat slow to make a decision in this structure.  If a decision is very complex and broad. rather than simply expecting them to conform.

both by educators and their students. and that means there has to be a great deal of exploration and open discussion. your role will be to explore the possibilities in depth.  Much of the service industry: new ideas allow for more flexibility to changing customer demands. . design): ideas need to flow in creative environments to find create new concepts and designs.  Education: few places need to be open to different ideas than education.  Consulting: when paid to explore problems and find solutions.Democratic Leadership  Good fits for Democratic Leadership:  Creative groups (advertising.

 When the workplace is ready for democratic leaders. the style produces a work environment that employees can feel good about. Workers feel that their opinion counts. and because of that feeling they are more committed to achieving the goals and objectives of the organization. . and letting your opinion be known. the primary behavior of these leaders was to forge consensus through collaboration. The key to this style is communication .Democratic Leadership  Democratic Leadership at Work  Daniel Goleman also thought there were enough distinguishing characteristics found in democratic leadership to include it as one of his six styles.seeking the opinions of others. In his model.

finding the right style to apply to the situation at hand.Democratic Leadership  Democratic Leadership at Work  But Goleman and others also recognized that not every style is effective in every work environment that's what situational leadership is all about. So the logical question is: When is the democratic leadership style effective at work? .

However. this democratic process has its drawbacks. .  This creates an ideal environment for collaborative problem-solving in addition to decisionmaking.Democratic Leadership  Pros of the Democratic Leadership Style  Since employees or followers have an equal say in the decision-making process. they are more committed to the desired outcome. The collaborative environment created by this style often results in more thorough solutions to problems.

When you ask people for their opinions.  The other drawback of the democratic style is that the collaborative effort takes time. You simply need a fair amount of experience to make good decisions. this style is not very effective. it takes time for them to explain what they think and for others to understand what they are saying.Democratic Leadership  Cons of the Democratic Leadership Style  The democratic leader depends on the knowledge of his followers or employees. . If the workforce is inexperienced. If the business need is urgent. then the democratic leader needs to switch styles.

the pros and cons of this style are pretty much in alignment .Democratic Leadership  Cons of the Democratic Leadership Style  To summarize. but they have to understand the process first. but it takes time. . The democratic leadership style is most effective when you have a workplace that has experienced. People can share their knowledge.strength also becomes weakness. You get more input.

you'd be partially correct. If your thinking President John F. . You're right in saying President Kennedy was a Democrat and certainly he will be remembered as a great leader. But President Kennedy was actually a very good example of a charismatic leader .Democratic Leadership  Examples of Democratic Leaders  We're going to finish up by giving you an example of a democratic leader at work.not a democratic one. Kennedy is a famous democratic leader.

Democratic Leadership
 Examples of Democratic Leaders
 Interestingly, one of the best examples of a democratic leader is also a political figure - Dwight D. Eisenhower (a Republican no less!). As a military leader, Eisenhower was faced with the difficult task of getting the Alliance forces to agree on a common strategy. Eisenhower labored hard to make sure everyone worked together to come to a common understanding. This was one of his greatest achievements. It was here that the democratic leadership style, and collaborative efforts, of Eisenhower shone through. The subsequent victory of the Alliance forces back up the correctness of the approach in that particular situation.

Laissez-Faire Leadership
 „Let it be‟ – the leadership responsibilities are shared by all:
– Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas are important – Can be highly motivational, as people have control over their working life – Can make coordination and decision making time-consuming and lacking in overall direction – Relies on good team work – Relies on good interpersonal relations Laissez-faire leadership is characterized by: – Very little guidance from leaders – Complete freedom for followers to make decisions – Leaders provide the tools and resources needed – Group members are expected to solve problems on their own

Laissez-Faire Leadership
 Benefits of Laissez-Faire Leadership
 Laissez-faire leadership can be effective in situations where group members are highly skilled, motivated and capable of working on their own. While the conventional term for this style is 'laissez-faire' and implies a completely hands-off approach, many leaders still remain open and available to group members for consultation and feedback.

. In such situations.Laissez-Faire Leadership  Downsides of Laissez-Faire Leadership  Laissez-faire leadership is not ideal in situations where group members lack the knowledge or experience they need to complete tasks and make decisions. projects can go off-track and deadlines can be missed when team members do not get enough guidance or feedback from leaders. managing their own projects and solving problems on their own. Some people are not good at setting their own deadlines.

. • According to theory.g. paternalistic leadership is composed of three main elements: autocratic leadership. benevolent leadership and moral leadership. Paternalistic Leadership is a native Chinese leadership style. China is oftentimes described as paternalistic leadership.Paternalistic Leadership  Leader acts as a „father figure‟ – Paternalistic leader makes decision but may consult – Believes in the need to support staff – Leadership in Asian countries such as e. which is deeply rooted in China's patriarchal tradition and in Confucianism.

The manager will however make the actual decisions (in the best interests of the workers) as they believe the staff still need direction and in this way it is still somewhat of an autocratic approach. Managers are interested in how happy workers feel and in many ways they act as a father figure (pater means father in Latin). .  They consult employees over issues and listen to their feedback or opinions. The style is closely linked with Mayo’s Human Relation view of motivation and also the social needs of Maslow.Paternalistic Leadership  Paternalistic managers give more attention to the social needs and views of their workers.

Change Leadership .

Change Leadership  The most challenging aspect of business is leading and managing change  The business environment is subject to fast-paced economic and social change  Modern business must adapt and be flexible to survive  Problems in leading change stem mainly from human resource management .

‖ Stabilizing the organization after the change process begins is critical to continued success.  According to McShane and VonGlinow (2004). a leader must be able to ―influence. because of all the factors involved in organizational change. motivate and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organization.Effective Leadership and Organizational Change  Effective leadership in the change management process is particularly important. .

Effective Leadership and Organizational Change  McShane and VonGlinow (2004) outline seven competencies to effective leadership.  Leaders with this set of competencies and skills should be effective in their leadership ability regardless of the leadership style that they favor.  Those competencies include: • • • • • • • Emotional intelligence Integrity Drive Leadership motivation Self-confidence Intelligence Knowledge of the business .

Selecting the Right Leadership Style  Selecting the right leadership style to influence the effectiveness of change is important if large organizational change is to be successful.  The right leadership style might change as the situation changes within an organization.  Different leadership styles to consider include: – – – – – – – – Visionary/inspirational leaders Commanding leaders Situational leaders People-oriented leaders Task-oriented leaders Strategic leaders Logical leaders Supportive leaders .

.  They have long-term goals.  They are particularly effective when the goal is strategy development.  The commanding style focuses on performance and has a short-term goal orientation.  Logical Leadership style  The logical style pertains to leaders who insist on covering all alternatives.  They learn better by their own successes and failures than by input from others.  Commanders are highly productive and results oriented. use analysis and questioning.  They can be very effective when goal achievement is the primary focus.Selecting the Right Leadership Style  A commanding leadership style  It gives clear direction and is useful in cases of emergency. and learn by reasoning things through.

They inspire others with insights and shared authority.Selecting the Right Leadership Style  A visionary/ inspirational leadership style  It should be used when a leader is trying to move people towards a shared dream. they learn by experimentation.  They are inquisitive. and satisfied by finding radically new solutions. curious.  The inspirational style is characteristic of those who are able to develop meaningful visions of the future by focusing on radically new ideas. .  They show a high level of concern for assuring cohesiveness of members of the organization and encouraging others to follow the vision.

.Selecting the Right Leadership Style  A coaching leadership style  It might be used to effectively connect what a person wants with organizational goals. The situational leadership style  This type leaders change their style of leadership based on how ready their followers seems to be.  Factors that affect situational decisions include motivation and capability of followers.

having leaders who are people-oriented as opposed to task-oriented will be better able to anticipate the needs of the employees as they motivate and enable them to change. and it tends to encourage good teamwork and creative collaboration.  With people-oriented leadership. leaders are totally focused on organizing. and developing the people in their teams. . It's a participative style.Selecting the Right Leadership Style People-oriented leaders  When drastic organizational changes are involved. supporting.

 They learn by observing outcomes and how others react to their decisions. .Selecting the Right Leadership Style  Supportive leaders  Those leaders who are more concerned with consensus score high in the supportive dimension. They emphasize openness and operate more as facilitators than directors.

strategic leaders are far more inclined to be information seekers than information distributors. Multiple styles of leadership are needed to effectively implement most forms of organizational change. Strategic leaders accept that they cannot have all the answers and they take steps to obtain information that effectively guides their choices. These leaders rely heavily on communication and persuasion with employees to advance their enlightened strategies.Selecting the Right Leadership Style    Strategic leaders Recognize that most work now involves integration rather than fractionation of diverse interests and skills. When compared to popular models of leaders of the past.   .

organize. with difficulties in motivating and retaining staff.Selecting the Right Leadership Style Task-oriented leaders  Highly task-oriented leaders focus only on getting the job done. and they can be quite autocratic. put structures in place. They actively define the work and the roles required. plan. because task-oriented leaders don't tend to think much about the well-being of their teams. However. and monitor. . this approach can suffer many of the flaws of autocratic leadership.

Theories of Leadership .

Theories of Leadership  May depend on: – – – – – – Type of staff History of the business Culture of the business Quality of the relationships Nature of the changes needed Accepted norms within the institution .

Factors Affecting Style .

Factors Affecting Style  Leadership style may be dependent on various factors: – Risk .decision making and change initiatives based on degree of risk involved – Type of business – creative business or supply driven? – How important change is – change for change’s sake? – Organisational culture – may be long embedded and difficult to change – Nature of the task – needing cooperation? Direction? Structure? .