PART 1 THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY

DEFINITION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY PSYCHOLOGY
PSYCHOLOGY – derived from the Greek words pysche and logos.

psyche- soul logos- study To the Greek, psychology is simply a study of the soul.

 Psychology

- is defined as the scientific study of the behavior of living organisms, with special attention to human behavior. - is a science because it is systematic and empirical , and it is dependent upon measurement.  “Behavior”- means activities that can observe objectively, such as the reactions of the muscles and glands, as well as the organized pattern of responses as a whole. - It also includes internal processes such as thinking, feeling and other reactions which cannot be directly observed but can be inferred from external behavior. - It may classified as overt or covert and intrinsic or extrinsic behavior.

- Psychology is one of the

behavioral sciences together with: Anthropology Sociology Economics Political science History

 Are interested in topics such as:  Learning  Emotion  Intelligence  Heredity and environment  Differences between individuals  The nature and development of personality  Group behavior. what makes people behave as they do. . etc.WHAT PSYCHOLOGY IS  Is chiefly concerned with human behavior.

Psychology is a science. . a psychologist is a ______________ and NOT a pseudo scientist. therefore.

Scientific study is a systematic process. It is well organized . The word SCIENCE comes from the Latin word scientia. step-by.step approach to the study of human behavior. If a psychologist is a scientist . It is a derivative of the Latin word sciens . then he or she must necessarily be objective. whose present participle is scire “to know”. .

Human behavior follows an orderly pattern. 3. Knowledge of human behavior is tentative but superior to ignorance. 2. Human behavior can be known. 4. 6. Nothing is self-evident. Natural phenomena have natural causes 5.SIX FUNDAMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS GROUNDED AS A PSYCHOLOGIST. Knowledge is derived from the acquisition of experiences . 1.

. psychology gets its facts through observations rather than by simply theorizing. but also includes a systematic applications of behavior pattern. -because it does not only try to advance knowledge . Psychology is considered as science because: a. it strives to be objective in the sense that it decides questions on the basis of fact and not on the basis of wishes or desires and b.  Psychology is an art .

Psychology and “common sense”.WHAT PSYCHOLOGY IS NOT 1. . 3. Psychology and the parasciences. Psychology and the mysterious. 2.

BEGINNING OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY .

the mind is a tabula rasa.Aristotle  Who lived in 4th century B. Contrast 3.C. was the earliest writers to devote attention to psychology. and that experiences one encounter during one’s lifetime are impressed on the mind. a blank sheet .  He suggested the three principles of memory: 1. Similarity 2. Contiguity .  He believed that at birth.

speculation and insight.Aristotle and other early writers were not scientific in their investigations and depended more on common sense. .

Augustine  Considered the next great precursor of the modern psychologist because of his skill in introspection and his great curiosity about psychological phenomena . St. which included observations on young infants and on crowds at chariot races. .After the Greeks.

.Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Left his mark on the history of psychology through his concept of reflex action. which has had a significant place in both physiology and psychology.

who established the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig in 1879 and was called the founder of modern experimental psychology.BY TH 19 CENTURY  Began to achieve the status of an independent science when group of German philosophers started to use scientific methodology in their psychological studies. .  Leading this group was Wilhelm Wundt.

. 2. Two theories of mind which competed for psychologist’s support.was the doctrine of mental powers.Franz Gall encouraged the faculty psychology early 19th century and localize special faculties in the parts of the brain. 1. .held an opposing theory. ASSOCIATION PSYCHOLOGISTS. FACULTY PSYCHOLOGY.

 He measured the speed of nerve. set forth a theory of color vision and offered an explanation for our perception of musical tones. .Herman von Helmholtz  Who contributed a lot to the development of psychology.

Ernst B. He contributed the what we called “Weber Law” . Weber (1795-1878) A psychologist.

 He discovered that by changing a physical stimulus slowly and nothing the steps of judgment expressed. Fechner (1801-1887)  He extended and gave publicity to Weber’s findings in his famous book PSYCHOPHYSICS. a relationship can be established between physical series and psychological series. published in 1860. .Gustav T.

Maskeylne (1796)  A Royal Astronomer of the Greenwich Astronomical Observatory. his assistant because he erred by nearly 1 second in recording the time that certain bodies passed an observation point. . dismissed Kinnerbrook .

Bessel The astronomer at the Konigsberg Observatory. of different astronomers. . became interested in the report and began to study what we called the “personal equation”.

.  He confirmed and extended the findings of Bessel.Sir Francis Galton (1884)  Established his anthropometric laboratory in London where he gave tests to people who came to his laboratory. to be named the coefficient of correlation.  It was also Galton who invented the statistical technique of correlation and developed the index .

 He believed that consciousness .  He established the continuity between animal and human. emotions and other psychological processes will be understood if we know how they serve the adjustment of people to their environment. .Charles Darwin( 1809-1882)  From England came the influence of the theory of evolution.

 He started with the work on hypnotism. especially from the treatment of the mentally ill.Frenchman Anton Mesmer (1734-1815)  Another body of influence on psychology came from medicine and psychiatry . . and later with the work of the Viennese physician Sigmund Freud.

.Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) The founder of that branch of medical psychology known as PSYCHOANALYSIS.

2. Stanley Hall 3.Considered as the “Dean of American Psychologists”. Edward Titchener . G. James Catell 4.Beginning of th 20 century  A number of American psychologists became interested in the developments in Germany and went there to get training. William James (1842-1910).  Four better known psychologists among this batch 1.  They helped establish the science of psychology in the United States.

. The first formal laboratory was set up at John Hopkins Universities in 1883. A number of psychological schools or systems of theories were developed.  In 1885. however .  After 1950. Hermann Ebbinghaus reported his studies in learning and memory which were directly inspired by Fechner’s measurement of sensation.  Between 1910-1950. and opposing view points on the nature and functions of psychology continued among psychologists. there was a trend towards a merging of the different viewpoints with a tendency towards eclecticism among the psychologists.

THEORETICAL PARADIGM .

SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT OF PSYCHOLOGY .

Edward Bradford Titchener  It concerned with discovering the structure of the mind.  Main Leaders 1. .STRUCTURALISM ( 1875-1930)  It was developed in Germany in the 19th century. Wilhelm Wundt 2.

arose. known as functionalism. Angell 5.FUNCTIONALISM (1890-1930)  As the center of psychological study shifted to the United States. William James 2. . Harvey Carr The last three psychologists taught at the University of Chicago in the 20th century.  Its main leaders were: 1. James McKeen Catell 4. James R. John Dewey 6. Stanley Hall 3. a new school.

 The most important contribution of functionalism was changing the focus of psychology to learning. motivation and thinking and veered away from the structuralisms' emphasis on individual perception and sensations. .

PSYCHOANALYSIS ( 1900-PRESENT)  Sigmund Freud. a famous physician and psychiatrist.  He postulated on the existence of unconscious mental processes which influenced an individual’s behavior in various indirect ways.  It stressed the role of motives and craving. . This is known as the “libido” theory. attempted to find the cause and cure of personality disorders. often hidden and repressed in the subconscious constitute the main human drive.

This is letting the patient freely associate on his thoughts and experiences. men and women are either extroverts or introverts. Freud and his adherents. Carl Jung and Alfred Adler. denying Freud’s “libido” theory. and with the help of the psychiatrist. His method of treatment. had a split in their ideas and theories. and his school is sometimes called the “analytical school”. Carl Jung. For him.  Between 1911-1912. called “psychoanalysis”. . analyze the causes of his difficulty.regarded personality as the strongest force in determining human behavior. emphasizes free association.

. The theory is known as “individualism”.believed that the strongest human urge is not sex emotion. but the unconscious attempts of the individual to overcome the feeling of inferiority.Alfred Adler.

He criticized both the structuralists and the functionalists for their use of introspection as a technique. Watson who finished hid Ph.D. .  He argued that the psychologist should use only objective methods and that their observations and measurements should be in a form which could be checked and verified by other psychologists.BEHAVIORISM ( 1913-PRESENT)  The school of behaviorism was founded by John B. form the University of Chicago.

 He was not concerned with studying human consciousness. hoping to be able to predict and control their actions and words. thinking could be studied by observing a person’s sub vocal speech through the movement of certain muscles in the throat. . For him. Watson studied what people did and what they said.

 It is emphasized on the study of human behavior and perception and with the use of both introspection and observation . memory and problem-solving. Kurt Koffka. Wolfgang Kokler and Max Wertheimer founded the Gestalt school which maintained that psychology should study the whole pattern of behavior or experience or the perception of organized configuration.GESTALT ( PATTERN OR CONFIGURATION) (1912-1940)  In 1912. . the Gestalt psychologists contributed much to the understanding of learning.

as well as their potential for personal growth. especially their freedom of choice and decision making. .HUMANISTIC (1950’s-PRESENT) Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow emphasized the unique qualities of humans.

COGNITIVE ( 1950’s-Present)  Jean Piaget  Noam Chomsky  Herbert Simon focused on thought and mental processes.  Herbert Simon won the Nobel prize in economics for his research on cognition.  Human behavior cannot be fully understood without analyzing how people acquire. . store and process information.

BIOLOGICAL (1950’s –Present) James Old and Roger Sperry theorized that much of human and animal behavior can be explained in terms of bodily structures and biochemical processes. Roger Sperry won the Nobel prize in Psychology and Medicine for his Split Brain Studies. .

it was called “hormic” psychology.PURPOSIVISM  William McDougall conducted his researches at the Duke University of Durham. and that the ductless glands in people produce hormones which give them purpose.  He believed that objects. North Carolina. . movements and behavior have a definite purpose.  Because purposivism placed an important on hormones in life.

BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY .

Child Psychology 5. Comparative Psychology 3. General Psychology 2. Development or Genetic Psychology 4.1. Abnormal Psychology . Senescence Psychology 7. Adolescence Psychology 6.

Dynamic Psychology 11. Experimental Psychology 9. Physiological Psychology 12.8. Differential Psychology 10. Applied Psychology 14. Legal Psychology . Educational Psychology 13.

Business Psychology 17. Social Psychology . Industrial and engineering Psychology 18. Clinical Psychology 16.15.

NEW FIELDS FOR THE PSYCHOLOGY .

Health Psychologist 2. Consumer Psychologist 5. Ergonomist . Legal Psychologist or Forensic Psychologist 7. Behavior Analyst 6.1. Sport Psychologist 3. Community Psychologist 4.

1. 6. 4. 5. 2. 6 WELL –KNOWN METHODS USED IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH Introspection Observation Life-History Method Survey Methods or Group Method Experimental Method Statistical Method . 3.

OBJECTIVES OF PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE 1.to understand 2.to control .to predict 3.

FIVE BASIC “PERSPECTIVES ” OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR .

Biological . Psychoanalytic 2. Behavioristic 3. Cognitive Psychology 5. Humanistic Psychology 4.1.