Biomedical Sensor Network

for Cardiovascular Fitness and Activity Monitoring

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Abstract Introduction Examples Architecture Network Protocol Intra and Internal Communication Conclusion


This paper describes a prototype model for cardiovascular activity and fitness monitoring system based on IEEE 11073 family of standard for medical device communication. It identifies basic requirements for developing a biomedical sensor network having resource limited sensor nodes to acquire, retrieve and communicate various physiological parameters while using short range wireless technologies. IEEE 11073-10441 defines the set of protocols for tele-health environment at application layer and rest of the communication infrastructure is covered by the medical grade ZigBee network. In healthcare, space ZigBee provides an industry-wide standard for exchanging data between a variety of medical and non-medical devices and ZigBee enabled medical devices are fully compatible with ISO/IEEE 11073 for point-of-care medical device communication.

.The proposed prototype model addresses design and development issues required to report any severe cardiovascular malfunctioning without compromising mobility and convenience of the patient.

heat.  What are smart sensors?  Are built using a combination of sensors and integrated circuits used to perform suitable actions on the sensed input. .  Have wireless capabilities in order to communicate with an external device. Another device acts on the input and performs suitable action. or force and converts it into a usable input form like electricity.Introduction to Sensors  What is a sensor?   A sensor is a device that receives input from a physical or energetic phenomenon such as light.

The purpose of BSN.Introduction to Biomedical Sensor Network  The idea of Biomedical Sensor Network (BSN) is derived from a thought of mixing wireless technologies and advancements in the field of biosensors for assessment of physiological parameters offering the medical assistance to the person in need. also called Body Sensor Networks. disease management and promotes self-care.    A BSN consists of 5 to 10 invasive or non-invasive sensor nodes acquiring physiological signals from the subject body and transmitting it to the network coordinator through wireless channel. is to provide an integrated hardware and software platform for facilitating the future development of pervasive monitoring systems. It offer prompt feedback for efficient and reliable patient monitoring. .

consists of a collective of wireless networked low-power biosensor devices ("motes" or "nodes"). nucleic acids. wireless communication and networks technologies.Introduction to Biomedical Sensor Network (Continued…)  Wireless Biomedical Sensor Networks (WBSN. pulse oxymeter. which integrate an embedded microprocessor. WBSN can wirelessly monitor patients’ physiological signals (EEG. carried or swallowed by the patients. contractions of intestinal muscle and other parameters. intestinal acidity.   . blood pressure.invasive manner. the convergence of biosensors.) by individual node or pill that is worn. glucose level. allow WBSN involved in the Gastrointestinal diseases monitoring in a non. radio and a limited amount of storage. etc. pressure. blood flow. ECG. The swallowed pills with wireless transceiver containing sensors that can detect enzymes. for short).

Introduction to Biomedical Sensor Network (Continued…) .

  Cancer cells exude nitric oxide in the tissue surrounding the tumor.  Cancer Detectors.  General Health Monitors.   Wireless blood sensors implanted in the human body. say. Sensors can be implanted in such locations to detect abnormalities. wrist watch.Biomedical Sensor Applications  Glucose level monitors. Small pills containing sensors can be swallowed thus enabling wireless transmission of intestinal conditions or diagnose gastrointestinal diseases. Sensors monitor glucose levels and transmit that to external display device. .   NASA has been working on pill-sized packages containing sensors for monitoring surrounding conditions.

Temperature and Accelerators and Gyroscopes for Body Movement. simulated with the help of OMNeT++ discreet event simulation environment. This multi-parametric and multidimensional time series information is transmitted by each individual sensor node to the BSN coordinator. This model. This proposed model describes a basic BSN architecture when different sensor nodes share the same medium with different packet rates and packet sizes. Blood Oxygen Saturation. This proposed architecture is supported by five physiological sensors acquiring Electrocardiogram (ECG).Architecture      The goal of this work is to present a formal BSN model using Chipcon CC-2420 radio transceiver that operates in accordance with ZigBee communication standard and analyze traffic and performance issues. . Blood Pressure (BP).

Architecture (Continued…) .

Critical alarm signals and periodic diagnosis information is sent to medical professionals for further actions using extra-BSN communication link. However this work is focused only for intra-BSN communication of physiological information.   This link is facilitated by existing public communication network.Architecture (Continued…)  All detection decisions are taken at this stage with the help of advance Digital Signal Processors and other integrated application software platforms. .

Health Care Monitoring System .

process and communicate vital signs.. The ECG sensor monitors the heart electrical activity.Health Care Monitoring System  The detailed study of working of each major nodes present in the health care monitoring system:  The sensor nodes: Sensor nodes sense. They store acquired data and transmit them to the base station before their memory fills. the base station employs a WLAN to reach an Internet access point (e. It is carried by the patient and communicates with sensor nodes via a Network Coordinator (base station).  The base station or central control node: The base station is a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). home gateway). The wireless communication is based on the IEEE 802. The sensors consist of an ECG and a pulse oxymeter.4 standard and the Network Coordinator is attached to the base station. To communicate with the central server.g.15. .

this enables doctors to do long-term analysis and predict heart attacks or other life threatening conditions. It receives the sampled physiological data and stores it to the database.Health Care Monitoring System  The central server: The central server performs central data storage. As mentioned above. .

Commonly the original biomedical signal amplitude and its ratio of signal to noise are too low to satisfy the A/D conversion circuit. some of the sensors can be incorporated into one sensor collecting several types of biomedical information.lead ECG sensor.Wireless Sensor Nodes  Wireless sensor nodes include the three. analog to digital converter (ADC) module. and the pulse sensor. memory unit. . before being sent into ADC. Therefore. microcontroller.  The ADC module of CC2420 has eight analog input pins which can be configured into eight single-ended inputs or four pairs of differential inputs. Zigbee communication module and antenna.mechanical technology. With development of micro-electro. The wireless sensor node of the proposed network consists of biosensor. the biomedical signal is filtered and amplified. signal processing module.  The sensors in a node are in charge of collecting original biomedical signal.

blood oxygen or the pulse . 64 or 128kb flash memory and 10kb RAM to be chosen. The signal processing module is designed to check some potential and unconspicuous symptoms (such as hypertension)at the sensor node without physician appearing through body temperature.   . The central processing unit (CPU) of MCU is the enhanced 8051 core which uses the standard 8051 instruction set.Wireless Sensor Nodes  Storage unit has 32.body temperature. blood pressure.

Monitoring can combat chronic diseases.Wireless Health Monitoring  iPhone Heart Monitor uses the inbuilt microphone on your iPhone 3G or headphone microphone to listen to and detect your heart beats.  It can be used to find your resting heart rate (a good measure of fitness). track how your heart rate changes and check your heart rate immediately after training.  .

Swallowed pill transmits information from within the body.  . in turn informing doctors or a family member.   Device signals a cell phone or laptop that the pill has been ingested. it communicates with the second main element of the system – a small electronic device carried or worn by the patient.Wireless Diagnostic Methods  New signaling technology can be embedded into drug tablets. When a patient takes the pill.

namely Sensing And Pre-processing (SAP). Application-specific WBASN Communication(AWC) and Data Analysis and Feedback(DAF) to the patient.WBASN Signal Processing and Communication Framework  Recent improvements in signal processing and very. Sensing and pre-processing: Sensor platform architecture typically consists of a sensing device.low-power wireless communications have motivated great interest in the development and application of wireless technology in healthcare and biomedical research. an Operating System(OS) and a communication and power management elements. including Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs).   . WSPC framework consists of three major components for real-time applications.

WBASN Signal Processing and Communication Framework .

detecting and correcting errors in sensed data. due to mixing with external noisy data.  Compression: In contrast to filtering. Pre-processing technique transforms the data into a format that will be more easily and effectively processed for the user purpose. to improve bandwidth utilization.  Data Filtering: Filtering refers to the process of defining. compression focuses on reducing the amount of physical data traffic that the sensor sends over the wireless channel.WBASN Signal Processing and Communication Framework  Pre-processing: Manifested by the procedures performed on the raw data to be ready for analyzes and processing by the application. power consumption and possibly speed of processing and memory space required by application. . which potentially focuses on reducing errors and unnecessary data (such as duplicate data). with the purpose of minimizing the impact of these errors for the succeeding analyses.

sophisticated techniques are required for analysis to extract relevant features.  Gateway data fusion: Data fusion is commonly known as the use of technique(s) that can combine both data and related information from multiple sensors in order to achieve correct and reliable data. which can help in efficiently detecting and classifying anomalies with high precision. . or inside a human body.  Data analysis and feedback: Due to large volume of acquired data required to diagnose them.WBASN Signal Processing and Communication Framework  WBASNS communication technologies: Communication technologies in WBASN are a radio frequency wireless networking technology-based that interconnects tiny nodes through sensor or actuator capabilities in.

ECG signal acquiring circuit is turn off and other acquiring circuits go on working. most internal circuits are powered down and external interrupts. Zigbee module can be activated once one of the following wakeup events appears: In sleep mode. the Zigbee module can work in a way of ―Wake up Ondemand‖ in order to reduce power consumption. I/O pins retain the I/O mode.768 kHz oscillator and sleep timer peripherals are active. it is unnecessary to keep unremittingly transmitting information between the wireless sensor node and the central control node. 32.   . Using these operating modes.Working Flow  Though the object of the proposed wireless sensor network is to monitor potential patient and to routine check up.

stored and transmitted. . The communicating progress does not stop until the sensor node receives an end demand.Working Flow  In active mode. all modules are active and the biomedical signals are acquired.

The system should support reliable and automatic network reconfiguration in case of new or removal of the existing sensors. Multi. The networked sensors can provide higher level medical performance by coordination. . Sensor network access methods have to provide a consistent interface for access to sensors regardless of their type.hop routing is necessary for large area monitoring.Network Protocol  The need of an interconnected network is because:      The system should enable automatic establishment and configuration of the sensor network. measured phenomena.

Medium Access Control and Data Link Layer performs elementary processing after fusing information obtained from multiple sources and incorporate error handling mechanism into physical data. prioritized delivery.  The different layers included in protocol has different functionality:   Physical layer takes care for the issues related to control of biomedical sensor device.Network Protocol  Wireless network protocol stacks are the realization of many functionalities of WBSN mentioned in the former sections. cooperative sensing. power-aware link. such as authentication. and routing etc. security .  Network Layer is responsible for trend analysis and event detection for acquired physiological information. .

 Application layer interact with physical process or sensor through sensor device manager for acquisition and physical layer directly interacts with wireless channel for communication of acquired information.  The figure shows the BSN Sensing Node. .Network Protocol  Sensor node application layer defines applications associated with a particular medical parameter.

and hybrid schemes.4 MAC based scheme. contention based. collision free. which is the optional contention-free time slot in addition to contention period time slots. authentication and security protocols to ensure reliable and secure connections in a WBSN.  .Network Protocol  The data link layer specifies medium access control scheme.15. The first one is IEEE 802. Two MAC schemes are suggested here for WBSN. Existing MAC protocols can be classified into four categories: scheduling based.

session duration etc. and The communication model. real time sampled arrays (RTSA). altitude. breathing rate. is a hierarchical model that describes a BSN node as a set of objects. numeric.AND INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS  The overall system model is divided into three principal components:    The domain information model (DIM). stride length. These objects represent the elements that control behavior of the Physical process sensing mechanism and report the status of the BSN nodes to the BSN coordinator as and when required.INTRA. Domain information model: Domain information model (DIM). intensity of activity. latitude. scanner and persistent metric stores (PM-Stores) DIM is described with the help of Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN) and the data formats described in DIM can also be used by other platforms for feature extraction at latter stages. These attributes are represented in five different formats given as medical device system (MDS). longitude. . The service model. Some of the important physical parameters covered under IEEE 11073-10441 are heart rate.

AND INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS  Domain Information Model: Subject Body DIM attributes of Physiological and Environmental Parameters Cardiovascular activity and fitness monitoring device (MDS) .INTRA.

configuration. Configuring procedure. This model maps messages exchanged between sensor nodes and BSN coordinator. For each logical point to point communication the dynamic system behavior is defined under IEEE 11073-20601.1 notation. Operating procedure and Time synchronization. The application layer is covered by IEEE 11073-20601 and bottom layers are described under ZigBee standard for short range wireless communication. Cardiovascular fitness and activity monitor directly use the attributes and procedures for communication defined in this standard except the nomenclature Communication model describes Association procedure. model  .AND INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS  Service model defines conceptual mechanism for data exchange. Protocol messages are defined as ASN. transmission and time synchronization for communication model of cardiovascular activity and fitness monitoring system. Message formats defined with in IEEE 11073-20601 can coexist with messages defined in other standard application profiles defined in the ISO/IEEE 11073 series of standards.  Communication for IEEE 11073-10441 supports point to point communication between sensor nodes and BSN coordinator in star topology. Communication protocol stack describes association.INTRA.

.  There are a number of constraints on the sensors components like material.  The design of wireless sensors is a critical step in enabling their use in medicine. size.Conclusion To conclude the following can be said. blood glucose level monitoring etc.  RF power used for transmission of information certainly have some health related issue but as the perceived value related to personal communication and entertainment is increasing. power consumption etc.  Wireless sensors have an immense potential in the field of medicine. personal area networks (PANs) are gaining popularity and even ready to provide healthcare monitoring solutions. cancer detection.  A sensor embedded in the human body can be useful in many ways like retinal prosthesis.

15. ZigBee (IEEE 802.4) and Cardiovascular Activity and Fitness Monitor(IEEE 1107310441) will surely lead to the development of cost effective personal health devices for millions of people.Conclusion  Currently. there are intensive activities worldwide on applying Information and Communication Technologies in a more active and direct way to support medical and healthcare services. It is expected that IEEE standards like Body Area Network (IEEE 802. BSN solutions are now ready to enter into the harsher world of commercial applications from the soft academic research environment.   .6).15.

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