Grounding of Electrical systems

Grounded & Ungrounded Systems

Grounded & Ungrounded Systems

Grounding & Bonding • Grounding • Neutral of power supply unit is attached to earth • Neutral of different utility sections is attached to ground • Bonding • Enclosures of two different equipments are attached to each other with a solid conductor to avoid static charge development .

Requirement of Grounding & Bonding • • • • To avoid electrocuting of living entities To avoid transient over voltages To direct static charges to ground To have an easy identification of faulty conditions • To protect electrical equipment .

Bonding .

Methods of Grounding .

Grounding Techniques .

Ungrounded Systems • No intentional connection is made to ground/earth • A virtual connection is made to ground due to line to ground capacitances • A higher level of insulation will be required • Fault location will be difficult • System could continue to operate in case of fault for a longer time • Arcing ground would be hazardous .

Ungrounded Systems .

Solid Grounding • Neutral of the power supply is attached directly to ground • Neutral point is held at earth potential in all conditions • Advantages » Faulty conditions could be identified easily » No over voltages on healthy phases occur » High safety of living entities • Disadvantages » Large values of fault current » Possible equipment damage .

Solid Grounding .

Resistance Grounding • Neutral of the power supply is attached to ground through a resistor • Value of R should neither be very low nor very high • Advantages » Fault current magnitude is reduced » Improves the stability of the system under faulty conditions • Disadvantages » Neutral is displaced during an earth fault » Large amount of energy is produced in the earthing resistor for a fault .

Resistance Grounding .

Reactance Grounding • A reactor is attached between neutral and ground • Higher fault currents would be required for interruption • By adjusting the value of reactance we can adjust the system to operate as any scheme of grounding .

Reactance Grounding .

Resonant Grounding • A variable inductance coil is used to avoid the flow of charging current for fault conditions • If IL=IC fault current would be almost zero • Reactor is provided with tapings to avoid different values of charging current • A small magnitude of fault current flows which is in phase with the faulty phase voltage .

Resonant Grounding .

Voltage Transformer Earthing • A single phase voltage transformer is used to make a ground connection. • Primary is attached between neutral and earth • A low resistance is attached in series with a relay across the Secondary • Eliminates the condition of arcing grounds and transient over voltages .

Voltage Transformer Earthing .

Grounding Techniques for Delta Connected System • For system sections having delta connections a virtual neutral is achieved to facilitate the protection system • Grounding transformers are used to create this virtual neutral point • Grounding T/F Types • Zig-Zag Transformers • Wye-Delta Transformers .

Grounding Techniques for Delta Connected System • Zig-Zag Transformer .

Grounding Techniques for Delta Connected System • Zig-Zag Transformer • Behavior of Zig-Zag transformer durring a ground fault .

Grounding Techniques for Delta Connected System • Wye-Delta Transformer – Primary is attached to the system for which grounding is required – Neutral may be solidly or impedance grounded – Secondary is delta connected or may be open delta connected .

Grounding Techniques for Delta Connected System • Wye-Delta Transformer • In normal conditions the transformer behaves like an open circuited secondary and draws only a small magnitude of magnetizing current .

Grounding Techniques for Delta Connected System • Wye-Delta Transformer • Operation under ground fault conditions .

Equipment Grounding • Equipment grounding is done to avoid electrocuting of living entities • Fault current could flow through ground mass or conductive path • Usually low impedance or solid grounding is used to avoid potential rise at the equipment enclosure • For remote distances potential could develop between different locations over the ground mass .

Equipment Grounding .

Equipment Grounding • A conductive path is provided to minimize the impedance for fault current .

for each phase and neutral and a relay . and a relay • Use independent C.T.T. and a relay in the path of grounded neutral of supply • Use a core balance C.T.Ground Fault Current Detection • Ground fault current flow in the circuit could be identified by the following methods • Attach a C.

Ground Fault Current Detection .

Grounding Connection for Surge Protective Equipment • Surge arrestors are used to direct any line surge to ground .