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POPULATION OF A COUNTRY means the number of people living in that country at a particular point of time.

POPULATION GROWTH is change in population over time and can be quantified as the change in number of individuals in population as per unit time.
GROWTH RATE OF POPULATION is difference between birth rate & death rate. DEMOGRAPHY is the study of changes which take place in population including its size, distribution and organization. It has been derived from the Latin word demos meaning people. Hence, it is the science of people. BIRTH RATE is total number of live births in a particular area on per thousand population. DEATH RATE number of deaths in a given area during a given time per thousand population. FERTILITY RATE is number of live births per 1000 woman in the age group of 15- 49 years. INFANT MORTALITY RATE is death rates of babies less than 1 year.

The world experienced dramatic population growth during the 20thcentury The number of inhabitants doubling from 3 to 6 billion (2% per annum) between 1960 and 2000.

India occupies 2nd rank among the world's most populated countries. With its current population of more than 1.21 billion people males(51.5%) female (48.4%) India, saw very rapid population growth from 448 million in 1960 to 1.21 billion in 2010 India has a population growth rate of 1.4%per year and decadal growth rate of 17.64% (2001 - 2011), Male: (17.19%), female: (18.12%)

India's decadal population growth rate: 17.6% (2001 - 2011) India's decadal population growth rate: 21.5% (1991 - 2001)

Population Density Population per unit square Average density of population in India is 382 per sq. km. 68.84% of the country's population lives in rural areas and 31.16% in urban areas For the first time since Independence, the overall growth rate of population in rural areas has sharply declined The level of urbanisation increased from 27.81% in the 2001 Census to 31.16% in the 2011 Census, while the proportion of rural population declined from 72.19% to 68.84%. 18.62% of the country's rural population lives in Uttar Pradesh and 13.48% urban population lives in Maharashtra.

The age structure of a population can have a large effect on economic growth, especially when it shifts

in recent years, Indias demographic profile has begun to evolve in a way that is potentially more favourable to economic growth
Changes in mortality and creates changes in the age structure of Indias population 1950- India had a very young population, with many children and few elderly;.

Age structure:
65 years and over: 5.5 % 15 years to 64 years: 64.9 % 0 years to 14 years: 29.7 %

The median age of Indian emigrants is 37 and just half of them are females.

Age structure

Sex Ratio of India in 2011 The sex ratio in India is decent and improving year by year. In the last 10 years, it has improved a lot in many states and rural areas. Haryana and Punjab have quiet low. In India female Sex Ratio was okay till the time of Independence, thereafter it has declined regularly. According to Census of India 20011, it has shown some improvement in the last 10 years. It has gone up from 933 in 2001 to 940 in 2011 census of India. Rural female Sex Ratio of India is 947 as per 2011 census Urban female Sex Ratio of India is 926 as per 2011 census.

Literacy Rate in India 2011

Literacy in India is key for socio-economic progress .The Literacy Rate in India is showing major signs of improvement in the last 20 years. According to Census of India 2011, India Literacy rate stands at 74.04. Kerala is top state of India with over 90 percent of its population are literates. There is a wide gender disparity in the literacy rate in India: effective literacy rates (age 7 and above) in 2011 were 82.14% for men and 65.46% for women. Literacy rate improved among females as compared to males. Males is 82.14 %(rise of 6.9%), females is 65.46%, (rise of11.8 %) Bihar is the least literate state in India with 63.82% literacy, followed by Arunachal Pradesh at 66.95. Haryana has the lowest female literacy rate in India.

Houses world's third-biggest Muslim population Majority of Muslim population: Lakshadweep and Jammu and Kashmir. Majority of Christian population: Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland. Majority of Sikh population: Punjab. The share of the Hindu population is 80%

Impact of religions Religion is a major cultural influence and also plays an important role in politi The main religions are Hinduism and Islam and many political parties are identified by the religion of their supporters. Many national religious issues are the key points of the success in elections The caste system crosses religious boundaries to infect both Hindu and Islamic people Hindus have four main castes and hundreds of sub-castes. Many political parties draw supporters from specific castes or sub-castes.

CURRENT POPULATION SITUATION IN INDIA : Indias population growth during the twentieth century can be classified into the following four distinct phases : 1901-1921 : Stagnant population 1921-1951 : Steady growth STAGE 1

1951-1981 : Rapid high growth

1981-2001 : High growth with definite STAGE 3 signs of slowing down

STAGE 1(pre-industrial): Slow growth because of very high birth and death rates, STAGE 2 (early industrial): Rapid growth because death rate drops, but birth rate remains high, STAGE 3 (later industrial): Slow growth because birth rate drops to approach death rate.