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Human Resource Planning

Tejashree Talpade

HR Planning

HR Planning is the process of examining an organizations future human resource need. It involves:

Identifying and acquiring the right number of people with the proper skills Motivating them to achieve high performance Creating interactive links between business objectives and resource planning activities

Human Resource Planning

Human Resource Planning (HR Planning) is both a process and a set of plans. It is how organizations assess the future supply of and demand for human resources. An effective HR plan also provides mechanisms to eliminate any gaps that may exist between supply and demand. Thus, HR planning determines the members and types of employees to be recruited into the organization or phased out of it. Dynamic by nature, the HR planning process often requires periodic readjustments as labor market conditions change.

HRP Process
Strategic Planning Technological forecasts Economic forecasts Market forecasts Organizational planning Investment planning Annual operating plans Human Resource Demand Annual employment requirements Numbers Skills Occupational categories Human Resource Supply Existing employment inventory After application of expected loss and attrition rates



If none


If surplus

If shortage


Decisions Overtime, recruitment, etc.

Action Decisions

Layoff, retirement, etc.



The HRP Process

All effective HR planning shares certain features. It is generally agreed that HR planning involves four distinct phases or stages:
Situation analysis or environmental scanning

Forecasting demand for human resources

Analysis of the supply of human resources

Development of plans for action

Why is HRP important ?

Even an imperfect forecast is better than none at all Anticipating needs prepare for the future gives you an edge Address potential problems avoid skill deficiencies

What is HRP?

HRP is a sub-system of total organizational planning. HRP facilitates the realization of the companys objectives for the future by providing the right type and number of personnel HRP is also called Manpower planning, Personnel planning or Employment planning

HRP ensures that the organization has:

Right Number Right Kind Right Place Right Time

Benefits of HRP

Create reservoir of talent Prepares people for future Expand or Contract Cut Costs Succession Planning

Forecasting Techniques

Managerial Judgment Ratio trend analysis Work Study Techniques Delphi Technique Flow Models Others

Factors in Demand forecasting

Social factors Working conditions, Govt. regulations, environmental conditions, religious, cultural. Technological Factors Political Factors Trade restrictions, War etc. Economic Factors Demand generation Growth Employee Turnover

Job Analysis
Job Analysis is not a one time activity as jobs are changing constantly The job and not the person an important consideration in job analysis is conducted of the job and not of the person It simply highlights what are the minimum activities that are entailed in a job.

Job Analysis

Skill Range

Does the job cover a reasonable but not too extensive range of different tasks? Are there opportunities to use knowledge and skills associated with effective performance of the job? Can the individual make full use of their skills and develop their skill base?

Job Analysis

Job Purpose

Is the purpose of the job clearly and unequivocally Is its contribution to the organisations objectives evident? Is its contribution to its dept obvious? Is the post holder responsible for the successful completion of the whole job? Do the internal systems help the post holder do the job?

Job Analysis

Relationships Are the formal relationships clearly specified and related to the achievement of the objectives? Is there opportunity to develop working relationships within and across the departments boundaries? Are colleagues available with whom the post holder can discuss professional issues

Job Analysis

Job Outcomes: Can the post holder see the result of their efforts? Can the results of the post holders efforts be recognised? Does the post holder have the opportunity to influence their own levels of performance?

Rewards Are the rewards appropriate and obtainable? Are the rewards linked directly with the performance of the post holder?

Steps in Job Analysis



4. 5. 6.

Organizational Analysis Overview of various jobs in the organization and the linkages between them and the contribution of various jobs towards achieving organizational efficiency and effectiveness. Uses of Job Analysis Information Selection of jobs for analysis Collection of Data Preparation of Job description tasks, duties, responsibilities Preparation of Job Specification personal attributes required in terms of education, training, aptitude and experience to fulfill the job description

Methods of collecting information

Job Questionnaire:

Most cost effective method Elicits information from workers & their immediate supervisor You can get intimate detailed knowledge of their jobs Questionnaire needs to be structured in advance Responses can be used to create a job description

Questionnaire method Disadvantages

Right population questions can be interpreted differently Not everyone is able to describe fully & exactly Questionnaire not easy to make to cover all aspects



Time consuming Quality and experienced analyst Distrust of interviewers


It is good for simple and repetitive jobs


Presence of analyst can cause stress Jobholder may purposely reduce the pace of activity to justify overtime Cannot be used where job requires personal judgment and intellectual ability

Independent Observers

Diary One or more incumbents note duties and frequency of tasks performed Critical Incidents Incumbents brainstorm of critical incidents that happen routinely and infrequently this method is excellent for training Photo tape recording Review of records Maintenance records, repair records at seasonal variations

Data collected

List of tasks List of decisions made Amount of supervision received Supervision exercised Diversity of functions performed Interaction with other staff Physical conditions Software used


Job - Consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an organization to achieve its goals Position - Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person; there is a position for every individual in an organization


Job analysis - systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization Job description document providing information regarding tasks, duties, and responsibilities of job Job specification minimum qualifications to perform a particular job

Job Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management Tool

Human Resource Planning Recruitment




Training and Development

Job Descriptions

Performance Appraisal Compensation and Benefits Safety and Health Employee and Labor Relations Legal Considerations Job Analysis for Teams

Job Analysis

Job Specifications




Job Description

Difficult to have a perfect and fully inclusive JD as one moves up in the hierarchy of the organization, a detailed JD becomes very difficult. Most orgs would prefer not to describe the job fully, because employees would stick to it and not do anything beyond Supervisors job may become redundant Rapid technological changes

Job Description

A job description

Clarifies work functions and reporting relationships, helping employees understand their jobs. Aids in maintaining a consistent salary structure. Aids in Performance evaluations. Is a set of well written duty statements containing action words which accurately describe what is being done.

Duty statements

should focus on primary, current, normal, daily duties and responsibilities of the position (not incidental duties, an employees qualifications or performance, or temporary assignments). Related or similar duties should be combined and written as one statement.
Should be a discreet, identifiable aspect of the work assignment, described in one to three sentences, and should be outcome-based, allowing for alternate means of performing the duty, changes in technology, preferences of employees and supervisors, and accommodations of workers with disabilities, without altering the nature of, and/or the duty itself.

Writing a JD

Duties are to be listed in order of importance, not necessarily frequency. There is no need to group tasks/duties under sub headings, however it is acceptable. Commence each statement with a verb eg 'processes', 'maintains', 'records' etc, . Avoid using the term 'responsible for' rather describe the action e.g. 'obtains', 'coordinates' etc.

Writing a JD

Frequencies should be identified in multiples of 5%. Duties that take less than 5% of the officer's time should not be shown as separate but grouped with other duties. Use action verbs which tell what the position does. Examples include "supervises", "programs", "directs" and "analyzes". Provide specific examples to illustrate the duties Avoid ambiguous terms such as "oversees" or "manages", instead, describe the activities involved in overseeing or managing. Quantify activities when possible. Examples may include: How often is the activity performed? How much money does this position manage? What is the volume of work handled?

Writing a JD : Primary Function

What is the Position's objective? What is the Role of Position (including key relationships)? Position summary [Briefly state the purpose or objective of the position]: Essential job functions [State the major responsibilities, indicate New (N) or Existing (E), and the estimated percent of time devoted to each - include descriptive statements of typical or representative tasks associated with the major responsibilities/functions]: State briefly the general function of your position, including the basic nature of the department and the relationship of your position with other positions in your work area

Person Specification

Person Specification is a statement derived from the job analysis process and the job description Of the characteristics that an individual would need to possess in order to fulfill the requirements of a job

Compiling a person specification

Attainment: What educational requirements and specialist knowledge are really required for successful completion of the task Experience: What roles and tasks should have been occupied to ensure that the post holder is adequately equipped? Abilities: What skills need to be deployed for the competent performance of the tasks? Aptitude: Where will the post-holders strengths lie;what particular talents do they need to possess? Interests: What interest relevant to the work will suggest possession of sought after skills /aptitudes?

Reasons For Conducting Job Analysis

Staffing would be haphazard if recruiter did not know qualifications needed for job Training and Development if specification lists a particular knowledge, skill, or ability, and the person filling the position does not possess all the necessary qualifications, training and/or development is needed Compensation and Benefits value of job must be known before dollar value can be placed on it

Reasons For Conducting Job Analysis (Continued)

Safety and Health helps identify safety and health considerations Employee and Labor Relations lead to more objective human resource decisions Legal Considerations having done job analysis important for supporting legality of employment practices

Summary of Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis

Work Activities work activities and processes; activity records (in film form, for example); procedures used; personal responsibility Worker-oriented activities human behaviors, such as physical actions and communicating on the job; elemental motions for methods analysis; personal job demands, such as energy expenditure Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used Job-related tangibles and intangibles knowledge dealt with or applied (as in accounting); materials processed; products made or services performed

Summary of Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis

Work performance error analysis; work standards; work measurements, such as time taken for a task Job context work schedule; financial and nonfinancial incentives; physical working conditions; organizational and social contexts Personal requirements for the job personal attributes such as personality and interests; education and training required; work experience

Conducting Job Analysis

The people who participate in job analysis should include, at a minimum: The employee The employees immediate supervisor Other key stakeholders in the organization


Recruitment and Selection

HR Processes An Employee Life Cycle

Routine HR Functions

Manpower planning Recruitment and Selection Training & Development Appraisals Performance Management Transfers / Promotions Compensation and Benefits

Non Routine HR Functions

Culture Management Change Management Cross Cultural Issue Management HR Audit HR Accounting Outsourcing of HR VRS / Existing Employee Management / Succession Planning

HR Process Mapping

Business Planning

HR Policy

HR Planning

Recruitment Selection

Performance Management

Compensation Management

Talent Management

Training Development

HR Systems Data Mgmt

Employee Relations

Occupational Health and Safety


Recruitment: Overall process of defining jobs profiles and inviting applicants. Selection: Specific process of narrowing the focus and selecting the perfect fit

Manpower Planning

Business Needs Financial Feasibility Future Plans Brand Name

Manpower Planning

Why does the position exist? Temporary Replacement Permanent Replacement Creation of new position

Manpower Planning

Do we need to review the position? Current and Ongoing need Sufficient budget Is the position description current Appropriate current level Is a full time employee required?

Manpower Planning

What about existing staff? Do we have a succession plan for the replacement? Does the vacancy create career development opportunities for existing people?

Recruitment and Selection process

Business Plan Related HR Plan Competencies People

Compensation and Benefits Numbers

Current : Budgeted and Actual Future : Short Term and Long Term

Three Conditions Current = Future

Maintenance B = A Vacancy Filling B > A

Current > Future

Redundancy Planning
Recruitment Plan

Current < Future

Recruitment and Selection process

Recruitment Plan

Position Description/Specifications Person Specifications Internal

Method of Recruitment



Advertisement Where to advertise Writing an advertisement Consultants Retainer Multiple Internet

Receiving Applications and Screening/Filing

Recruitment and Selection process

Screening /Short-listing

Coding Computer aided screening Written Tests Group Discussions Interviews Assessment Centres Reference Checks

Selection Tools

Offer Joining

Process Key Parameters

Process must be

Equitable Objective Open to scrutiny Transparent Merit based Confidential

Common Hiring Mistakes

Relying on an interview to evaluate a candidate Using successful people as model Using too many criteria Evaluatingpersonality not job skills Using yourself as an example Not using statistically validated data


Performance Management

Objective setting

An objective is a simple statement of an end result to be achieved within a specified time frame. It should be short, clear and specific. It can also be in the form of an activity as it may not always be possible to quantify the end results.

Why objective setting?

Gives direction to job. Helps focus on important job areas. Assists review and change in job emphasis. Provides a basis for appraisal, counselling and feedback. Increases mutual job understanding with superior.


Are significantly important areas of job. When performed well, improves overall results. Are maximum payoff job areas. Represent the work which account for 80% of results.


Targets are specific conditions to be achieved/indicates how much of what and by when Activities action steps which lead to the end results / used when targets are not quantifiable / indicate what by when

Process of Goal Setting

What is the job ? What are the end results expected ? What policies / procedures / work methods are impeding performance ? What changes are needed for better results ? How can work assignments be regrouped/altered to improve schedule ? What problems need to be overcome next year ?

Objectives vs targets

Focus on imp. Areas Related to job description Signposts Direction of work Optimum number 6

Measures imp. Results Related to objectives Milestones/Pathways Specific condition One or more for each objective

Criteria for objectives

Observable Basis for appraisal Jointly evolved Extra effort Clear/consistent with dept. objective Time bound Initiative Verifiable End result- emphasis on Satisfying


S - Specific M - Measurable A - Attainable R - Relevant T - Time-bound


Establishing specific goals to support stated purpose. Determining the importance of these goals. Making plans for action. Arriving at performance standards and measurement criteria. Stating anticipated problems.


Weighing the resources required to carry out the planned action. Providing for interaction of organization and individual goals. Following up with actual performance measurement and evaluation.

HRs role in Performance Management

Delivering time-lines Ensuring timely adherence Auditing the objectives jointly with line managers Ensuring objectives are in line with organisational goals Requesting modification if required


It is derived from the Latin word Competere, which means to be suitable. The concept was originally developed in Psychology denoting Individuals ability to respond to demand placed on them by the environment.

Competencies defined

A collection of characteristics (i.e. skills, knowledge and self-concept, traits, behaviour, motivation, etc.), that enables us to successfully complete a given task.



Self-concept (Attitude)

Iceberg Model of Competencies

Competencies in the Corporate World

Communication Critical Thinking Ethics / Social Responsibility Information Technology Interpersonal Diversity Leadership Managing Change Self-managed Learning Teamwork Technical know-how

Emotional Competency Framework

Personal Competence
Self Awareness: Knowledge of ones self-concept and values Self Regulation: Management of ones impulses and emotions Motivation: Self-guidance and direction

Social Competence
Empathy: Awareness of others feelings and emotions Social Skills: Adeptness at inducing desired responses in others

* from Working With Emotional Intelligence, by Daniel Goleman

Competency Classification
Individual Social
Behavioural Leadership Generic competencies Functional / operational knowledge Skill knowledge Threshold competencies

Organisational Cultural


Core competencies Corporate competencies Distinctive competencies

Why use competencies


help individuals and organisations to improve their performance and deliver results can be quantified and communicated can be taught, learned, measured and monitored

Benefits of competency-modeling

Integrates fragmented management and practices Links individual or group performance to strategic direction Helps develop high value activities for the organisation Focusing on what people do, not what they are Leads to organisational flexibility and stability Leads to competitive advantage Is participatory and involving Is objective; therefore, can be geared to possible change in business future and to ensure relevance

Benefits of competency-modeling HR Delivery

Matching of Individuals and Jobs Employee Selection Training and Development Professional and Personal Development Performance Measurement Succession Planning

Who Identifies competencies?

Competencies can be identified by one of more of the following category of people: Experts HR Specialists Job analysts Psychologists Industrial Engineers etc. in consultation with: Line Managers, Current & Past Role holders, Supervising Seniors, Reporting and Reviewing Officers, Internal Customers, Subordinates of the role holders and Other role set members of the role (those who have expectations from the role holder and who interact with him/her).

What Methodology is used?

The following methods are used in combination for competency mapping: Interviews Group work Task Forces Task Analysis workshops Questionnaire Use of Job descriptions Performance Appraisal Formats etc.

How are they Identified?

The process of identification is not very complex. One of the methods is given below: 1. Simply ask each person who is currently performing the role to list the tasks to be performed by him one by one, and identify the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Skills required to perform each of these. Consolidate the list. Present it to a role set group or a special task force constituted for that role. Edit and Finalize.

What Language to Use?

Use Technical language for technical competencies. For example: knowledge of hydraulics. Use business language for business competencies. Example: Knowledge of markets for watch business or Strategic thinking. Use your own language or standard terms for Behavior competencies. Example: Ability to Negotiate, Interpersonal sensitivity, Sales techniques. Too technical and conceptual knowledge align to the organization and people may create more problems than help

HRD Audit

HRD audit is a comprehensive evaluation of the current HRD strategies, structure, systems, styles and skills in the context of the short- and long-terms business plans of a company. It attempts to find out the future HRD needs of the company after assessing the current HRD activities and inputs and thus proving to be an effective tool for the organization development process.

How is Human Resource Analysis Done?

Human Resource Audit Purpose:

To identify the size, skills and structure surrounding current employees and to identify future human resource needs of the organization

Question Answered: Are the human resources a strength or a weakness?

The Audit: Principles

Obtain some basic information on the people and policies involved in the organization Explore in detail the role and contribution of the human resources management function in the development of strategy

The Audit: Contents

People in the Organization Role and Contribution of HR strategy

HR Audit: People in the organization

Employee numbers and turnover

Selection, training and development

Organization structure
Structures for controlling the organization

Staffing levels
Capital investment/employee Role of quality and personal service in delivering the products or services of the organization Role of professional advice in delivering the product or service

Use of special teams, e.g. for Innovation

Level of skills and capabilities required Morale and rewards Employee and industrial relations

Role & Contribution of HR Strategy

Relationship with strategy Key characteristics of HR strategy Consistency of strategy across different levels Responsiveness of HR strategy in leading change in the organization Role of HR strategy in leading change in the organization Monitoring and review of HR strategy Time horizon for operation of HR strategy

What the Audit Achieves

Provides information that is useful in deciding how feasible a strategy is Identifies any human resource gaps (human resources necessary for a proposed strategy minus the current state of human resources) Allows the organization to benchmark their performance against other organizations (benchmark is a process of comparison)

Human Resources as a CSF

Critical Success Factor (CSF) = a reason why one organization is superior to another HR can be a CSF if employees have unique skills

The HR audit is based on the following premise

The Vision and Mission of the Organization: The Audit consultants are able to formulate their strategies based on these objectives. They also analyze the competencies that the organization will need to achieve these targets whether long term or short term.

The consultant breaks down these organization level competencies to individual skills to be developed at various levels. These competencies may deal with various aspects like technical, conceptual or people management skills

Current competencies available in the company

This is generally done through examining the details of the employees like their qualifications, job descriptions, training undertaken, thus basically trying to identify the skill level of the employees at various levels. Organization process documents like performance appraisal feedback and training need identification provide additional information on this. Departmental heads and other employees provide insights into the competency and other skill requirements.

Available HRD systems that help build the competency levels required achieving the long-term goals or the short-term goals.

These provide details for the HRD Systems maturity score in the HR scorecard. The existing HR processes tell the auditors the maturity level of the process that is studied in detail to ensure the availability, utilization and development of skills in the organization.

Effectiveness of the HR systems and process

The presence of the HRD systems is not sufficient to achieve success. These processes also need to be efficient. Example: An organization may have an excellent Exit interview system in place. But if the feedbacks from the Exit interviews are not utilized for improving organization systems then the Exit interview process is of no use and becomes redundant over a period of time. The exit interview should give inputs for training needs or improving people management skills or compensation policies in some cases.

Ability of the existing HR structure in managing the HR process and policies

The consultants identify whether the current HR structure is sufficient to handle the pressure of the future needs of the company. To implement any OD intervention or handle any Change management exercise the HR task force has to be at its best with all the required tools of competencies and skills.

Leadership styles of the Management team The senior manager leadership style is very important for any change process and implementing the HR audit. It is necessary that their management style facilitate in creating a learning organization. The leadership styles define the culture of the organization

The HR audit process

Auditing a human resource department is a systematic process that involves at least two steps:

Gathering information to determine compliance, effectiveness, costs and efficiencies. Evaluating the information and preparing a written report, with an action plan based on exposures, priorities and a timeline for instituting changes. In order to reduce exposure to legal liability, some changes will need to be implemented immediately, while others can be completed in three to six months.

Immediate benefits of an HR audit

Very typically, small to medium-size companies realize almost instant cost savings once an audit is complete and changes are implemented. For example:

Correcting benefit premium errors and overpayments can generate many thousands of dollars in savings. Examining the effectiveness of recruitment

A small or medium-size firm also may benefit from using an HR audit to:

Study retention and turnover, employing a neutral party to solicit honest feedback from employees, and allowing the company to develop an action plan. Examine the company's foundation for its compensation philosophies and develop an objective method of grading jobs, with new ranges that are market-competitive and internally equitable. Improve employee communication and ensure that the HR department is accessible. Identify opportunities to outsource areas within human resources that offer more value to the company

Rewards and Recognition

Recognition Jeopardy

How many managers feel that appreciating others is a major part of their job ?

Very FEW

Recognition Jeopardy

What causes you the most dissatisfaction at work ? Lack of appreciation

A Challenging Situation

Employee faith and loyalty in organizations dropping! 40% of employees feel unappreciated 1 in 3 workers are unhappy and not engaged not feeling appreciated may be the #1 reason people leave a job 61% of employees received no meaningful praise in the past year

Who needs appreciation?

78% of employees feel it is very important to be recognized by their manager I can live for two months on a good compliment! Mark Twain I now perceive one immense omission in my psychology the deepest principle of human nature is the craving to be appreciated. William James

Informal Recognition: Building A Culture

Understand organizational goals/values Determine the goals of the recognition initiative Know your staff better How to do it every day

Look for recognition opportunities Thanks, praise and feedback

Organisations Goals / Values

What values and goals does the organization want to promote? Relative importance? Relative impact?

What specific values and goals will be addressed with recognition efforts?

Potential Initiative Goals

Create a positive work environment Create a culture Motivate high performance Reinforce desired behaviors Increase morale Support organizational values/goals Increase retention Encourage loyalty Others communication, teambuilding, focus 80% 76% 75% 75% 71% 66% 51% 40%

NAER 2003 Recognition Survey

Recognition Follies
If we want
better people skills

Why do we often recognize

technical achievements

innovative thinking

no mistakes

tight control over employee development resources

Remember you get what you recognize!

Potential Benefits

Positive workplace Support of organizations goals Increased retention Higher performance More innovation/better economics

Potential Benefits

Positive workplace Support organizations goals Increased retention Higher performance More innovation/better economics

Increased self-esteem An employee who feels more valued A more committed, engaged analyst Strengthened bond between the analyst and manager A more focused manager

Know Your Analysts

What are their professional and personal goals? What do they value?

Fit the recognition to their values

How do they want to be recognized?

Getting to know what your people want

Challenging, interesting work A collegial work environment Work that supports growth and personal achievement Good communications and supportive relationships Recognition for new promising ideas Support for risk taking Clearly integrated technical/business goals

Good Recognition
As immediate as possible Specific

What did you see How did it impact the situation or the organization

In a form meaningful to the employee Provided in a way meaningful to the employee Recognizes work in progress/efforts as well Recognizes everyone including high performers

Effective Ways to Recognize

Thanks! including feedback Employee involvement Responsibility and authority Employee development The work itself Attention Professional recognition

Highly Valued Forms of Recognition

1. Managers support and involvement 2. Personal praise 3. More responsibility

4. More authority

Employee Involvement

Ask for their opinions and ideas

Implement their ideas whenever possible

Include them in planning and decision making Provide as much information as possible Let them represent the lab Suggest participation on special teams and committees

More freedom to work independently More opportunities to self-manage Higher levels of responsibility Empowerment to make more decisions Ability/responsibility to improve processes

Employee Development
Provide opportunities to fulfill their own goals not just follow
organizational dictates

Freedom to work more independently Formal training opportunities

In or out-of-house Let them use the new skills immediately Let them brief others

Recognize individual talents when assigning work

(ASAP)3 = Effective Praising

As soon As sincere As specific

As personal As positive As proactive

1997 by Bob Nelson

(scientific version of ASAP-Cubed)

Recognition Using Feedback

Feedback is a powerful form of praise Addresses important values of challenging work and excellent performance Shows your concern and interest Positive AND constructive messages cant have one without the other Enhances intrinsic motivation A positive cycle of excellent work leading to higher motivation from the work leading to higher performance.

ALMA Roundtable Insights

Thanks is highly effective if reinforced over time Recognition must be sincere, timely, appropriate Tailor the recognition/reward The more personal the better Show appreciation in various ways Personal notes Pass along or post messages of appreciation Post successes Recognition/rewards are not motivators, but they keep motivated people from becoming de-motivated

Potential Obstacles?

Managerial behavior

Mismatch with environment/culture Expectancy/reinforcement theory Recognizing the wrong behavior or value

Intrinsic motivation the Pareto 20%

Measuring Success
1. Response to surveys

2. Performance development meetings 3. Retention rates 4. Exit interviews

#3 and #4 highly accurate data, too late and likely NO

ALMA Roundtable 2005

Why Do Rewards Fail?

Often punish/undermine relationships Undermine interest in the task itself Reduce risk taking Undermine attempts to solve problems
Alfie Kohn

Out with carrot & stick psychology!

Choice, Collaboration & Content

Choice participative management style

Collaboration opportunity to interact with analysts of similar skills

and work ethic


What work they perform How they perform their work Environment

These suggestions on recognition directly address Kohns concerns, fit with his suggestions and should lead to more-satisfied analysts.

A Closing Thought
the best success we can have in getting managers and supervisors to recognize employees more often is less a function of awareness of the importance of recognition and the skills of providing recognition and more a function of getting managers to personally experience the power of recognition. Bob Nelson

Thank you