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Presented by T. Srivani, Asst. Prof.

, FP

YARN
DEFINITION: The word yarn or thread is used in common parlance to cover all the linear textile structures. Yarns can be either single or folded. A yarn is an assemblage of fibres or filaments having a substantial length and relatively small cross section, with or without twist, being the end product of a spinning and winding process Assemblies of fibres or filaments which are intermediate products in a spinning process are given special names such as Sliver, roving, bave, top or tow, depending upon the process and the particular intermediate stage.

CLASSIFICATION OF YARNS
YARNS
SINGLE YARNS FANCY YARNS SPUN YARNS FILAMENT YARNS ROTOR YARNS RING YARNS WORSTED YARNS SEMI-WORSTED YARNS WOOLLEN YARNS FLAT FILAMENT YARNS ASSEMBLED YARNS

FOLDED YARNS

FANCY YARNS

TEXTURED FILAMENT YARNS


BICOMPONENT TAPE OR SPLIT FILM YARNS

Yarn may be any of the following Number of fibers twisted together Number of filaments without twist

Number of filaments twisted with more/less twist


Single filament One or more strips cut by length of a sheet of material of natural/ synthetic or any polymer

TERMS
SPUN YARNS are made by mechanical assembly and twisting together
(spinning) of Staple fibres such as cotton, flax, wool, spun and noil silk, broken or cut man-made fibres

FILAMENT YARNS are made by the assembly of continuous filaments, made from silk or man-made fibres
A MULTI FILAMENT YARN is a filament yarn made from multiple filaments, assembled with or without twist. A MONO FILAMENT YARN consists of only a single continuous filament from man-made source.

Two or more yarns which are wound side by side on to same package,

but without twisting around each other, are called ASSEMBLED


YARNS. FOLDED OR PLIED YARNS are yarns made by twisting together Two or more single (and/or folded) yarns of the same or different types. Ex: 2 Ply (two singles) CORDS OR CABLED YARNS are yarns made by twisting together Two or more ply or folded yarns of the same or different types. Ex: 2,3 Ply Cord

Twist Direction Twists or turns per inch Twist Factor (K)

Spun & Filament yarns

Properties of Spun, Filament and Combination Yarns: 100%Spun Yarns: Warmth, Softness, Light Weight Ideal for T-Shirts, Sweaters and Blankets 100%Filament Yarns: Smoother, Finer and Lustrous Ideal for linings

Combination of spun and filament Yarns: Durable, Easy care, Comfortable Suitable for more applications

Staple Yarn manufacturing


The concept Making all the fibers to be parallel to each other and twist so as the fibers wrap around each other.

Cotton Process
Ginning Opening and mixing Cleaning Carding Drawing Combing(optional) Roving Spinning

COTTON FROM FIELDS (Plucking)

BALE ROOM
BALE OPENING & MIXING

Opening and Mixing


The bales of ginned cotton are Opened and mixed together The fibers are separated by beating action By free form the fiber is sent for cleaning to blow room

BLOW ROOM

TWO BLADE BEATER

SCUTCHER

Blow room operations:


Blending Opening Cleaning and Lap formation

LAP MAKING

FINISHED LAPS FOR CARDING

Cleaning

The opened bunch of fibers are picked,opened, Further cleaned off the dirt,sand, broken stalks and leaves, seeds etc., The fibers are oriented towards their length Finally a web like finely oriented lap is rolled on a roll

CARDING MACHINE

LAP FOR CARDING

CARDING:
Removal of impurities and foreign particles from the lap and converting in to sliver CARDED SLIVER

Carding

The lap is fed between two rollers of combs of fine needles, directionally operating opposite, comb the lap.
Another doffing comb cleans and orients the fibers apart from removing short fibers,dirt and other impurities. The lap is transformed into a voluminous soft strand called card sliver.

RIBBON LAP

DRAWING:
Parallelisation of fibres by further drawing of slivers combined from several carded/combed slivers

COMBING:
Removal of short staple fibres

Drawing
A set of card slivers are placed and drawn together to produce Same length of Sliver equal to set of the slivers fed. The short staples are removed and the fibers are more paralelalised and the different lots fibers are more evenly mixed towards the twisting axis.

Combing
This process is similar to drawing but having very fine needles as comb the shorter fibers are more effectively removed, more oriented so that it could be spun into a more finer and superior quality yarn. Combing is generally a optional process which is done generally for finer quality of yarns.

SPEED FRAME OR SIMPLEX

RING FRAME

ROVING:
Sliver made thinner and slight twist introduced

SPINNING:
Conversion of parallel staple fibres in to continuous strand of yarn

Roving
The slivers from drawing are drawn further to a finer strand with lesser twist just to hold the the fibers This is called roving

Spinning
The roving is set at spinning frame and fed in a speed according to the fineness required. Roving drawn at higher speed than its fed. There is a flier which carries and draws the roving due its high speed. The twist is inserted due to to the rotation of the flier round the bobbin placed.

Open end spinning


The concept is to take fibers at an earlier stage and spin it either
Mechanically Fluid Electrostatic force The fibers are taken into an area where the fibers are aligned by any of the above forces and oriented towards their spinning axis.

CONE / CHEESE WINDING

WINDING:
Winding of spun yarn done in ring bobbins, cones or cheese.

DOUBLING:
DOUBLING OF YARNS
Two or more single yarns from cones are Twisted and wound to a parallel cheese

Doubling
Doubling is done generally when the yarn is required with high strength . Doubling is also done for yarns that are generally meant for warp as it needs more strength Doubling also can create texture in to the yarn.

SIZING OF YARNS

AFTER TREATMENTS GIVEN TO YARNS


FINISHING OF YARNS:
Sizing Ultra violet yarn inspection and Steaming

WEIGHING OF YARNS

RING SPINNING
Blow room Carding Sliver lap Ribbon lap Comber Draw frame Simplex Ring frame Cone winding

SPINNING

ROTOR OR OPEN END Blow room Carding Draw frame Open end spinning Assembly winder Doubling Packing

PACKING

Bicomponent fiber /yarn

Twist
The purpose of twist is to hold the staple fibers together The twist could be used in different ways to embed different qualities to the yarn A yarn that is twist balanced will not tend to curl The direction of twist is also important for further designing as this can be used well by designers

Yarn twist parameters:


Amount of twist is designated as TPI turns per inch, which
Affects appearance and durability of the yarns.

Spun yarn:

Low twist (2 to 12 tpi)

Soft twist yarns ex: Knitting

flexible fluffier soft smooth firm stronger

High Twist (20 to 30 tpi)

Hard twist yarns ex: weaving

Filament yarns: Usually low twist


(1/2 to 1 tpi)

Pebbly and harsh surface Crepe fil. with crepe twist

Twist Direction
Twist can be inserted in either of two directions. S-Twist: Spirals run upward to the left (clock wise) Z-Twist: Spirals run upward to the right (anti clock wise)

Combination of S and Z twist: to produce crepe fabrics

The majority of the single yarns are twisted in Z direction


S-twist is considered as a reverse twist by the spinner

Direction of twist has no effect on single yarns


Normally the folding twist is in the opposite direction to that of the single yarns. Balanced twist is when the folding twist is approximately equal and opposite to the singles

Twist factor
The angle of twist is the factor that determines how the yarn will behave. Yarns with a low twist level have a lower angle of twist, and will be relatively soft, bulky yarns Yarns with higher twist angles will be strong, lean and hard yarns Over twisted yarns will have very high twist angles; They will be very hard, weaker and snarl easily

Typical twist factors:


Short staple end use Tex twist factor

Doubling weft Ring weft Ring warp Voile Crepe Rotor

2900-3200 3200-3500 3800-4300 4900-5300 5700-7700 3700-4700

Twist factor
Tan = d l l= 1/turns per unit length

d= /yarn tex
Therefore, tan = turns per unit length X /yarn tex

Turns per unit length = K/ /tex


Twist factor = turns per inch / /cotton count

Twist and Handle


A soft twisted yarn will give a fuzzy texture.
A high twisted yarn will increase the surface roughness and increase the grainy texture according to the bulkiness. The direction of twist and when they are combined may give interesting effects.

Twist and Bulkiness


The bulkier the yarn, lesser the twist. Finer the yarn higher the twist. Bulkier yarn needs lesser twist and so it has lesser strength. Finer yarn has more twists and strong. But when the twist is increased after particular point the strength is reduced due to the breakage of the fibers.

Blends / Mixtures
A blend is a combination of two materials at fiber stage. A mix is two materials put together at a later stage as strands. The texture we get is different from each of them. The design value of these are high.

Need
The need for blends or mixes are.
Cost. Different quality that each fiber offers. More effective usage of the materials. The necessity of different and in between qualities and both the qualities.

Design Values
The design values of such blended and mixed yarn can be explored to give an innovative look to the textile More innovative processes can be explored The design can happen from yarn stage.

Fancy Yarns Fancy yarns are explorations of the prior said attributes such as Twist Bulkiness Color Material
Blends and Mixes Material(conventional/non-conventional)

Varieties
Boucle Loop Gimp Nep Chenille Corkscrew Core spun Metallic

Types and characteristics of yarns:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Single yarns Ply or folded yarns Doubled yarns or compound yarns Cabled yarns or cords Textured yarns: Stretch yarns, Bulk yarns Novelty yarns: Slub yarns Flake yarns Spiral yarns Ratine yarns Boucle, Loop or Curl yarns Nub, Knop, Knot or Spot yarns Chinelle yarns

Novelty yarns / Fancy yarns / Complex Yarns


ASTM defines fancy yarn as: A yarn that differs significantly from the normal appearance of single or plied yarn due to the presence of irregularities deliberately produced during its formation. In single yarns the irregularities may be due to the inclusion of knots, loops, curls, slubs and the like.

In plied yarns, the irregularities may be due to a variable delivery of one or more of its components or twisting together dissimilar single yarns.

Slub yarns: Slub yarns have soft untwisted areas at frequent intervals throughout their length.

They are coarse with slight twist, having varying d diameters that show irregularities typical of an incomplete spinning operation Features: simulates linen yarn not durable used in shantung and tweeds

Flake yarns: Variation of slub yarn The flake or slub effect is made by inserting soft, thick tufts of roving between binder yarns at intervals. Spiral yarns or Cork Screw yarns: The general appearance of spiral yarn is that of a coarse yarn wound around a fine yarn giving the effect of a spiral. The thicker yarn is given a slack twist and wound spirally around a finer yarn which is given a hard twist.

Ratine yarns: A variation of spiral yarn : The outer yarn (effect) and the core yarn are twisted in a spiral manner, but at intervals a longer loop is thrown out by the effect yarn which kinks back on itself and is held in place by a third (binder) yarn. Boucle, Loop or Curl yarns: These yarns are comparable to the ratine yarns but in this type, the yarns are more softer with more pronounced novelty effect or loops

Nub, Knop, Knot or Spot yarns: The effect ply is twisted around the core ply many times within a very short space, causing bumps or nubs that may be spaced at intervals along the yarn. Chenille yarns: the name derived from French Caterpillar It is a yarn with a velvet like or pile surface. The effect is achieved by a core of two yarns plied together and firmly holding short tufts of soft-twisted yarns between the twists along the cores length. A leno weave fabric with soft filling yarns held within the twists of the warp is split in to strips between the warps

Physical properties and performance characteristics of different yarn types:

Yarn type
Staple yarns
Carded cotton Combed cotton Woollen Worsted Linen

General yarn properties


Excellent Handle Good covering power Good comfort rating Reasonable strength Reasonable uniformity

Yarn type

General yarn properties


Excellent uniformity Excellent strength Can be very fine Fair handle Poor covering power

Continuous filament yarns


Natural Non-synthetic Synthetic

High bulk yarns


Staple Continulous filament Light weight Good covering power Good loftiness and fullness

Stretch yarns
Continuous filament High stetchability Good handle Covering power

Special end use:


Tyre cord Rubber Core yarn Cabled Split film yarn Purely functional Designed to satisfy a specificset of conditions

Novelty yarns:
Excellent decorative features Fancy yarns Metallic

Variables in yarn production Type of fibre or filament Dimensional and physical characteristics of the fibre/filament Mechanical properties of the fibre / filament General properties Yarn production systems The method od final yarn formation Components of the yarn and percentages Linear density and level of twist Yarn construction Texturisation and method of texturisation