You are on page 1of 97

Web 2.

0, teaching, and learning:


early 2007

ACM SIGUCCS
Savannah, 2007

   
Plan of the talk
1. “Web 2.0” in early
2007
2. Web 2.0 and rich
media
3. Mobility
4. Pedagogies
5. Web 2.0
storytelling
(Middlebury, Vermont, spring 2006)
   
Thematics
• Emergence in
time and space
• Pedagogy
• Dynamic
information
ecology
• Weak
technological
determinism

 
(Radio Open
 
Source blog/podcast, 2006)
One metaphor
Web 2.0 and education is like gaming and
education: awareness of it is challenging
• Huge, financially and quantitatively successful
worlds
• Global and rapidly developing

(BBC Viking
Quest, 2006;

Gwen, 2006)

   
One metaphor
Web 2.0 and education is like gaming and
education: awareness is challenging

•Bad anxieties,
policies, and media
coverage
•Perceived lack of
seriousness

   
(Rome: Total War, 2004)
One metaphor
Web 2.0 and education is like gaming and
education: intersections are possible
•Take advantage of
preexisting projects
•Mod/warp/hack
•DIY
•Literacy: IF and audience

   
(World of Warcraft, 2004-present)
Historical antecedents

But first, a bit of media literacy criticism:


“[T]his discovery of yours will
create forgetfulness in the learners'
souls, because they will not use
their memories; they will trust to the
external written characters and not
remember of themselves. …”
   
Antecedents

And:
“…The specific which you have
discovered is an aid not to
memory, but to reminiscence,
and you give your disciples not
truth, but only the semblance of
truth…”
   
Antecedents

Even worse:
“… they will be hearers of many things
and will have learned nothing; they
will appear to be omniscient and will
generally know nothing; they will be
tiresome company, having the show
of wisdom without the reality.”
-Plato, Phaedrus (370 or so BCE)
Jowett translation
   
I. Web 2.0
The term’s history: Tim O’Reilly, 2005
• Draws on
Web history
• Expands
“social
software”

   
I. Web 2.0
Microcontent, rather than sites or large documents

Gliffy

   
I. Web 2.0
• Multiply authored microcontent, rather
than sites or large documents

   
I. Web 2.0

• Open content
and/or services
and/or standards

(Pepysblog, 2003-)
   
I. Web 2.0
Open
microcontent
+ multiple
authors =
network
constructivism

(Pepysblog, 2003-)
   
I. Web 2.0
Data mashups

(Flickr +
Google
Maps)

   
I. Web 2.0
Perpetual beta (O’Reilly, now history)

   
I. Web 2.0
AJAX-based projects? Also Flash, HTML…

   
I. Web 2.0
• O’Reilly: platforms for development

   
I. Web 2.0
Web 2.0 components, movements
• Collaborative writing platforms: the wiki way

   
I. Web 2.0
Research: wikis are textually productive

   
-Viégas, Wattenberg, Dave (IBM Historyflow, 2004)
I. Web 2.0
News-gathering: wikis are textually productive

   
(OhMyNews! , WikiNews)
I. Web 2.0
Web 2.0 components, movements
• collaborative writing platforms: the blogosphere

   
I. Web 2.0

• Addressable content chunks

   
I. Web 2.0

• Distributed
and/or
attached
conversations

   
I. Web 2.0

State of the blogosphere


• 57 million blogs tracked by Technorati:
“As of October 2006, about 100,000 new
weblogs were created each day… the
doubling of the blogosphere has slowed a
bit (every 236 days or so…”
(David Sifry, November 2006)
Chart follows…
   
I. Web 2.0

   
I. Web 2.0

State of the blogosphere, more


• 12 people million using three platforms,
including LiveJournal: majority women
(Anil Dash, MeshForum 2006)
• Diversity: diaries, public intellectuals,
carnivals, knitters, moblogs, warblogs
home and abroad…

   
I. Web 2.0

Web 2.0 components, movements: social


objects

•Photo sharing:
Flickr

http://flickr.com/
   
I. Web 2.0

Reach of Flickr
• 100 million images, as of Feb 2006
• As of October 2006, 4 million Flickr
members (3/4 not in the US)
• 1 million photos uploaded each day
(
http://www.radioopensource.org/photography
)
   
I. Web 2.0
Reach of Flickr
• 26 million
searchable,
shareable
images in Flickr
(December 2006)

   
(Ben Harris-Roxas, 2006)
I. Web 2.0
Reach of Flickr: Game Neverending, 2002-2003
“The secret is, even though it's called Game
Neverending, it's not really a game at all. It's a social
space designed to facilitate and enable play. The
game-elements are there to provide both the
constraints and the building blocks of interaction -
since the thing you'll notice about the kind of play I'm
talking about above is that it is the kind of thing that
goes on between people.”
-Stuart Butterfield, Mindjack interview, 2003
http://www.mindjack.com/feature/gne.html

   
I. Web 2.0
Reach of Flickr

•Its metadata is “good


enough”
•Did popular CMS/
LMSes keep higher
education from
contributing?

   
(Ben Harris-Roxas, 2006)
I. Web 2.0

Web 2.0 enables the Web office


• Example: Google Spreadsheets

   
http://spreadsheets.google.com/
I. Web 2.0

What can we learn from this? Ton


Zylstra:
“In general you could say that both
Flickr and delicious work in a
triangle: person, picture/bookmark,
and tag(s). Or more abstract a
person, an object of sociality, and
 some descriptor...”
 
I. Web 2.0

“…In every triangle there always


needs to be a person and an
object of sociality. The third point
of the triangle is free to define[,] as
it were.”
-http://www.zylstra.org, 2006
(emphases added)
   
I. Web 2.0

What can we learn from this?


Jyri Engesrom is succinct:
“The fallacy is to think that social
networks are just made up of people.
They're not; social networks consist of
people who are connected by a
shared object.”
-http://www.zengestrom.com/, 2005
   
I. Web 2.0

Social object principles: tagging

Flickr is one
influential and
leading tagging
project

   
I. Web 2.0

“Home
Owain
Hestia
Chickens
Ripton”

   
I. Web 2.0

Folksonomy
User benefit
• Search
• Retrieval
• Self-awareness

http://del.icio.us/
 
for DoctorNemo  
I. Web 2.0

Community surfacing • Concepts


• Ontology • Collaborative research

   
I. Web 2.0

Case study, tagging


museums:
the Steve project

http://www.steve.museum/
   
I. Web 2.0

Tagging museums: the Steve project


• Expert discourse, controlled vocab

   
I. Web 2.0

Tagging museums:
the Steve project
• Users tag differently
• Curators get it

(Metropolitan Museum
of Art, 2004)
   
I. Web 2.0
Tagging libraries:
PennTags
• Coded locally
• Also tags the
open web

  http://tags.library.upenn.edu/
 
I. Web 2.0
Tagging in the world: Amazon.com
gets it

   
I. Web 2.0

Social bookmarks:
del.icio.us
(See also FURL,
Connotea,
CiteULike, Harvard’s
H20, Scholar.com,
RawSugar,
Shadows, etc)

 
http://del.icio.us/DoctorNemo  
I. Web 2.0
Components, movements
• Mixing and mashing:
the RSS feed

   
(Bloglines)
I. Web 2.0

Social object: the person


• FaceBook
• MySpace
• LinkedIn
• ZoomInfo
• CyWorld
“Less than four years after its launch, 15 million people,
  or almost a third of the country's
  population, are
members.” (BusinessWeek, September 2005)
I. Web 2.0

Social news:
• Memeorandum,
Tailrank, Digg,
TechMeme

   
II. Rich media and Web 2.0

Web 2.0
influences rich
media
• Podcasting

   
II. Rich media and Web 2.0

How old is the term?


“With the benefit of hindsight, it all seems
quite obvious. MP3 players, like Apple's
iPod, in many pockets, audio production
software cheap or free, and weblogging
an established part of the internet…”

   
II. Rich media and Web 2.0

How old is the term? “… all the


ingredients are there for a new boom
in amateur radio.
But what to call it? Audioblogging?
Podcasting? GuerillaMedia?”
(Ben Hammersley, The Guardian
February 12, 2004)

   
II. Rich media and Web 2.0

What’s happened since February 2004?

   
II. Rich media and Web 2.0

What’s happened since?

“More than 22 million American adults own


iPods or MP3 players and 29% of them have
downloaded podcasts from the Web so that
they could listen to audio files at a time of
their choosing.”

-Pew Internet and American Life study,


April 2005
   
II. Rich media and Web 2.0
What’s happened
• podfading
since
“podcasting” in • podsafe
2001? • podspamming
Neologisms: • podvertising
• godcasting • porncasting
• nanocasting

   
II. Rich media and Web 2.0
Web 2.0 influences rich media: audio
Freesound archive
•DIY copyright
•Social networking
values

   
http://freesound.iua.upf.edu/
II. Rich media and Web 2.0
Web 2.0 influences rich media: video

   
II. Rich media and Web 2.0

Videoblogging
(vlog?
vog?)

(Rocketboom, Amanda Congdon)


   
(already moved on)
II. Rich media and Web 2.0
Web 2.0 influences rich media: social
gaming and Web 2.0?

   
(Second Life, 2004-present)
III. Mobility
Everything in
cyberculture,
just:
•Ambient
•Accelerated
•Annotated

Found on BBC site, June 2005


   
III. Mobility

Devices proliferate,
obviously
   
III. Mobility

Your own personal walled garden, or


 
pocket global
 
village?
III. Mobility

Pedagogies • Personal intimacy


• Information on with units
demand • Spatial mapping
• Time usage • Mobile, multimedia,
changes social research
• Class/world barrier • Distributed
reduction conversations
• Swarming

   
IV. Pedagogies

Teaching with Web 2.0: it’s not all new


Web 1.0, internet pedagogies
• Hypertext
• Web audience
• Discussion for a
• Collaborative document authoring
• Groupware
   
IV. Pedagogies

Teaching with Web 2.0: it’s not all new


Earlier pedagogies
• Journaling
• Media literacy

   
IV. Pedagogies

Teaching with Web 2.0: CMS involvement


• Moodle modules

   
IV. Pedagogies

Teaching with Web 2.0: Blackboard


Beyond
“Chief Executive Officer Michael Chasen...
explained, "Just as the Web 2.0 is facilitating
a change in the way people interact online,
e-Learning 2.0 represents a transformational
shift for how the Internet can improve
education. Blackboard is excited to work
with our clients to help shape and accelerate
this transformation.“”
   
IV. Pedagogies

Teaching with Web 2.0: Blackboard


Beyond

 
(Kevin Creamer, March
 
10 2006)
IV. Pedagogies

Teaching with Web 2.0: Blackboard


Beyond

   
IV. Pedagogies

Teaching with Web 2.0: principles


• Distributed
conversation
• Collaborative
writing
• Object-oriented
discussion
  http://smarthistory.blogspot.com/
 
IV. Pedagogies

Teaching with Web 2.0: more


principles
• Ease of entry
• Personalization
• Public
intellectuals

   
IV. Pedagogies

Teaching with Web 2.0: “net.gen”:


“Fully half of all teens and 57 percent of
teens who use the Internet could be
considered Content Creators, according to
a survey by the Pew Internet & American
Life Project.”

http://www.pewtrusts.com/pdf/PIP_Teens_1105.pdf
   
IV. Pedagogies

Teaching with Web 2.0: “net.gen”:


• “33 percent of online teens share their
own creative content online, such as
artwork, photos, stories or videos.
• 32 percent say that they have created or
worked on webpages or blogs for others,
including groups they belong to, friends or
school assignments.”
http://www.pewtrusts.com/pdf/PIP_Teens_1105.pdf
   
IV. Pedagogies

Teaching with Web 2.0: “net.gen”:


• “22 percent report keeping their own
personal webpage.
• 19 percent of online teens keep a blog,
and 38 percent of online teens read blogs.
• 19 percent of Internet-using teens say
they remix content they find online into
their own artistic creations.”
http://www.pewtrusts.com/pdf/PIP_Teens_1105.pdf
   
IV. Pedagogies

Teaching with Web 2.0: “net.gen”:


“Teens are often much more enthusiastic
authors and readers of blogs than their
adult counterparts. Teen bloggers, led by
older girls, are a major part of this tech-
savvy cohort.”
(Pew Internet and American Life,
November 2005)
http://www.pewtrusts.com/pdf/PIP_Teens_1105.pdf
   
IV. Pedagogies

Teaching with Web 2.0: blogging


• Distributed
conversation
• Collaborative
writing
• Object-oriented
discussion
   
IV. Pedagogies
University of British Columbia uses:
• “as personal logs/ journals to keep track of
work/learning activities”

•as digital photo


albums
•as potential e-
portfolio tools…”

   
IV. Pedagogies
“…Currently, UBC is using weblogs…:
• as course web pages, encouraging discussion
and collaboration
• as private management and communication tools for
large campus groups, administrative teams, and
communities of practice
• to easily update online newsletters
• to keep a collection of useful, searchable links”

(http://weblogs.elearning.ubc.ca/home/about.php)
   
IV. Pedagogies

Wiki pedagogies
• Collective research
• Group writing
• Document editing
• Information literacy
• Discussion
• Knowledge accretion
   
IV. Pedagogies
Web video pedagogies
• Archiving
• Digital storytelling
• Web video
information literacy

   
Falling Sand, Zombie version
IV. Pedagogies

Social object pedagogies


• Prompts
• Discussion object
• Composition materials

   
IV. Pedagogies

Social object pedagogies


• Annotate details
• Remix (“Make it mine”)

Edugadget
   
http://www.edugadget.com/2005/05/07/flickr-creative-commons
IV. Pedagogies

RSS pedagogies
• Shaping Web reading
• Pushing student-created content (mother
blog, Feed to Javascript)
• Web 2.0 wrangling

   
IV. Pedagogies

Podcasts and teaching: • Learning objects:


profcasting Gardner Campbell,
• Bryn Mawr College: University of
Michelle Francl, Richmond
chemistry • Duke: Course
• Duke: Classroom content
recording dissemination
• Information literacy

   
IV. Pedagogies

Podcasts and • Trudi Abel, “Digital


research Durham and the
New South” (Duke
• Public intellectual University, 2006)
– Out of the Past
• Duke: Field
– Engines of Our
Ingenuity
recording
– Napoleon 101
– In Our Time

   
IV. Pedagogies
Blog problem: privacy
• Contrary to class safe space (Gary Kornblith)
• Culture of too much disclosure
• Problem increasing archivally

Some responses
• Can block comments and/or readers
• Teachable moment: what is privacy in 2007?
• Complement other practices

   
IV. Web 2.0 storytelling
Web 2.0 storytelling
• Nonfiction (Pulse)
• Fiction (“I Found a
Camera…”)

   
IV. Web 2.0 storytelling
Web 2.0 storytelling:
ARGs
• Distributed
• Cross-platform
• Collaborative
• Examples: A. I.,
ILoveBees, Perplex
City, NIN
   
V. Web 2.0 storytelling
Lonelygirl15
• One YouTube
• Another YouTube
• Myspace
• Blogs
• Discussion frenzy
• Media attention
(2006-)
   
V. Web 2.0 storytelling
The return of
serial media:
Flickr and
storytelling
• Tell a story in 5
frames group

  “Gender
  Miscommunication”
(Nightingai1e, 2006)
V. Web 2.0 storytelling

   
V. Web 2.0 storytelling

   
V. Web 2.0 storytelling

   
V. Web 2.0 storytelling

   
“Gender Miscommunication” (Nightingai1e, 2006)
V. Web 2.0 storytelling
Flickr and
storytelling:
collaboration,
workshopping,
community
• In the Tell a
story in 5
frames group,
'Alone With
The Sand'

   
(moliere1331, 2005)
A question of divided
architectures

   
(Valdis Krebs, 2004)
NITLE blog http://b2e.nitle.org

NITLE Lab
http://nitle.org/index.php/nitle/laboratory

National Institute for Technology and


Liberal Education http://nitle.org