Web 2.

0, teaching, and learning: early 2007
ACM SIGUCCS Savannah, 2007

 

 

Plan of the talk
1. “Web 2.0” in early 2007 2. Web 2.0 and rich media 3. Mobility 4. Pedagogies 5. Web 2.0 storytelling
 

(Middlebury, Vermont, spring 2006)
 

Thematics
• Emergence in time and space • Pedagogy • Dynamic information ecology • Weak technological determinism
 

(Radio Open Source blog/podcast, 2006)  

One metaphor
Web 2.0 and education is like gaming and education: awareness of it is challenging • Huge, financially and quantitatively successful worlds • Global and rapidly developing
(BBC Viking Quest, 2006; Gwen, 2006)

 

 

One metaphor
Web 2.0 and education is like gaming and education: awareness is challenging •Bad anxieties, policies, and media coverage •Perceived lack of seriousness
   

(Rome: Total War, 2004)

One metaphor
Web 2.0 and education is like gaming and education: intersections are possible
•Take advantage of preexisting projects •Mod/warp/hack •DIY •Literacy: IF and audience

(World of Warcraft, 2004-present)

 

 

Historical antecedents
But first, a bit of media literacy criticism:

“[T]his discovery of yours will create forgetfulness in the learners' souls, because they will not use their memories; they will trust to the external written characters and not remember of themselves. …”
   

Antecedents
And:

 

“…The specific which you have discovered is an aid not to memory, but to reminiscence, and you give your disciples not truth, but only the semblance of truth…”
 

Antecedents
Even worse:

“… they will be hearers of many things and will have learned nothing; they will appear to be omniscient and will generally know nothing; they will be tiresome company, having the show of wisdom without the reality.” -Plato, Phaedrus (370 or so BCE) Jowett translation
   

I. Web 2.0
The term’s history: Tim O’Reilly, 2005 • Draws on Web history • Expands “social software”

 

 

I. Web 2.0
Microcontent, rather than sites or large documents

Gliffy

 

 

I. Web 2.0
• Multiply authored microcontent, rather than sites or large documents

 

 

I. Web 2.0
• Open content and/or services and/or standards

 

(Pepysblog, 2003-)

 

I. Web 2.0
Open microcontent + multiple authors = network constructivism

 

(Pepysblog, 2003-)

 

I. Web 2.0
Data mashups

(Flickr + Google Maps)

 

 

I. Web 2.0
Perpetual beta (O’Reilly, now history)

 

 

I. Web 2.0
AJAX-based projects? Also Flash, HTML…

 

 

I. Web 2.0
• O’Reilly: platforms for development

 

 

I. Web 2.0
Web 2.0 components, movements • Collaborative writing platforms: the wiki way

 

 

I. Web 2.0
Research: wikis are textually productive

 

-Viégas, Wattenberg, Dave (IBM Historyflow, 2004)

 

I. Web 2.0
News-gathering: wikis are textually productive

 

(OhMyNews! , WikiNews)

 

I. Web 2.0
Web 2.0 components, movements • collaborative writing platforms: the blogosphere

 

 

I. Web 2.0
• Addressable content chunks

 

 

I. Web 2.0
• Distributed and/or attached conversations

 

 

I. Web 2.0
State of the blogosphere • 57 million blogs tracked by Technorati:
“As of October 2006, about 100,000 new weblogs were created each day… the doubling of the blogosphere has slowed a bit (every 236 days or so…”
(David Sifry, November 2006)

Chart follows…
   

I. Web 2.0

 

 

I. Web 2.0
State of the blogosphere, more • 12 people million using three platforms, including LiveJournal: majority women (Anil Dash, MeshForum 2006) • Diversity: diaries, public intellectuals, carnivals, knitters, moblogs, warblogs home and abroad…
   

I. Web 2.0
Web 2.0 components, movements: social objects •Photo sharing: Flickr

http://flickr.com/
   

I. Web 2.0
Reach of Flickr • 100 million images, as of Feb 2006 • As of October 2006, 4 million Flickr members (3/4 not in the US) • 1 million photos uploaded each day

 

( http://www.radioopensource.org/photography )
 

I. Web 2.0
Reach of Flickr • 26 million searchable, shareable images in Flickr (December 2006)

 

 

(Ben Harris-Roxas, 2006)

I. Web 2.0
Reach of Flickr: Game Neverending, 2002-2003
“The secret is, even though it's called Game Neverending, it's not really a game at all. It's a social space designed to facilitate and enable play. The game-elements are there to provide both the constraints and the building blocks of interaction since the thing you'll notice about the kind of play I'm talking about above is that it is the kind of thing that goes on between people.” -Stuart Butterfield, Mindjack interview, 2003 http://www.mindjack.com/feature/gne.html
   

I. Web 2.0
Reach of Flickr
•Its metadata is “good enough” •Did popular CMS/ LMSes keep higher education from contributing?
   

(Ben Harris-Roxas, 2006)

I. Web 2.0
Web 2.0 enables the Web office • Example: Google Spreadsheets

 

http://spreadsheets.google.com/

 

I. Web 2.0
What can we learn from this? Ton Zylstra: “In general you could say that both Flickr and delicious work in a triangle: person, picture/bookmark, and tag(s). Or more abstract a person, an object of sociality, and some descriptor...”
   

I. Web 2.0
“…In every triangle there always needs to be a person and an object of sociality. The third point of the triangle is free to define[,] as it were.” -http://www.zylstra.org, 2006 (emphases added)
   

I. Web 2.0
What can we learn from this? Jyri Engesrom is succinct: “The fallacy is to think that social networks are just made up of people. They're not; social networks consist of people who are connected by a shared object.” -http://www.zengestrom.com/, 2005
   

I. Web 2.0
Social object principles: tagging
Flickr is one influential and leading tagging project

 

 

I. Web 2.0

“Home Owain Hestia Chickens Ripton”

 

 

I. Web 2.0
Folksonomy User benefit • Search • Retrieval • Self-awareness
http://del.icio.us/ for DoctorNemo  

 

I. Web 2.0
Community surfacing • Ontology • Concepts • Collaborative research

 

 

I. Web 2.0
Case study, tagging museums: the Steve project

 

http://www.steve.museum/

 

I. Web 2.0
Tagging museums: the Steve project • Expert discourse, controlled vocab

 

 

I. Web 2.0
Tagging museums: the Steve project • Users tag differently • Curators get it

(Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2004)
   

I. Web 2.0
Tagging libraries: PennTags • Coded locally • Also tags the open web

 

http://tags.library.upenn.edu/  

I. Web 2.0
Tagging in the world: Amazon.com gets it

 

 

I. Web 2.0
Social bookmarks: del.icio.us (See also FURL, Connotea, CiteULike, Harvard’s H20, Scholar.com, RawSugar, Shadows, etc)
  http://del.icio.us/DoctorNemo  

I. Web 2.0
Components, movements • Mixing and mashing: the RSS feed

 

(Bloglines)

 

I. Web 2.0
Social object: the person • FaceBook • MySpace • LinkedIn • ZoomInfo • CyWorld
 

“Less than four years after its launch, 15 million people, or almost a third of the country's population, are   members.” (BusinessWeek, September 2005)

I. Web 2.0
Social news: • Memeorandum, Tailrank, Digg, TechMeme

 

 

II. Rich media and Web 2.0
Web 2.0 influences rich media • Podcasting

 

 

II. Rich media and Web 2.0
How old is the term?
“With the benefit of hindsight, it all seems quite obvious. MP3 players, like Apple's iPod, in many pockets, audio production software cheap or free, and weblogging an established part of the internet…”

 

 

II. Rich media and Web 2.0
How old is the term? “… all the ingredients are there for a new boom in amateur radio. But what to call it? Audioblogging? Podcasting? GuerillaMedia?” (Ben Hammersley, The Guardian February 12, 2004)
   

II. Rich media and Web 2.0
What’s happened since February 2004?

 

 

II. Rich media and Web 2.0
What’s happened since? “More than 22 million American adults own iPods or MP3 players and 29% of them have downloaded podcasts from the Web so that they could listen to audio files at a time of their choosing.” -Pew Internet and American Life study, April 2005
   

II. Rich media and Web 2.0
What’s happened since “podcasting” in 2001? Neologisms: • godcasting • nanocasting
   

• • • • •

podfading podsafe podspamming podvertising porncasting

II. Rich media and Web 2.0
Web 2.0 influences rich media: audio
Freesound archive •DIY copyright •Social networking values

 

http://freesound.iua.upf.edu/

 

II. Rich media and Web 2.0
Web 2.0 influences rich media: video

 

 

II. Rich media and Web 2.0
Videoblogging (vlog? vog?)

(Rocketboom, Amanda Congdon)     (already moved on)

II. Rich media and Web 2.0
Web 2.0 influences rich media: social gaming and Web 2.0?

 

(Second Life, 2004-present)

 

III. Mobility
Everything in cyberculture, just: •Ambient •Accelerated •Annotated

 

Found on BBC site, June 2005
 

III. Mobility

Devices proliferate, obviously  

 

III. Mobility

 

Your own personal walled garden, or   pocket global village?

III. Mobility
Pedagogies • Information on demand • Time usage changes • Class/world barrier reduction • Swarming
   

• Personal intimacy with units • Spatial mapping • Mobile, multimedia, social research • Distributed conversations

IV. Pedagogies
Teaching with Web 2.0: it’s not all new Web 1.0, internet pedagogies • Hypertext • Web audience • Discussion for a • Collaborative document authoring • Groupware
   

IV. Pedagogies
Teaching with Web 2.0: it’s not all new Earlier pedagogies • Journaling • Media literacy

 

 

IV. Pedagogies
Teaching with Web 2.0: CMS involvement • Moodle modules

 

 

IV. Pedagogies
Teaching with Web 2.0: Blackboard Beyond
“Chief Executive Officer Michael Chasen... explained, "Just as the Web 2.0 is facilitating a change in the way people interact online, e-Learning 2.0 represents a transformational shift for how the Internet can improve education. Blackboard is excited to work with our clients to help shape and accelerate this transformation.“”
 

 

IV. Pedagogies
Teaching with Web 2.0: Blackboard Beyond

 

(Kevin Creamer, March 10 2006)  

IV. Pedagogies
Teaching with Web 2.0: Blackboard Beyond

 

 

IV. Pedagogies
Teaching with Web 2.0: principles • Distributed conversation • Collaborative writing • Object-oriented discussion
 

http://smarthistory.blogspot.com/  

IV. Pedagogies
Teaching with Web 2.0: more principles • Ease of entry • Personalization • Public intellectuals

 

 

IV. Pedagogies
Teaching with Web 2.0: “net.gen”: “Fully half of all teens and 57 percent of teens who use the Internet could be considered Content Creators, according to a survey by the Pew Internet & American Life Project.”

 

http://www.pewtrusts.com/pdf/PIP_Teens_1105.pdf
 

IV. Pedagogies
Teaching with Web 2.0: “net.gen”: • “33 percent of online teens share their own creative content online, such as artwork, photos, stories or videos. • 32 percent say that they have created or worked on webpages or blogs for others, including groups they belong to, friends or school assignments.”
 

http://www.pewtrusts.com/pdf/PIP_Teens_1105.pdf
 

IV. Pedagogies
Teaching with Web 2.0: “net.gen”: • “22 percent report keeping their own personal webpage. • 19 percent of online teens keep a blog, and 38 percent of online teens read blogs. • 19 percent of Internet-using teens say they remix content they find online into their own artistic creations.”
 

http://www.pewtrusts.com/pdf/PIP_Teens_1105.pdf
 

IV. Pedagogies
Teaching with Web 2.0: “net.gen”: “Teens are often much more enthusiastic authors and readers of blogs than their adult counterparts. Teen bloggers, led by older girls, are a major part of this techsavvy cohort.” (Pew Internet and American Life, November 2005)
 

http://www.pewtrusts.com/pdf/PIP_Teens_1105.pdf
 

IV. Pedagogies
Teaching with Web 2.0: blogging • Distributed conversation • Collaborative writing • Object-oriented discussion
   

IV. Pedagogies
University of British Columbia uses: • “as personal logs/ journals to keep track of work/learning activities” •as digital photo albums •as potential eportfolio tools…”

 

 

IV. Pedagogies
“…Currently, UBC is using weblogs…:

• as course web pages, encouraging discussion and collaboration
• as private management and communication tools for large campus groups, administrative teams, and communities of practice • to easily update online newsletters • to keep a collection of useful, searchable links”

(http://weblogs.elearning.ubc.ca/home/about.php)
   

IV. Pedagogies
Wiki pedagogies • Collective research • Group writing • Document editing • Information literacy • Discussion • Knowledge accretion
   

IV. Pedagogies
Web video pedagogies • Archiving • Digital storytelling • Web video information literacy

 

 

Falling Sand, Zombie version

IV. Pedagogies
Social object pedagogies • Prompts • Discussion object • Composition materials

 

 

IV. Pedagogies
Social object pedagogies • Annotate details • Remix (“Make it mine”)

Edugadget     http://www.edugadget.com/2005/05/07/flickr-creative-commons

IV. Pedagogies
RSS pedagogies • Shaping Web reading • Pushing student-created content (mother blog, Feed to Javascript) • Web 2.0 wrangling

 

 

IV. Pedagogies
Podcasts and teaching: profcasting • Bryn Mawr College: Michelle Francl, chemistry • Duke: Classroom recording • Learning objects: Gardner Campbell, University of Richmond • Duke: Course content dissemination • Information literacy
 

 

IV. Pedagogies
Podcasts and research • Public intellectual
– Out of the Past – Engines of Our Ingenuity – Napoleon 101 – In Our Time
   

• Trudi Abel, “Digital Durham and the New South” (Duke University, 2006) • Duke: Field recording

IV. Pedagogies
Blog problem: privacy • Contrary to class safe space (Gary Kornblith) • Culture of too much disclosure • Problem increasing archivally Some responses • Can block comments and/or readers • Teachable moment: what is privacy in 2007? • Complement other practices

 

 

IV. Web 2.0 storytelling
Web 2.0 storytelling • Nonfiction (Pulse) • Fiction (“I Found a Camera…”)

 

 

IV. Web 2.0 storytelling
Web 2.0 storytelling: ARGs • Distributed • Cross-platform • Collaborative • Examples: A. I., ILoveBees, Perplex City, NIN
   

V. Web 2.0 storytelling
Lonelygirl15 • One YouTube • Another YouTube • Myspace • Blogs • Discussion frenzy • Media attention
   

(2006-)

V. Web 2.0 storytelling
The return of serial media: Flickr and storytelling • Tell a story in 5 frames group

 

“Gender Miscommunication”   (Nightingai1e, 2006)

V. Web 2.0 storytelling

 

 

V. Web 2.0 storytelling

 

 

V. Web 2.0 storytelling

 

 

V. Web 2.0 storytelling

 

“Gender Miscommunication” (Nightingai1e, 2006)

 

V. Web 2.0 storytelling
Flickr and storytelling: collaboration, workshopping, community • In the Tell a story in 5 frames group, 'Alone With The Sand'

 

 

(moliere1331, 2005)

A question of divided architectures

 

(Valdis Krebs, 2004)

 

NITLE blog http://b2e.nitle.org NITLE Lab http://nitle.org/index.php/nitle/laboratory National Institute for Technology and Liberal Education http://nitle.org
   

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