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MEIOSIS

SUBMITTED TO
DR.RAKESH YADEV
SUBMITTED BY
RAVI CHOLIA
ROLL. NO. 0709216
MSc.(P)BIOTECH.
GJUS&T, (hisar)
Meiosis
The production of offspring by sexual
reproduction includes the union of two
cells, each with a haploid set of
chromosomes. The doubling of the
chromosomes no. at fertilization is
compensated by an equivalent
reduction in the chromosome no, at the
stage prior to formation of gametes.
This is compensated by meiosis
Cont.
 Meiosis ensures production of a haploid
phase in the life cycle, and Fertilization
ensures a diploid phase

 Without meiosis, the chromosome no.


would double with each generation, and
sexual reproduction would not be possible.
Definition
 Gk. Meioum = to reduce; osis = state

 It is special type of division in which the


chromosomes duplicate only once, but cell
divide twice. So one parental cell
produces 4 daughter cells; each having
half the chromosome no. & DNA amount
than normal parental cell. So meiosis is
also called reductional division .
Why do we need meiosis?
 Meiosis is necessary to halve the number
of chromosomes going into the sex cells

 Why halve the chromosomes in gametes?

At fertilisation the male and female sex cells


will provide ½ of the chromosomes each –
so the offspring has genes from both
parents
Occurrence
 It is found in sp. Cell type & at sp. Period.
 In diploid germ cell of sex organs (e.g. I0
spermatocytes of testes & I0 oocyte of ovaries) in
animals & in pollen mother cells
(microsporocytes) of anther & ovules of ovary of
flowers in plant to form the haploid of ovary of
flowers in plants to form the haploid spores.
 The cells undergoing meiosis are called
meiocytes.
Mechanism
 Meiosis comprises two division :

3. Meiosis – I
4. Meiosis – II

Which occur one after other with short or no


interphase
Meiosis – I
 It is called reductional division or
hetrotypical division because it
involves the formation of two daughter
cells which have chromosomes no. half
to those in the parental cell
 It is divided into two parts :

3. Karyokinesis – I
4. Cytokinesis –II
Karyokinesis – I
 It is divided into four phases :

Karyokinesis-I

Prophase-I

Metaphase-I

Anaphase-I

Telophase-I
Prophase-I

Leptotene

Diakinesis zygotene

Prophase-I

Diplotene Pachytene
Leptotene
 Nuclease increase in  Gk. Leptos – thin ;
size& volume tene- thread
 Condensation of
nuclear chromatin
 Each chromosome
has a linear series of
darkly stained beads
called chromomers. Leptotene
 Bouquet stage
Zygotene
 Synapsis - Pairing of  Gk. Zygo = yoke = a pair;
homologous nema = thread
chromosomes to form
biavalents

 Synapsis can be
procentric –(starting from
centromeres towards end
of chromosome) OR
proterminal –(end to
centre of chromosome)
and intermediate –
Zygotene
(random pairing)
Cont.
 Synapsis is accompanied by
the formation of a complex
structure called the
synaptominal complex

 SC is a lader like structure with


transeverse protein filaments
connecting the two lateral
elements.

 Lateral element are composed


primarily of cohesin which
presumably binds together the
chromatin of the sister
chromatids.
Cont.
 Recombination
nodules contains the
enzymatic machinery
req. to complete
genetic recombination

 SC functions primarily
as a scaffold to allow
interacting chromatids
to complete their
crossover activities.
Pachytene
 Chromaosomes are  Gk. Pachus – thick;
visible formed of two nema = thread
sister- chromatids
joined at centromere
& is called dyad. (Gk-
dyas = two)

 Each bivalent has two


dayad & ia called a
tetrad. Pachytene
Crossing over

Sometimes exchange of
genes or croos over
between two nonsister
chromatids of homologous
chromosomes occurs at
Prophas X-shaped points called
chiasmata.
e I:
Tetrad
formation/ Most accepted
crossing mechanism of croosing
over over is breaking &
reunion hypothesis
proposed by Darlington
(1937A.D).
Diplotene
 Dissolution of SC,  Gk. Diplas = double;
chromosomes remain
attached to one
another at chiasmata

 Nuclear membrane &


nucleoli start
disappearing.

Diplotene
Diakinesis
 Complete disappearance  Gk. Dia = across; kinesis
of nuclear membrane & = movment
nucleoli
 Formation of spindale
 Biavalent are irregularly &
freely scattered in the
nucleo-cytoplasmic matrix

Diakinesis ends & tetrads


move to the metaphase Diakinesis
plate.