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It touches the life of people!!!!

We have not only inherited this planet from our ancestors but we have also borrowed it from our children

Exploitation.
soil

water

nature

air

It started life!! It can even end too!!

ZOOM

INTRODUCTION water :It means a lot to us

Civilization has historically flourished around rivers and major waterways; Mesopotamia, the so-called cradle of civilization, was situated between the major riversTigris and Euphrates; the ancient society of the Egyptians depended entirely upon the Nile

Large metropolises like Rotterdam, London, Montreal, Paris, New York City, Buenos Aires, Shanghai, Tokyo, Chicago, and Hong Kong owe their success in part to their easy accessibility via water and the resultant expansion of trade. Islands with safe water ports, like Singapore, have flourished for the same reason. In places such as North Africa and the Middle East, where water is more scarce, access to clean drinking water was and is a major factor in human development.

The most important use of water in agriculture is for irrigation, which is a key component to produce enough food. Irrigation takes up to 90% of water withdrawn in some developing countries[40] and significant proportions in more economically developed countries (United States, 30% of freshwater usage is for irrigation)

To produce food for the 6.5 billion or so people who inhabit the planet today requires the water that would fill a canal ten metres deep, 100 metres wide and 7.1 million kilometres long that's enough to circle the globe 180 times.

Humans require water with few impurities. Common impurities include metal salts and oxides, including copper, iron, calcium and lead,] and/or harmful bacteria, such as Vibrio. Some solutes are acceptable and even desirable for taste enhancement and to provide needed electrolytes.

The single largest (by volume) freshwater resource suitable for drinking is Lake Baikal in Siberia

Industries, recreation, tourism and much more

MELTING OF GLACIER

What faster melting of glacier can cause??


Floods in river Death and destruction to human settlements near river Ice age Due to addition of fresh water coming from glaciers i.e., saline density changes hence wind pattern and seasons changes. The Day After Tomorrow movie was based on this concept World-wide Tsunami Rise in the water level of ocean can cause world wide tsunami as shown in movie 2012.

POLLUTION OF RIVER our future is at stake

River pollution is form of water pollution that refers to the contamination of rivers. River pollution occurs when waste and different other pollutants are discharged into river without being properly treated.

What river water pollution can lead to??


River pollution has negative effect on aquatic ecosystems. The negative impact on plants and animals often leads to decline in species, and sometimes even to extinction of entire species (Yangtze River dolphin). River pollution also leads to decrease in freshwater resources because rivers are among most important sources of freshwater in the world. This means that the excessive river pollution could easily lead to global water shortage.

Excessive river pollution could also lead to many waterborne diseases.

Facts
China and India are countries notorious for excessive water pollution. This however doesn't mean that other countries arent affected with river pollution issue. Yangtze and Ganges are world's most polluted big rivers. It has been estimated that up to 80 % of India's urban waste ends up in its rivers.

The holy river Ganges has become an international symbol for excessive river pollution. The recent measuring of pollution in Ganges showed that in some places the level of pollution is 3,000 percent higher than what is considered safe for bathing.

In future
In order to tackle river pollution issue people need to show more care for our environment in general. There also needs to be better and far more frequent monitoring of rivers as well as strict punishments for polluters

The worst affected countries should create funds and start cleaning their rivers because having polluted river doesn't only mean huge environmental but also huge economic damage. We must not forget that rivers provide us with many important services. Improving water quality of our rivers is certainly very important task that needs to be addressed properly on all levels - local, regional, national as well as international. Healthy rivers mean healthy environment, and healthy environment means healthy life

OCEAN POLLUTION

Trash dumping
Land touches the sea at the coast. Coastal areas are tourist beach, harbor or private property owned by ship building companies. Dumping of trash is the major cause of ocean/sea pollution.

Sludge dumping
After collecting in sewer drains, raw sewage goes through a treatment plant, where it is cleaned, and the solid waste is removed.[ Once the liquid is treated, it goes to nearby waterways. The remaining solid waste is called sludge. This toxin and bacteria-filled sludge is often dumped into the ocean. The people who dump it in think it will sink to the ocean floor. However, this sludge does not always stay on the ocean floor

By 1990, the United States alone had already given out 38 trillion liters of sludge into the waters along its coasts

Oil spills
Because so many people use oil, large ships must take billions of barrels of it across the oceans. If it is not handled carefully, these trips can be very bad causing oil spills.

In 1989, the United States experienced a large oil spill in Prince William Sound, a waterway on the Alaskan coast. The Exxon Valdez, a very big ship, hit a reef and spilled more than 260,000 barrels of oil. The results were very bad. A great number of animals were covered in oil and began dying immediately. Animals that ate these oil-filled animals also died. Many Alaskans who lived by fishing these animals lost their businesses. Even though many animals were saved, and the Exxon Oil Company spent 2.5 billion dollars trying to clean up the oil, Alaska's wildlife still suffers

RIVER DISPUTES
Its not just a national problem, its also international

Brahmaputra river dispute


The Brahmaputra River flows 2,900 km from its source in the Kailas range of the Himalayas to its massive delta and the Bay of Bengal in Bangladesh. It flows through China, India, and Bangladesh, but its watershed includes Nepal, Bhutan, and Burma as well. The river drops steeply from the heights of the Tibetan Plateau through the worlds deepest valley (5,075m) into northeast India where the river eventually merges with the Ganges and Meghna rivers to form the largest river delta in the world (60,000km2).The Brahmaputra basin covers 651,334 km2 (WRI), 58% of which lies in India and 20% in China.

In 2000, India accused China of not sharing hydrological data on the flow of the Brahmaputra River through the Chinese territory resulting in widespread devastation and floods. At least 40 people died. A Memorandum of Understanding was signed in 2002 to coordinate data sharing pertaining to water level, discharge and rainfall. The data provided by China has helped in floodforecasting and given the Indian Water Ministry a better understanding of the river system. Any plan to divert the Brahmaputra will have to be made known to the Indian Water Ministry beforehand in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding

The Indian concerns over plans to divert the Brahmaputra were not unwarranted. The two components of the diversion scheme would include the construction of the worlds largest hydroelectric plant on the Great Bend of the river on the Tibetan plateau; the second is the diversion of the waters northwards across hundreds of kilometers to Chinas northwestern provinces

If successful, this project would divert 200 billion cubic meters of water annually to the Yellow River. Although highly beneficial for Chinese interests, the effects on India and Bangladesh will be devastating. Environmental experts report that roughly 60% of the total water flow will fall drastically if China is successful in constructing this dam on the Brahmaputra

China says it has no designs on the Brahmaputra. In a story reported by the Times of India this past fall Chinas Minister for Water Resources, Wang Shucheng, stated in the China Daily that the proposal to divert waters of the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra had no government backing and there is no need for such dramatic and unscientific projects. Chinas own freshwater resources have become more strained as the population grows and pollution ruins available freshwater. China has water issuesand the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra River is a tempting source and solution for their issues. In April 2010, China said the dam being built by it on river Brahmaputra will have no impact on the downstream flow of the river into India.

Potential solutions..
Rather than covertly acting to divert water resources from one country to another, the protection of the shared resource of water supply might be a focal point of cooperation rather than conflict. China and India could work together to protect surrounding communities from increased flood hazard due to climate change by strengthening flood management policies and adaptation measures.

KAVERI RIVER DISPUTE


Origin and political involvement: The debate over sharing Cauvery water predates to the late British era (1890s), wherein the Mysore princely state and the Chennai presidency (which was under the British Raj) had to come into terms with agreeing on a divide. The contention really arose when, in 1910, both states started devising plans for construction of dams. The British arbitrated the issue and defined the respective shares of water, and as to what area of farming lands are to be supported by these. A highly controversial agreement was arrived at, in 1924, and was designed to continue for the following 50 years. In essence, it is not that the issue has been 'created' for political gains, although arguably, it can serve to provide political mileage in both the states, as a measure to 'win the favor' of the farmers in the states. In the case of this issue, typically each of the states act as one united entity to try and ease the situation for farmers in their own respective states.

Core issue: From Karnataka's perspective, the ruling of the British was unfavorable to them. From Tamilnadu's perspective, their farmers had established extensive farms heavily relying on the pattern of supply of this water source. Despite repeated efforts from the Supreme Court to arbitrate the situation, the most complex situations have been around years with 'monsoon failures', when the pattern of sharing has at times, been undefined and often highly sensitive and contentious.

Resolution? In the absence of copious monsoons, it looks impossible that both states can be given 'sufficient' shares to keep farmers happy. How about 'fair' shares? This looks difficult too, given the 'history of the problem', the definition of 'fairness' itself depending on each state's perspectives on the matter. There is a lot of history and heartburns on both the sides.

The long-term solution definitely needs to involve significant alternate sources of water for farmers in both the states, a lot of rain-water harvesting in all villages, in addition to agreeing on a divide proportional to the farmer needs in both the states, leaving history behind. The last part is in the hands of the political powers.

Conservation Of Water
& HUMAN GREED

Why conserve water???


Our water supply is finite, which means that we do not have an endless supply. We
only have the water that we have now. Ninety - seven percent of all the water on the earth is salt water which is not suitable for drinking. Only three percent of all the water is fresh water, and only one percent is available for drinking water. The other two percent is locked in ice caps and glaciers. Since water supply is finite there is a big need to conserve water.

How the world uses freshwater: about 70 percent for irrigation about 22 percent for industry about 8 percent for domestic use

SIMPLE METHODS Rain water harvesting Using turf grass in home garden

Facts.
The daily drinking water requirement per person is 2-4 litres, but it takes 2 000 to 5 000 litres of water to produce one person's daily food. Over the period to 2050 the world's water will have to support the agricultural systems that will feed and create livelihoods for an additional 2.7 billion people

In 2007, the estimated number of undernourished people worldwide was 923 million.What will be in future??

Poor drainage and irrigation practices have led to waterlogging and salinization of approximately 10 percent of the world's irrigated lands.
Due to climate change, Himalayan snow and ice, which provide vast amounts of water for agriculture in Asia, are expected to decline by 20 percent by 2030.

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