Rock On!

Presentation by: Maive Falconer Ada Topaz Rascon

Rock on!


Learning Objectives
• Explain the phases of the rock cycle and identify the 3 main types of rocks it forms • Identify basic rock types based on their physical and chemical properties
Aligned with PDE standards:

S11.D.1.1.1 Classify and describe major types of rocks (i.e., igneous – granite, basalt, obsidian, pumice; sedimentary – limestone, sandstone, shale, coal; and metamorphic – slate, quartzite, marble, gneiss) and minerals (e.g., quartz, calcite, dolomite, clay, feldspar, mica, halite, pyrite) by their origin and formation.
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What is a Rock?
• Definition: a solid mass of mineral or mineral-like matter that occurs naturally • 3 main types: igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic • Basic characteristics for identification: texture, mineral composition, color

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Rock Cycle Processes
• The rock cycle describes the continuous processes that cause rocks to change and form • These processes include: Erosion Deposition Heat and pressure Melting Volcanic activity Cooling
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The Rock Cycle
Cooling – As magma & lava rise toward the surface, they cool & solidify, forming Igneous Rock Erosion – surface rock is broken down into sediments by wind, water chemicals, & biological activity

Molten rock beneath the surface is called “magma.” When magma reaches the surface through volcanic vent it is called “lava.”

Melting – increased pressure & heat deep inside the earth causes the rock to melt, forming molten (liquid) rock

Deposition – Sediments are dropped by wind or water, then compacted and cemented, forming Sedimentary Rock

Extreme heat & pressure beneath surface transform sedimentary rocks to Metamorphic Rock

As layers of sedimentary rock build up, older layers are pushed down beneath the earth’s surface

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Basic properties used in rock identification
1.)Texture – arrangement of materials in the rock as follows: • Crystalline – size and placement of visible crystals within the rock • Frothy or Vesicular – rock contains pores, spaces or vesicles • Glassy – shiny, solid (non-crystalline) glassy texture • Fine or course grained – fragments in the rock are visible (course grained) or can only be seen with a hand lens (fine grained) • Layered – rock has visible evidence of layers • Banded – layers within the rock show distinctive differences in thickness, color or texture. 2.) Composition – minerals and other materials that form the rock • Specific types of minerals and mineral compounds • Form of the minerals (whole pieces, dissolved, precipitated particles) • Fossils • Clay

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Comparison of Basic Rock Types

Extrusive – on surface Intrusive – beneath surface

Clastic – formed from physically weathered sediment Chemical – formed from mineral precipitates Clastic – crystal and grain depend on mineral composition and can vary greatly within the same rock Chemical – most are fine grained w/ small crystals (i.e.. limestone, chalk, coquina, bituminous coal). Those made from quartz, gypsum, halite and NaCL can have course texture w/ large crystals.

Foliated – magma moves into rock and cools Nonfoliated – magma forms into a solid mineral vein Foliated: Slate – very fine grain, smooth dull surface Phyllite – fine grain w/ glossy surface Schist – med. to course grain w/ layering Gneiss – med to course grain w/ banding Nonfoliated: Marble – med to course interlocking grains Quartzite – med. to course fused grains Anthracite – fine grained shiny/glassy texture Foliated – shale, slate, granite, volcanic rock Nonfoliated – limestone, quartz, bituminous coal 7


Extrusive – large crystals, course grain, Intrusive – small crystals, fine grained or glassy extrusive - fine Banding indicates varied age and rates of cooling

Major Composition features

Granitic –, light colored silicate minerals Basaltic – dark colored silicate minerals

Clastic – clay minerals and quartz Chemical – Calcite, CaC03, Quartz, Gypsum, Halite, NaCl, altered plant fragments Rock on!

Sedimentary Rock

sandstone conglomerate Coral

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Igneous Rock



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Metamorphic Rock

Non-foliated (anthracite)


Rock on!


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