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Geographic Information Systems

GIS Data Databases

1 GIS Databases

A database is a shared collection of data with secure controlled access Data are stored independently of their applications A GIS database contains geographic data

A DBMS is a collection of software programs that facilitates the efficient and effective storage and access of data

user's perception of the real world Logical data model . format. order. path)   .2 Levels of Data Abstraction  Conceptual data model ..g.physical storage of the data (e.a formal description of the data model Physical data model .

Levels of Data Abstraction Humanoriented Reality Conceptual Model Increasing Abstraction Logical Model Computeroriented Physical Model .

Levels of Data Abstraction Conceptual Model Real World Objects and relationships Logical Model Physical Model Database Schema Diagrams And lists .

edu/ .Data Models   Vector data model Raster data model courtesy: Mary Ruvane. http://ils.unc.

a column is a field . fields.3 Database Functions  Records. and keys .a row is a record .

3 Database Functions  Map librarian and tiles .

updating and deleting records Extracting information from data Maintaining data security and integrity Supporting applications .Database Functions     Adding.

4 Database Data Models (Logical Models)     Hierarchical data model Network data model Relational data model Object-oriented data model .


4 (3) Relational Data Model   The database consists of several two dimensional tables A row is a record and a column is a field .

   4 can (3) Characteristics Every field be used as a key in a search A cross file search can be done by join. without actually taking storage space . as long as at least one filed is common to both files A link table can be created with needed attributes.

Less data redundancy 4 (3) Advantages and Disadv  Disadvantages .Easy to understand .Flexible. Advantages . no structure restrictions for search .It can be time consuming to search matching values .

  Objects 4 (4) Object-Oriented Data Model  Attributes Operations .

feed 4 (4) Object-Oriented Data Model Mammals A head and a body. sit Fish A head and a body. feed Four legs. Inheritance . feed Fins.Data and functions are organized in a hierarchy . swim .Objects inherit characteristics and functions of their ancestor objects Animals A head and a body.

Data and functions are combined in one object . 4 (4) Object-Oriented Data Model Encapsulation .

 4 and (4) aggregation Object-Oriented Association Inhabitation Habitat Fish inhabitant location: time: weight: habitat location: time: prey biomass: temperature: Data Model Aquatic System location: time: predator weight: prey biomass: temperature: .

Easy for modeling and the representation is close to human perception . Advantages .Reduce the complexity of software development 4 (4) Advantages and Disadv  Disadvantages .

and polygons 4 (4) Object-Relational Databases . Uses an enriched set of graphic element types on top of the three basic types of points. lines.

and components of features geometry features geometry components . Object-Relational Databases two levels of geometries: features geometry.

Spatial Types – OGC Simple Features Geometry SpatialReferenceSystem Composed Type Relationship Point Curve Surface GeometryCollection LineString Polygon MultiSurface MultiCurve MultiPoint Line LinearRing MultiPolygon MultiLineString .

Object-Relational Databases .

Readings  Chapter 3 .

Current Geographic Databases are ORDBMS .Commercially not successful behavior  Object-Relational (ORDBMS) .Provide OO query tools .Extend RDMS to handle GIS objects .Object-Oriented and ObjectRelational GIS DBMS  Object-oriented (OODBMS) .Based on OO concept to store state and of GIS objects in databases .

Informix  A relational database comprises tables.    Rows contain objects Columns contain object properties or attributes Data stored in intersection of row and column is value . Access. a twodimensional row. SQL Server. Oracle. Relational (RDBMS)  RDMS is the most popular type of DBMS   Main Types of DBMS in GIS Over 95% of data in DBMS is in RDBMS DB2. Each single table stores an object class. column structure.

Components of Geographic Data .1.

Often in the form of diagrams and lists  e.shp file for geometry.g.g. . objects/fields Logical model  Implementation oriented.   Conceptual model  Human-oriented. describe the exact files or database tables  E.g.dbf for attributes . but implementationindependent representation of reality. conceptual description of the main types of objects and processes relevant to a problem domain  e. A shapefile is composed of a . Raster/vector Physical model  The actual application in a GIS.

connectivity rules Relationships: thematic relationships and topology  Stored in feature datasets and feature classes.  Feature class   . behavior. subtypes. Feature  Feature has state. split/merge policy. attribute domains. topology rules. A collection of features with the same type of geometry An object class with a geometry.  Object class  An object class is a regular database table in a geodatabase. and relationships with other objects and features    State: geometry and other attributes Behavior: default values. each row is a feature. relationship rules.