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Applications: • ac motor drives • Uninterruptible ac power supplies • Where a sinusoidal ac output is required whose magnitude and frequency both have to be controlled

Terminal voltage is adjustable in its magnitude and frequency

8-1

Switch-Mode DC-AC Inverter: Bi-directional power flow

8-2

and three-phase ac outputs will be discussed Input is dc voltage source Such inverters are called voltage-source inverters (VSI) The other type of inverter is a currentsource inverter (CSI) where the input is a dc current source Discussion will be limited to VSI Four-quadrant operation Rectifier mode: quadrants 2 and 4 Inverter mode: quadrants 1 and 3 • • • • 8-3 .Switch-Mode DC-AC Inverter: Basic concepts • • • • Inverters with single.

and power will flow from the dc to ac side which is the inverter mode of operation During the intervals 2 and 4. po=voio will be positive. and power will flow from the ac side to the dc side which is the rectifier mode of operation Thus. switch-mode inverters are capable of operating in all four quadrants • • 8-4 . both vo and io are positive and interval 3. both vo and io are negative Therefore during intervals. 1 and 3. vo and io will be opposite signs.Switch-Mode DC-AC Inverter: Basic concepts (cont’d) • • • • vo can be assumed to be sinusoidal io will lag vo since the inverter will drive an inductive load such as a motor In interval 1.

.Synthesis of a Sinusoidal Output by PWM One-leg inverter • • Inverter output to be sinusoidal with voltage and frequency controllable Vd/2 Inverter switching frequency is determined by .Triangular waveform Output voltage magnitude fluctuates between Vd /2 and –Vd /2 Output voltage frequency is determined by the control signal frequency • • Frequency modulation ratio.Sinusoidal control signal – which is used to modulate the switch duty ratio and -Vd/2 has a frequency f1. mf=fs/f1 8-5 .

peak amplitude of the fundamental frequency component Vo1 is ma (=Vcontrol /Vtri) times Vd /2 .harmonics in the inverter output voltage waveforms 8-6 .Single Phase Half-Bridge Inverter • • • Two equal capacitors are connected in series across the dc input Vd /2 is the voltage across each capacitor Items of importance: .

T.is on and vAo=-Vd /2 Since the two switches are never off simultaneously. the output voltage vAo fluctuates between Vd /2 and -Vd /2. 8-7 .are controlled based on the comparison of vcontrol and vtri When vcontrol > vtri . T+ is on and vAo=Vd /2 When vcontrol < vtri .Single Phase Half-Bridge Inverter (cont’d) • • • • The switches T+ and T.

8-8 . – Harmonics appear as side bands.Harmonic Spectrum of VAo • • The normalized harmonic voltages with significant amplitudes are plotted This plot shows three items of importance: – The peak value of the fundamental frequency component is ma times Vd/2. cantered around the switching frequency – The harmonic mf should be an odd integer.

the output voltage averaged over one switching time period Ts = 1/fs) VAo depends on the ratio of Vcontrol to Vtri for a given Vd V Ao V Vd control 2 V tri Vcontrol V tri 8-9 .Fundamental Frequency Component of VAo • The peak amplitude of the fundamental-frequency component (VAo)1 is ma times Vd/2. This can be explained by first considering a constant vcontrol as shown in the following figure. • The average output voltage (or more specifically.

This "instantaneous average" is the same as the fundamental-frequency component of vAo. mf is large. assuming Vcontrol to be constant over a switching time period. that is. 8-10 . • Therefore.Fundamental Frequency Component of VAo (Cont’d) • Let us assume that Vcontrol varies very little during a switching time period. following figure indicates how the "instantaneous average" value of vAo (averaged over one switching time period Ts) varies from one switching time period to the next.

Therefore. the amplitude of the fundamental-frequency component of the output voltage varies linearly with ma. the range of ma from 0 to 1 is the linear range. the output voltage averaged over one switching time period Ts = 1/fs) VAo depends on the ratio of Vcontrol to Vtri for a given Vd v control Vcontrol sin 1t Vcontrol V tri Vcontrol sin 1t Vd v Ao 1 Vcontrol V tri 2 V tri V ma sin 1t d for ma 1.Fundamental Frequency Component of VAo (Cont’d) • The average output voltage (or more specifically. 8-11 .0 2 Therefore . V V Ao 1 ma d 2 • which shows that in a sinusoidal PWM.

and so on. around harmonics mf. the harmonic amplitudes are almost independent of mf.Harmonics in the Inverter Output Voltage VAo The harmonics in the inverter output voltage waveform appear as sidebands. This general pattern holds true for all values of ma in the range 0-1. Theoretically. centered around the switching frequency and its multiples. 8-12 . the harmonic order h corresponds to the kth sideband of j times the frequecy modulation ratio mf. though mf defines the frequencies at which they occur. the frequencies at which voltage harmonics occur can be indicated as fh = (jmf ± k)f1 that is. h = j(mf) ± k where the fundamental frequency corresponds to h = 1. 2mf. For even values of j. the harmonics exist only for even values of k. For odd values of j. 3mf. the harmonics exist only for odd values of k. that is.

Harmonics in the Inverter Output Voltage VAo 8-13 .

output voltage is twice that of the half-bridge inverter 8-14 .Single-Phase Full-Bridge Inverter • • • Consists of two one-leg inverters Preferred over other arrangements in higher power ratings With the same dc input voltage.

vAo=Vd/2 When TB.vAo(t) vo(t)= vAo(t) . vBo= .0 Vtri • Output voltage switches between Vd and .Vd 8-15 .PWM to Synthesize Sinusoidal Output • • • • • When TA+ is ON.vBo(t) = 2 vAo(t) Peak of the fundamental frequency component: V o1 ma Vd where the amplitude modulation ratio ma Vcontrol 1.is ON.Vd/2 vBo(t)= .

Also indicate the frequencies at which these harmonics appear. Vd.Example 1: Switch-mode inverter (one phase-leg. half bridge) A general analysis of the switch-mode inverter (shown in the figure below) is to be done. is 600 V. Compute the rms value of the 5 most dominant harmonics of vAo (at ma=0. which is also the frequency of the triangular signal is 1450 Hz. The DC voltage. harmonic). is equal to 0. Calculate the output voltage (rms value of 1. when the amplitude modulation ratio. by using Table 8-1. + Vd + Vd / 2+ Vd / 2o TA+ A TA- DA+ io + DAN vA N- - • • • • Find the frequency modulation ratio. The switching frequency fs. mf. page 207. The load is connected between the inverter leg A and the dc voltage midpoint o.8). Output voltage is sinusoidal voltage with a frequency equal to 50 Hz. 8-16 . ma.8? Prove that (Vo1)peak = ma (Vd / 2 ).

Example 2: Bipolar single phase half bridge inverter 8-17 .

where n is the transformer turns ratio. • T2 is ON (and T1 is OFF): vo= .Single-Phase Push-Pull Inverters • requires a transformer with a center-tapped primary • T1 is ON (and T2 is OFF): vo=Vd/n.Vd/n • The peak value of the fundamental component of the output voltage: Vo1= ma (Vd/n) 8-18 .

this results in a significant improvement in energy efficiency 8-19 .• No more than one switch in series conducts at any instant of time • Less switching voltage drops • Thus.

one for each phase • One of the two switches in a leg is always ON at any instant • Output of each leg depends on Vd and the switching status 8-20 . however.Three-Phase Inverter • Used to supply three-phase loads • Three single-phase inverters could be used. 12 switches are necessary. as a result. less efficient • Consists of three legs.

8-21 .

etc. fuel cell. low distorted sinusoidal waveforms are required • Harmonic contents could be minimized by the use of high-speed semiconductor switching techniques • Inverters are widely used in industrial applications . solar cell.input may be a battery.Summary • dc-to-ac converters are known as inverters • The function of an inverter is to change the dc input voltage to an ac output voltage of desired magnitude and frequency • The output voltage waveforms of ideal inverters should be sinusoidal • However.motor drives. or there dc source • dc-to-ac inverters can make smooth transition into the rectification mode. the output of practical inverters contains harmonics • For high power applications. standby power supplies. induction heating. where the flow of power reverses from the ac side to the dc side • Two types of inverters: single-phase inverters and three-phase inverters 8-22 . . UPS.

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