Mobile Communications

Lecture 1 Introduction & Background

Government College University Faisalabad Pakistan

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Why Mobile Communication?

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Challenges of mobility 3 .

A little history and evolution of mobile radio     1897: Marconi invented wireless concept 1960’s & 1970’s: Bell laboratories developed the cellular concept 1970’s: Development of highly reliable. 4 . miniature solid state radio frequency hardware Wireless communication era was born in 1970.

5 .1 The growth of mobile telephony as compared with other popular inventions of the 20th century.Mobile telephone penetration Figure 1.

Historical Background 6 .

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The current status of Wireless Communication 9 .

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Examples of Mobile Radio Communication Systems Institute of Space Technology 11 .

g. Subscriber’s Unit – each user’s communication device. 12 . cordless telephone). Portable – Describes a radio terminal that can be hand-held and used by someone at walking speed (e. A cellular phone in a fast moving vehicle). Subscriber – Mobile or portable user. Base stations – Link mobiles through a backbone network...Examples of Wireless Communication Systems      Mobile – Describes any radio terminal attached to a high speed mobile platform (e.g.

g. release-to-listen etc) 13  . Half Duplex – Two way communication. (e.. CB radio etc). paging systems. but uses the same radio channel for both transmission and reception.g.Types of Mobile Radio Transmission Systems  Simplex – Communication is possible only in one direction. push-to-talk. User can only transmit or receive information (e..

  Two simultaneous but separate channels (FDD) or Two adjacent timeslots on a single radio channel (TDD) 14 . Full Duplex – Allows simultaneous two-way radio transmission and reception between subscriber and base station.

Duplexer enables same antenna to be used for simultaneous transmission and reception A pair of simplex channels with a fixed and known frequency separation is used Forward channel: used to convey traffic to mobile user from base station Reverse channel: used to carry traffic from mobile user to base station 15 .Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD)        Provides simultaneous radio transmission channels for subscriber and base station Separate transmit and receive antennas at base station used to accommodate two separate channels Single antenna at subscriber unit with duplexer is used.

Only possible with digital transmission formats and digital modulation and is very sensitive to timing.. some portion of time for transmission and remaining time for reception Can store information bursts and appear as full duplex if user’s transmission rate is slower than that of channel.Time Division Duplexing (TDD)     Share a single radio channel in time i.e. Used only for indoors and small area wireless applications 16 .

Paging Systems   Paging systems are communication systems that send brief messages to a subscriber Depending on the type of service the message may be:       Numeric messages Alpha-numeric message Voice message News headlines Stock quotes Faxes   Coverage area of simple paging systems: 2 to 5 km or within individual buildings Wide area paging systems can provide worldwide coverage 17 .

and large radio towers that simultaneously broadcast a page from each base station .Simulcasting Designed to provide reliable communication to subscriber wherever they are.   Wide area paging systems consists of a network of telephone lines. 18 . many base station transmitters. This requires large transmitter powers & low data rates for maximum coverage.

Wide Area Paging System Landline link PSTN Landline link Paging control center Satellite link City 1: Paging terminal City 2: Paging terminal City N: Paging terminal Figure 1.3 A wide area paging system. The paging control center dispatches pages received from the PSTN throughout several cities at the same time 19 .

Cordless Telephone Systems     Full duplex communication Uses radio to connect a portable handset to a dedicated BS which is then connected to a dedicated telephone line with a specific telephone number on PSTN Limited range and mobility: few hundred meters 20 .

Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) Fixed Port (Base Station) wireless link cordless handset 21 .

A Typical Cellular System     Provides wireless connection to PSTN for any user location within the range of the system. Accommodate large number of users over a large geographic area within a limited frequency spectrum Coverage area divided into cells for same radio channels to be reused by another base station located some distance away Handoff: enables a call to proceed uninterrupted when the user moves from one cell to another 22 .

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Serves as a bridge between mobile users in a cell and connects mobile calls to MSC 24 .   Mobile Switching Center (MSC): responsible for connecting all mobiles to the PSTN Mobile station: contains a transceiver. an antenna & control circuitry Base station: consists of several transmitters and receivers.

   Forward voice channels (FVC): for voice transmission from the base station to the mobiles Reverse voice channels (RVC): for voice transmission from the mobiles to the base station Two channels responsible for initiating mobile calls are forward control channel (FCC) and reverse control channel (RCC) 25 .

Wireless networks in comparison to fixed networks 26 .