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Darcy’s data for two different sands

Figure from Hornberger et al. (1998)

Range in hydraulic conductivity, K 13 orders of magnitude
Figure from Hornberger et al. (1998)

(1998) .Figure from Hornberger et al.

Generalization of Darcy’s column h/L = hydraulic gradient Q is proportional to h/L q = Q/A Figure from Hornberger et al. (1998) .

Ky .q = Q/A q is a vector z h qx   K x x h qy   K y y q qz 2 z x x qx 1 h qz   K z z In general: Kz < Kx.

K grad h h qx   K x x h qy   K y y h qz   K z z .q = .

Vector Form of Darcy’s Law q = .K grad h q = specific discharge (L/T) K = hydraulic conductivity (L/T) grad h = hydraulic gradient (L/L) h = head (L) .

K grad h q is a vector with 3 components h is a scalar K is a tensor with 9 components (three of which are Kx. Kz) .q = . Ky.

thermal conductivity . (& direction velocity). mass flux. heat flux Magnitude. Dispersion coefficient.Scalar 1 component Magnitude Head. direction and magnitude changing with direction Hydraulic conductivity. temperature Vector 3 components Tensor 9 components Magnitude and Specific discharge. concentration.

Kz . Ky.K grad h q grad h equipotential line q grad h Isotropic Kx = Ky = Kz = K Anisotropic Kx.Darcy’s law q = .

(1998) .True flow paths Linear flow paths assumed in Darcy’s law Specific discharge q = Q/A Average linear velocity v = Q/An= q/n n = effective porosity Figure from Hornberger et al.

Representative Elementary Volume (REV) REV q = .K grad h Equivalent Porous Medium (epm) .

Law of Mass Balance + Darcy’s Law = Governing Equation for Groundwater Flow --------------------------------------------------------------div q = .Ss (h t) +R* (Law of Mass Balance) q = .K grad Water h balance equation (Darcy’s Law) div (K grad h) = Ss (h t) –R* .

Inflow = Change in Storage .Steady State Water Balance Equation Inflow = Outflow Recharge Discharge Transient Water Balance Equation Inflow = Outflow +/.Change in Storage Outflow .

(1998) .Storage Terms h h b Unconfined aquifer Specific yield = Sy S=V/Ah S = Ss b Confined aquifer Storativity = S Ss = specific storage Figures from Hornberger et al.

V/ t Ss = V / (x y z h) V = Ss h (x y z) t t REV S=V/Ah Ss = S/b here b =  z .OUT – IN = W qx qy qz (    W ) x y z x y z = change in storage = .

OUT – IN = qx qy qz (    W )  Ss h x y z t h x h qy   Ky y h qz   Kz z qx   Kx  h  h  h h ( Kx )  ( Ky )  ( Kz )  Ss W x x y y z z t .

Law of Mass Balance + Darcy’s Law = Governing Equation for Groundwater Flow --------------------------------------------------------------div q = .Ss (h t) +W (Law of Mass Balance) q = .K grad h (Darcy’s Law) div (K grad h) = Ss (h t) –W .

 h  h  h h ( Kx )  ( Ky )  ( Kz )  Ss W x x y y z z t 2D confined:  h  h h (Tx )  (Ty )  S R x x y y t (S = Ss b & T = K b) 2D unconfined:  h  h h (hKx )  (hKy )  Sy R x x y y t .

Baltimore. 302 p.Figures from: Hornberger et al. Elements of Physical Hydrology.. 1998. . The Johns Hopkins Press.