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Darcys data for two different sands

Figure from Hornberger et al. (1998)

Range in hydraulic conductivity, K 13 orders of magnitude


Figure from Hornberger et al. (1998)

Figure from Hornberger et al. (1998)

Generalization of Darcys column

h/L = hydraulic gradient

Q is proportional to h/L q = Q/A


Figure from Hornberger et al. (1998)

q = Q/A

q is a vector
z

h qx K x x h qy K y y

qz 2

z x x qx 1

h qz K z z

In general: Kz < Kx, Ky

q = - K grad h
h qx K x x h qy K y y h qz K z z

Vector Form of Darcys Law


q = - K grad h
q = specific discharge (L/T) K = hydraulic conductivity (L/T) grad h = hydraulic gradient (L/L) h = head (L)

q = - K grad h
q is a vector with 3 components
h is a scalar K is a tensor with 9 components
(three of which are Kx, Ky, Kz)

Scalar 1 component

Magnitude

Head, concentration, temperature

Vector 3 components
Tensor 9 components

Magnitude and Specific discharge, (& direction velocity), mass flux, heat flux
Magnitude, direction and magnitude changing with direction Hydraulic conductivity, Dispersion coefficient, thermal conductivity

Darcys law

q = - K grad h

q
grad h

equipotential line
q grad h

Isotropic Kx = Ky = Kz = K

Anisotropic Kx, Ky, Kz

True flow paths

Linear flow paths assumed in Darcys law


Specific discharge q = Q/A

Average linear velocity v = Q/An= q/n n = effective porosity


Figure from Hornberger et al. (1998)

Representative Elementary Volume (REV)

REV

q = - K grad h
Equivalent Porous Medium (epm)

Law of Mass Balance + Darcys Law = Governing Equation for Groundwater Flow --------------------------------------------------------------div

q = - Ss (h t) +R* (Law of Mass Balance)

q = - K grad Water h balance equation (Darcys Law)

div (K grad h) = Ss (h t) R*

Steady State Water Balance Equation Inflow = Outflow Recharge Discharge

Transient Water Balance Equation Inflow = Outflow +/- Change in Storage Outflow - Inflow = Change in Storage

Storage Terms

h b

Unconfined aquifer Specific yield = Sy

S=V/Ah S = Ss b

Confined aquifer Storativity = S

Ss = specific storage
Figures from Hornberger et al. (1998)

OUT IN =

qx qy qz ( W ) x y z x y z
= change in storage = - V/ t Ss = V / (x y z h) V = Ss h (x y z) t t

REV

S=V/Ah Ss = S/b here b = z

OUT IN =

qx qy qz ( W ) Ss h x y z t
h x h qy Ky y h qz Kz z qx Kx

h h h h ( Kx ) ( Ky ) ( Kz ) Ss W x x y y z z t

Law of Mass Balance + Darcys Law = Governing Equation for Groundwater Flow --------------------------------------------------------------div

q = - Ss (h t) +W (Law of Mass Balance)

q = - K grad h

(Darcys Law)

div (K grad h) = Ss (h t) W

h h h h ( Kx ) ( Ky ) ( Kz ) Ss W x x y y z z t

2D confined:

h h h (Tx ) (Ty ) S R x x y y t
(S = Ss b & T = K b)

2D unconfined:

h h h (hKx ) (hKy ) Sy R x x y y t

Figures from: Hornberger et al., 1998. Elements of Physical Hydrology, The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 302 p.