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Leafy Vegetables

Introduction  Salad vegetables are usually consumed raw (uncooked) and ______________with minimal preparation
 Lettuce  Examples of other salad
vegetables  Arugula  Endive  ______________

Leafy Vegetables

Greens are consumed cooked

Spinach
_________________

Kale and Collards Biennials – live for two years _________________ season Shallow-rooted Respond to nitrogen fertilizer

General characteristics of leafy vegetables

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Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)  Background     Native to Europe and Asia First used for edible oil in its seed ________________ species are very bitter – needed to select for less bitter forms Bitterness is associated with milky latex that occurs when ________________ bolts  What is bolting? .

Lettuce  Bibb or butterhead    ___________ heads Inner leaves are cream or yellow and ___________ Delicate sweet flavor .

Lettuce  Iceberg or __________________  Most common type of lettuce in salad bars and fast food  Extremely sensitive to heat  Leaves are thin and crisps .

Lettuce  ________ or Romaine  Upright head up to 10 inches tall  Forms an elongated ___________  Leaves are crisper than other heading types  Used in Cesar and Cos salads .

Lettuce  Leaf lettuce      Does not form a _______ Widely adapted Types can vary in leaf ______________. and color Can be harvested very young Major component of mixed green salads . shape.

Lettuce: Culture  Temperature   Extremely sensitive to ___________ temperatures High temperatures cause:     Seedstalk to form Internal tip _______________ of crisphead types Stunted growth ____________ leaves  Moisture  Have a _________________ root system .

Lettuce: Harvesting  Leaf lettuce  May be harvested when leaves are large enough to use Ready to harvest in ______ to ______ days  Butterhead and Cos types   _____________________  types Harvest when heads are firm and full .

e. fall) .Other Salad Vegetables  Bitterness or a problem     _____________________ can be Ways to avoid: Blanching Using less pungent ____________________ Harvest when temperatures are cool (i.

spicy flavor similar to ___________________  Too strong to be eaten alone .Arugula or Roquette (Eruca vesicaria var. Sativa)  Has enjoyed a surge in popularity  Used in mixed salads or as a cooked green  Characteristics  ____________ season  Closely related to ____________  Biting. pungent.

Endive (Cichorium endivia)  Background   Native to eastern portion of ________ and reached Mediterranean region by time of ancient Egyptians Produce a blue flower .

smooth leaves with a white midrib Milder flavor than other endives  ____________________ (Batavian endive)     Cultivation  Similar to _______ with best growth at 60 to 70 F  Less pungent if grown in fall  Requires frequent watering . fringed. medium green. and curly leaves Very pungent flavor A selection of endive Broad. thick. _______________.Endive  Characteristics  Endive   Loose.

Endive  _____________________  Growing a plant part in the absence of _________  Makes the plant part less bitter  How is endive blanched?  Gather leaves together and tie them together  Inner leaves (hearts) become a __________ color  Harvesting   Entire ____________ cut at base when leaves are partly or wholly blanched Outer leaves are tough and bitter and are discarded .

Chicory (Chicorium intybus)  Introduction   Closely related to ______________ Native to ____________ and western Asia   Has naturalized along highways in US Has a light blue flower  ________________ but grown as a long season annual .

Chicory  Roasted roots have been widely used as a _______________ substitute  Reduces bitterness of coffee .

Chicory  Witloof chicory    Traditionally forced indoors during winter to produce ________ ______________ are planted in moist sand or peat moss and kept in the dark Any light getting to the ______________ causes them to turn bitter .

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loosely wrapped. semiheading types Grown ___________ similar to lettuce ___________ used in salads or can be grilled .Chicory Radicchio or leaf chicory    Most common are _____ or variegated.

Greens  Were commonly consumed by our ancestors  Often were wild plants that emerged early in the spring  Examples   ______________ Dandelion greens  Are generally consumed cooked .

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea)  Background     Native to western Asia First cultivated by Persians Spread to China by 7th century Reached Europe by 11th century  Plant characteristics  Edible part of spinach is _____________ of leaves  ___________________ is produced in response to long days and hot temperatures .

Spinach  Savoy   Crinkled leaf spinach Retains ___________  New Zealand Spinach (Tetragonia tetragonioides)   A substitute for spinach Can grow in dry weather and _______ temperatures .

Chard or Swiss Chard (Beta vulgaris Cicla group)  Background  Type of beet that was developed for its large. and Asia  Leaves first first part of beets consumed . North Africa. crisp leaves  Wild beet a common seaside plant in ___________.

Chard  Why grow chard?  Does not form a seedstalk in ___________ weather (unlike spinach)  Can use both leaf blades and leafstalks (petioles)  Colorful ____________ ranging from white to yellow or red  Good flavor  Seed from early spring to midsummer  Harvesting  Harvest leaves when they are small .

Collard and Kale (Brassica oleracea Acephala group)  Background  Originated in Western Europe  Characteristics     Kale refers to a curly leaf form of ______________ Collards are a nonheading form of cabbage Forms a large _________ of blue-green leaves Hardy _________ season vegetable .

Collard and Kale Cultivation  Planting     May be ___________ or transplanted Tolerate summer heat Seed in midsummer for fall harvest  Usually gives best results  Light ____________ improves mild-cabbage like flavor .

Collard and Kale Harvest  Can be harvested by two methods:  Entire young plant can be cut off at the _________ and used  Individual ________ can be harvested throughout the season .