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BIOLOGY

CHAPTER 9: ENDANGERED ECOSYSTEM
Prepared by : Fateha Nor Haila Chai Jee June Tasha Prabha

industrial power stations and factories.Industrial machinery Sources ● Burning of fossil fuels by vehicles. Thermal Souces Sources ➔ Industrial process -Water ➔ cooling towers of tempereture electrical power stations.Air Sources -Motorcycles -Aeroplanes -Construction site -Agricultural machinery . . ❏ Run off from agricultural areas. Noise Types of Pollution Water Wate r Sources ❏ Effluents from industrial and residential areas.

oxides of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide. ➔ High level of carbon monoxide.urning Fossil Fuels ➔ High level of carbon particles. . oxides of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide. ● Large amount of carbon disoxide and carbon monoxide. Open Burning: ● Large amount of suspended solids. Pollutants in Air of Different Environments Industrial plants and factories: ❏ Large amount of carbon monoxide.

Sources: ● Electric power plants ● Industrial factories Effects: ● ● Oxygen becomes less soluble in water.1 HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT ENDANGER AN ECOSYSTEM The sources of thermal pollution and its impact. an increase in temperature actually encourages their rapid growth which.O.9. algae. this may result in permanent changes in the species composition of the aquatic ecosystem. If the temperature increase continues over a long period. leads to a higher B. For other species. in turn.D value. Thermal pollution ● . for example.

● Explain the impact of thinning of the ozone layer and the global warming on the ecosystem.9.2 THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT THINNING OF THE OZONE LAYER Learning outcomes: ● Explain what greehouse effect is. . ● Explain the thinning of the ozone layer. ● Correlate the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere with global warming.

2. hence the term is the greenhouse effect 4. Without it the Earth would be too cold for the survival of living organisms. As the concentration of greenhouse gases rises. methane and nitrous oxide) 3. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC).a) The Greenhouse Effect 1. The greenhouse gases act as the glasspanel of a greenhouse which traps heat and warm the greenhouse. the greenhouse effect is trapped in the atmosphere and the Earth temperature is raising the average . It occurs when the 10% of the Earth’s atmosphere remains trapped by the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide. The greenhouse effect is a phenomenon to increase the Earth temperature.

. The change of the world climate that leads to unexpected heavy rains. malnutrition etc. b. a. the widespread of epidemic (e.g.5. strong winds etc.floods. c. after flood). In certain areas. The consequences of global warming include: The melting of ice in the polar regions raises the sea level and submerges the coastal residential area and agriculture land. Deterioration of health when many people die because of heatstroke.

. The destruction of ozone layer is due to the increasing levels of (CFCs) in the atmosphere. The Thinning of The Ozone Layer 1. The thinning of ozone layer has been recorded since the 1970s. carbon and flourine. The ozone layer is a region in the stratosphere between 17 and 25 kilometers above the Earth surface 2. The area with very low ozone concentration ends up with the formation of ozone hole. CFCs are group of chemical compounds that contain cholorine. 4.b. The function is to shield the Earth from receiving too much ultraviolet radiation from the sun. 5. as propellants in aerosol cans and as foaming in the making of styrofoam packaging. 6. 3. CFCs are used as coolants in air conditioners and refrigerators.

Chlorine CFCl 3 atom the CFCl ozone molecule into Cl then breaks + 2 chlorine monoxide and oxygen gas Cl + O3 ClO + O2 . The CFCs in the atmosphere are struck by UV light forming chlorine atoms b.7. The chemical processes that destroy the ozone layer are as follows: a.

.c. Chlorine monoxide then reacts with the free oxygen atom in the atmosphere to form chlorine atom and oxygen molecule. ClO + O Cl + O2 d. The chlorine atoms repeat the breaking of the ozone molecules causing the depletion of the ozone layer continuously.

especially to those with fair skin (less melamin to protect oneself from UV light. Cataract . Increase greenhouse effect ● Earth temperature increases when more UV (ultraviolet) radiation reaches the Earth surface and more IR (infrared) radiation is reflected into the atmosphere. ii. The impact of ozone depletion on human and the ecosystems: i.8. Skin Cancer Long exposure to sunlight may cause skin cancer. - .) iii.A harmful growth on a persons eyeball which can eventually lead to blindness.

Human beings are exposed to various diseases.iv. . Reduced human immune system . .Reduce crops production and destruction of forest. v. Damaging the photosynthesis mesophyll layers of plants.

Industries. deforestation and burning fossil fuels produce green house gases: ● carbon dioxide ● carbon monoxide ● methane ● water vapour EARTH Heat energy is absorbed by Earth’s surface. Some are reflected back by the greenhouse effect and rises the Earth’s temperature. . which then radiated into the atmosphere. This is important to regulate the climate and stabilize the Earth’s itself.

Effects: ● Sea level rises due to melting ice cap in polar regions causing flood in low coastal areas.In modern days. ● contaminating freshwater supply. This situation is known as global warming. . are pumped into the atmosphere each year that the Earth’s average temperature is steadily rising. ● spreading of epidemic diseases after floods. ● Expansion of desert areas. ● change the global weather patterns such as more storms and rains. more and more greenhouse gases especially carbon dioxide.

Statosphere Reaction happens between CFC and Chlorine molecules. .Ozone layer: Functions to absorb ultraviolet (UV) radiation and shield organisms from its damaging effect.

Increasing CFC level Sources of CFC: ● ● ● ● increasing levels of chlorofluorocarbons air conditioners propellants in aerosol as foaming agent in the making of styrofoam packaging. EARTH .

The chlorine atom is thus released and free to destroy more ozone molecules.The meachanism: ● Ultraviolet radiation strikes a CFC molecule and causes a chlorine atom to break away. ● the free chlorine atom combine with an ozone molecule to form chlorine monoxide and a molecule of oxygen. DEPLETION OF OZONE LAYER . the two oxygen atoms form a molecule of oxygen. ● when a free atom of oxygen collides with the chlorine monoxide.

Effects: ● skin cancer. ● leaf cells and chlorophyll are easily damaged. ● reduce nutrient contents and crop yields of plants such as soya beans and peas. ● sunburns. melanoma. . ● kill microorganisms and phytoplankton.