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3. 2. 4.1. they connect the air spaces within the leaf to the atmosphere Oxygen from the atmosphere diffuses into the air spaces and then dissolves in the film of the water around the mesophyll cells Oxygen is then used in aerobic respiration The concentration of oxygen in the cells becomes lower then the concentration of oxygen in the air spaces The differences in concentration gradient allows oxygen to diffuse continuously from the air spaces into the cells . When the stomata are open. 5.

6. the carbon dioxide which is produced during aerobic respiration is used in photosynthesis The excess carbon dioxide diffuses into the air spaces and then through the stomata into the atmosphere . During the day. 7.

plant can also carry out anaerobic respiration for short periods  Anaerobic respiration also occurs during the initial stages of germination when the embryo is completely enclosed withih a seed coat  .Aerobic respiration is usually carried out by plants throughout the day and night  Under certain conditions such as during flooding.


the rate of photosynthesis also increases  Eventually.Photosynthesis uses up the carbon dioxide produced during respiration and releases the oxygen needed in respiration  As light intensity increases during the day. there is no net gain or net loss in carbon dioxide by plants and no net gain or net loss in sugar produced  The plant has reached a compensation point  Compensation point is the light intensity at which the rate of carbon dioxide production during respiration is equal to the carbon dioxide consumption during photosynthesis  . a point is reached at which all the carbon dioxide produced during respiration is used up in photosynthesis  At this point.


the rate of sugar production will exceed the rate of sugar consumption and the excess sugar can be used for growth and other vital living processes . the rate of photosynthesis exceeds the rate of respiration The carbon dioxide produced during respiration is no longer sufficient for the plants Plants must take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to supplement the need for a higher concentration of carbon dioxide during photosynthesis At the same time.      As light intensity continues to increase during the day. the plant release the excess oxygen into the atmosphere For growth. the rate of photosynthesis must exceed the rate of respiration on daily basis In this way. reproduction and seed production to take place.

water and carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O+ E .PHOTOSYNTHESIS Occurs in green plants To stores energy CO2 and H2O are used while O2 and glucose are produced RESPIRATION Occurs in all living organisms To release energy Glucose and O2 are used while CO2 and H2O are released Light energy is converted to chemical energy Takes place in chloroplast Produces glucose and oxygen 6CO2 +12H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H20 Chemical energy is converted to chemical energy ATP and heat energy Takes place in mitochondria Produces energy.