Term 2 2012 Lecture 11

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MCM 211: PROJECT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Sessions: 20 Course objective: To develop project management capabilities for effective project planning, scheduling, monitoring and control. Course content: Project Management Fundamentals: Project: Meaning, Types of construction projects; Project scope; Project deliverables; Technical requirements of a project; Project constraints; Project as a business; Project stakeholders; Project Life cycle. Project Management: Meaning; need for project management; Functions of project management; systems approach; project management system. Project Planning: Project structure; Organizational breakdown structure; Work breakdown structure; Major aspects of project planning. Project Scheduling: Steps in project scheduling; Scheduling techniques; Bar chart; Network scheduling; Linear scheduling. Network Scheduling: Basic terminologies; Network diagramming methods; A-O-A and A-O-N networks; Time-scaled network; Fundamental concepts underlying CPM and PERT; Network analysis for CPM; Floats and their significance; Time cost trade-off; Resources scheduling; Precedence diagramming method; Analysis of PERT schedule, Line of balance method. Project Monitoring and Control: Progress monitoring through records, reports and reviews; Project time and cost control; Use of ‘S’-curve; Earned value concept; Project variances and performance indices; Forecasts for project completion; Corrective actions; Updating project plans. Computerising Planning and Control System: Computer system components, PM application packages, System specification, Selecting System, Computerisation benefits and limitation, Role and function of the planning chiefs. Reference Books Meredith Jack R, Mantel Samuel J, Project Management – A Managerial Approach, 5th edn. John Wiley, New York, 2006. Lester A., Project, Planning & Control, Butterworths, Oxford, 2007. Burke R., Project Management – Planning & Control Techniques, John Wiley, New York, 2003. Chitkara KK, Construction Project Management: Planning, Scheduling of Controlling, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2007. James P. Lewis, Project Planning Scheduling & Control, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi 2004. Harison F. L., Advanced Project Management: A Structural Approach, Metropolitan Book co., New Delhi, 93. John M. Nicholas, Project Management for Business & Technology, Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, 2006. Clifford F. Gray & Erik W. Laroun, Project Management – The Managerial Process, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. New Delhi, 2006. Feigenbaum L. Construction Scheduling with Primavera project planner, Prentice Hall, N.Delhi, 98. Thakurta Shah K., Construction Project Management, Multitech Publishing Co., Mumbai, 2003. Hira N. Ahuja; Project Management: Techniques in Planning and Controlling Construction Projects; John Wiley and Sons Harold Kerzner; Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling and Controlling, 2006. Callahan, Queckenbush and Rowing; Construction Project Scheduling; McGraw Hill Publications Donald S. Barrie, Boyd C. Paulson; Professional Construction Management; McGraw Hill Publications, 1992.

Construction Cost Planning
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Useful in developing standard costs, financial forecasts, project budget and cost control Ultimate goal is to achieve project profit/cost objectives

work items or activities Standard Costs facilitate the planning and controlling of costs .Standard Costs   Used for costing work packages.

Financial Forecasts  Indicate the trends of expected sales. . production expenses and profit and cash flow at specified intervals of time.

.Project Budget  Quantifies the project plan in monetary terms and outlines the financial plan for implementation.

Construction Budget Planning   Reflects the financial plan of operations It is divided into responsibility centers with specific goals clearly outlined. along with the costs expected to be incurred .

phased funds requirement and the sources from which these funds are to be provisioned On the other hand. a contractor's budget is a resources-cost and sales-income-oriented budget .Construction Budget Planning    In a contracted construction project. The client's construction budget is primarily a capital budget designed to formulate time. the client and the contractor have separate budgets.

Construction Project Controls     Scope Control Resources Control Cost Control Time Control .

Project Cost Control     Primarily concerned with the project budgeted costs It aims at controlling the changes to the project budget The goal is to minimize waste. update current budget estimates. forecast cost trends and make decisions about the future Uncontrollable costs fall under risk management .

These input resources and the site expenses include the cost of men. Contractor . materials.Project Cost Control Objectives    The cost control objectives of the client and the contractor differ Client . the escalation and the contingencies. the client formulates his cost budget for the project.It is the contractor who executes the contracted works and it is he who bears the cost of the input resources employed by him for the execution of the work. machinery and capital. .After taking into consideration the contract commitments.

F) control Budgetary Budgetary .B) Less variable overhead Direct cost control Variable overheads control E Contribution (C .D) Contribution control F Less fixed overheads Fixed overhead control G Operating profit (E .Cost Control Parameters Stages in Profit Computation Nature of Control A Sales value (income) Sales value control B C D Less direct cost Gross margin (A .

Control Estimates       The feasibility study during the inception stage outlines the approximate cost of the project A master control estimate for establishing the baseline for overall cost control The master control estimate is prepared during the project planning stage The approved original master control estimate. called project budget. remains unchanged throughout the life of the project Generally. expenditure is incurred at various levels/departments within the amount earmarked in the project budget All costs are planned and controlled by the cost controller/authorized manager .

Cost Planning Level 0 1 2 3 Scope Total project cost Sub–project cost Task/logistics costs Work–package costs Cost Control Responsibility Cost accountant Cost accountant Respective managers/contractors Cost centers .

Budgeting Costs       The budget relates the expected costs and revenue with the time progress Budget .implies the monetary value of the work completed. it is equal to the value of the work done at contract rates. In contracted projects.reflects the expected costs of performance under expected conditions.stands for the costs achievable under efficient operating the method for measuring project budgeted performance with the time progress . Earned value analysis .marks the booked cost of resources utilized/consumed or expected. Value of work performed . Standard Costs . Commitment Costs .

Cost Monitoring     Cost reports are generally initiated at the level of the responsibility centers (cost centre) The cost reports of construction/production centers should reflect a comparison of the standard and actual costs Preferably. cost reports should be initiated weekly / monthly and their frequency can be increased in the early stages of the project The project cost controller monitors the responsibility centre cost reports. keeps track of variations in the control estimates and forecasts the trends pertaining to the remaining project costs. changes order. . He updates the project budgeted costs.

Project Earned Value  Depending upon the nature of the project. the cost performance of a project can be determined as CumulativeEarnedValueofWorkPer formed 100 ContractValueof Pr ojectatCompletion Contractors' Pr ojectFinancial Pr ogress (%)  .Cost Performance . Earned Value of project can be measured in one or more of the three parameters    cost effort (like man-hours) value of work done  For example.

B WP .000 16.2 1.Evaluation of Financial Progress of Project Work Package Particulars Work Package Progress Planned Value at Completion Earned Value on Data Date Work Package Progress (%) Project (%) WP .A Code A 126 127 128 Total WP .8 8.000 xxxxx xxxxx EV 15.000 40.A WP .000 80.000 45.000 9.000 20.000 xxxxx xxx xx .000 xxxxx xxxxx Progress(%) 100 80 20 50 xxx xxx EV/BAC 3.C PV 15.00.0 x x BAC 5.0 3.

Earned Value Measurement    The method of measurement of the up-to-date work done value varies with the nature of the work The various methods of measuring the progress of different types of work packages can be categorized as Ratio method:  Repetitive-type work packages: .

the investigation of soil. such as the preparation of drawings. the start and completion are well defined but the progress of the intermediate stages is difficult to estimate. each stage in the chain can be assigned a pre-determined percentage of the budget catered for the work package The overall progress of the work package at a given point of time can then be estimated by totaling the percentages of the stages completed In certain tasks. the planning of project. For such tasks. an arbitrary percentage can be assigned to mark the start and the balance can be considered after the task is completed  Start-Finish method:   . the procurement of materials.Earned Value Measurement  Non-repetitive complex construction work packages:    The activities in the work package are grouped into a chain of broad sequential stages Thereafter.

C) Budget variance (A .C) xxx xx xxxx xxx xx xx xxx xx x xxx xx xx xx xx xx x xx xx x x xx .B) Price variance (B .Sales Value (Value of Work Done) Control Work Done Value Variances Change A B Budget forecasts cumulative Contract value of work done Original Work xxxx Materials at Site Work Order xxx xx Upto previous month During current month Cumulative (B) C D E F Actual approved (cumulative) Work done value or quantity variance (A .

Sales Value (Value of Work Done) Control   Accounting Work Done Progress Value of work done = Contract price × Actual quantity of work done Accounting Direct Materials Inventory The value of the materials-at-site consumed during the month = (Value of opening stock for the month) + (Value of materials inducted during the month) – (Value of closing stock for the month) .

Actual cost plus fixed percentage to cater for the contractor's overheads and profits. The cost of extra work can be determined by any of the following mutually or contractually agreed methods    Lump sum price for each work change order. it is documented and resources employed for its execution are properly accounted. such deviations may run into hundreds. For accounting purposes. each change order for extra work is allotted a serial number. whichever is greater. .Sales Value (Value of Work Done) Control  Accounting Work Changes Orders In construction projects. work changes through deviations in orders are inevitable. In some projects. Actual cost or guaranteed maximum price.

Sales Value (Value of Work Done) Control  Revenue Variance – made up of 2 components   Work done quantity variances Sale price variances .

can best be exercised at the lowest organizational level at the production centre or even the work centre. measurable and costable Direct cost control is exercised by comparing the actual direct costs with the standard direct costs. and applying corrective measures to improve the performance . Direct cost control with pre-determined labour rates and materials purchase prices. analysing the reasons for variations.Direct Cost Control     Direct costs constitute over 60% of the total project costs. where the cost is actually incurred The basic concept behind controlling the direct costs is that each work package for which the standard cost is established. is identifiable.

Direct Cost Control  A pre-requisite for controlling the direct costs is that the standards must be expressed in terms of the physical and monetary value of each item of resource needed for accomplishing the work package Type of resources Direct labour Direct materials Direct equipment Physical measure Man-hours (MH) Unit quantity Equipment hours (EH) Monetary value example Labour employment cost Materials usage cost Equipment utilization cost Other direct costs Direct other expenses - The primary purpose of introducing standard direct costs is to generate information by comparing actual performance against the standards and to analyze variance Direct cost variance = Standard direct cost – Actual direct cost. If variance > 0. it is unfavourable (U). . it is favourable (F). If variance < 0.

mismanagement of resources . Unrealistic standards.Causes of Unfavourable Direct Cost Variances Some of the main causes for unfavourable variances are given below  Material price variance  Materials usage variance  Labour rate variance  Labour operating variance  Equipment rate variance  Equipment operating variance  Other common reasons. higher sub-contract costs. higher resource procurement costs.

so as to create cost consciousness for exploring means of minimising wastage and reducing costs.Budgeted Performance Control Using Earned Value Analysis   The earned value analysis is the management tool to track the deviations from the budgeted cost performance on the data date and to forecast trends. To update key personnel on anticipated cost changes in their field of responsibility.  The earned value cost analysis relates the budget costs with the time progress . It serves two main purposes   To apprise the project management of the possible cost overrun or underrun for taking timely corrective actions. such as modifying cash flow and updating financial forecasts and project profitability expectations.

It shows what is planned for execution. time-phased cost projections made in the budget for activities that are scheduled to be performed.The Commonly Used Budget Monitoring Parameters    Budgeted Cost for Work Scheduled (BCWS): It represents the cumulative. Budgeted Cost for Work Performed (BCWP) or the value earned: It shows the cumulative cost budgeted for the work performed. Actual Cost for Work Performed (ACWP): It represents the cumulative actual cost incurred on date in accomplishing the work .

Cost and Schedule Variances Unfavourable Variance Favourable Variance .

Cost and Schedule Variances   Scheduled Variance (SV) = (Earned work hours or value) – (Budgeted work hours or value) SV = BCWP – BCWS   Cost Variance (CV) = (Earned work hours or value) – (Actual work hours or value) CV = BCWP – ACWP .

Cost and Schedule Variances  Time schedule overrun and under run are usually expressed in terms of percentage .

0 or greater indicates better performance and less than 1.0 implies poor performance Performance indices vary during the execution of a project .Cost-trends Forecasts    Variance analysis reveals the extent and causes of variances Performance efficiency determines how efficiently the task was done and what its implications would be on the future trends The future cost and time performance can be predicted as Cost Performance Index (CPI) = BCWP/ACWP Scheduled Performance Index (SPI)   = BCWP/BCWS An index of 1.

Cost-trends Forecasts    The trends can be used to forecast : Estimate to completion (ETA) for the balance works:   Estimate at completion (EAC) for the project: EAC = ETC + ACWP Project cost overrun at completion in percentage (PCOC): .