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DEFINITION  Eisenberg and Goodall (1997)  Communication as information transfer  Communication as transactional process  Communication as strategic control  Communication as balancing creativity and restraint. .


DEFINITION COMMUNICATION AS STRATEGIC CONTROL  Uses the metaphor of individuals attempting to control their environments through the use of strategic ambiguity. COMMUNICATION AS BALANCING CREATIVITY AND RESTRAINT  Uses the metaphor of balance. duality of structure .

. it can be described as evolutionary and culturally dependent.DEFINITION  Because the process is ever-changing.

people. . The process can be understood as a combination of process.DEFINITION  Process through which organizations are created and in turn create and shape events. messages. and purpose. meaning.

 AS PEOPLE  Is the creation and exchange of message within the group .DEFINITION AS PROCESS Creating relationships  Assisting both individuals and organizations in achieving diverse purposes.

 Creates and shapesorganizational events.DEFINITION AS MESSAGE The interactions of ever-changing behaviors often create multiple perceptions of events and multiple realities that become the process through which organizational meanings are generated.  .

DEFINITION AS MEANING  It is the process through which individuals and organizations attempt goal-oriented behavior in dealing with their environments. .

one-onone and group exchanges. . but not limited to.DEFINITION AS PURPOSE  Whereas interpersonal and group communication occur in organizations. organizational communication is a more comprehensive process including.

business communication.ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT  The field traces its lineage through business information. . and early mass communication studies published in the 1930s through the 1950s.

and in using the term "organizational communication". saying communication is "absolutely essential to organizations". W.ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT  Several seminal publications stand out as works broadening the scope and recognizing the importance of communication in the organizing process. . Nobel Laureate Herbert Simon wrote in 1947 about "organization communications systems". Charles Redding played a prominent role in the establishment of organizational communication as a discipline.

DEFINITION OF ORGANIZATION Basic: Opposite of confusion (Gerard Phillips)  General Systems Theory: A system of coordinated activities of a group of people working cooperatively toward a common goal under authority and leadership (William Scott).  .

and technological environment  Managerial Definition: The term organization describes that unit of work directly under the manager’s formal authority  . changing. active.DEFINITION OF ORGANIZATION Cultural Performance: An organization is an organic. human.

AREAS OF ORCOMM Theory  Gender  Diversity  Conflict  Relationships  Culture  Structure  Leadership  Non-verbals  Climate  Technology  Consulting  Ethics  .

STRUCTURE System of pathways through which messages flow  Patterns of interaction among people who comprise  The organization (who communicates with whom?)  .

STRUCTURE  Types of OrComm Structure  Formal  Informal .

STRUCTURE  Formal Communication  Communication through officially designated channels of message flow between organization positions  Usually found in organizational charts. policy manuals. or hierarchial structures .

STRUCTURE  Types of Formal Communication  Downward  Upward  Horizontal .

(Katz & Kahn. 1978)  Pro: efficient (fast) Con: managerial control  . job rationales. and indoctrination. feedback. procedures and practices information.STRUCTURE  Downward Communication  Communication that flows from upper to lower (such as manager to employer or superior to subordinate).  Types of messages: job instructions.

job related problems. fellow employees and their problems.STRUCTURE  Upward Communication Transmission of messages from lower to higher levels of the organization (such as communication initiated by subordinates with their superiors). tasks and procedures.   Pro: promotes morale among all employees Con: not enough superiors encourage subordinate  . subordinates perceptions of org policies and practices.  Types of messages: performance on the job.

STRUCTURE  Horizontal Communication Flow of messages across functional areas at a given level of an organization (this permits people at the same level to communicate directly).  Types of messages: facilitates problem solving.   Pro: Effective Con: Not efficient (time consuming)  . task coordination between departments and project teams. info sharing across different work groups.

 Social & Personal level    Pro: Creates a relaxed. formal system .STRUCTURE  Informal Communication Episodes of interaction that do not reflect officially designated channels of communication. comfortable climate Con: Should not become a substitute for an ineffective.

a culture is something an organization is. it is the puzzle.274)  .CULTURE Socially constructed reality  Organizational culture is not just another piece of the puzzle. culture is not something an organization has. From our point of view. (Geertz & Pacanowsky in Griffin p.

.CULTURE  Purpose of Culture:  Cultures offer an interpretation of an institution’s history that members can use to decipher how they will be expected to behave in the future.

CULTURE  Purpose of Culture:  Cultures can generate commitment to corporate values or management philosophy so that employees feel they are working for something they believe in Organizational Culture .

informally approving or prohibiting some patterns of behavior.CULTURE  Purpose of Culture:  Cultures serve as organizational control mechanisms. .

CULTURE  Purpose of Culture:  Some types of organizational cultures are associated with greater productivity and profitability. .

SCHOOLS OF ORCOMM  From the study of OrgComm emerged four dominant schools of perception which suggests appropriate organizational behavior and appropriate communication style .

SCHOOLS OF ORCOMM  The Classical School:  Scientific management (Frederick Taylor)  Three important key terms: Structure. Economic motivation. and Organizational Efficiency  Human behavior becomes an extension of organizational structure  Downward communication .

SCHOOLS OF ORCOMM  The Human Relations School:  Informal authority  Social Aspect of human behavior in organization (Elton Mayo) .

 Relationships between elements in the system are maintained long enough to be worth discovering .SCHOOLS OF ORCOMM  The Systems School:  Social dimensions of work combine with taskrelated behaviors to produce complex organizational systems.

SCHOOLS OF ORCOMM  The Technological School:  Technology’s influence on production and maintenance of the organization .

CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS  Constitution  when does something "become" an organization? When does an organization become another thing? .

CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS  Narrative  how do group members employ narrative to acculturate/initiate/indoctrinate new members? .

CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS  Identity  who do we see ourselves to be. in terms of our organizational affiliations?  do communicative behaviors or occurrences in one or more of the organizations in which we participate effect changes in us? To what extent do we consist of the organizations to which we belong? .

CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS  Interrelatedness of Organizational Experiences  how do our communicative interactions in one organizational setting affect our communicative actions in other organizational settings? .

CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS  Power  how does the use of particular communicative practices within an organizational setting reinforce or alter the various interrelated power relationships within the setting? Are the potential responses of those within or around these organizational settings constrained by factors or processes either within or outside of the organization – assuming there is an "outside"? .

WHY STUDY ORCOMM?  OrComm provides the basis for understanding virtually every human process that occurs in organizations. .

.WHY STUDY ORCOMM?  To be aware of communication skills that college graduates should possess in order to meet organizational expectation.

.WHY STUDY ORCOMM?  To start a path on a career as a communication professional in an organization or as an academic scholar in the field.

From the World Wide Web: http://oregonstate.1c901243&icp=1&. From the World Wide Web: http://www. From the World Wide Web: http://27.123.35/search/srpcache?ei=UTF8&p=introduction+to+organizational+communication&rd=r1&type=937811&fr=ch rgreentree_gc&u=http://cc. H.servinghistory.Y. (1968).SOURCES      Introduction to Organizational Communication: Frameworks for Understanding Organizational Communication. New York City: Harper & Row Publishers.194.bingj. P.intl=ph&sig=CZe25Fd0CCafQmpMYN5H0 Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon Publishers. Organizational Communication: Current Research Topics In Organizational Communication. Organizational Communication: Theory and nt_Research_Topics_In_Organizational_Communication.aspx?q=introduction+to+organization al+communication&d=4964050533025125&mkt=en-PH&setlang=enPH&w=6ada7102. Organizational Communication. Wilson. Organizational . (1997). Byers.