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Using Visual Association Skills to Learn Word Meanings & Deconstructing Verbs to Infer Character Emotions

Beth Lawrence, MA, CCC-SLP Deena Seifert, MS, CCC-SLP CommunicationAPPtitude.com

InferCabulary©

WordQuations©

DISCLOSURE STATEMENT
We are Beth Lawrence and Deena Seifert, speech-language pathologists and co-founders of Communication APPtitude LLC, which has, thus far, created two iPad vocabulary apps, InferCabulary© and WordQuations©. We have not yet financially benefitted from the sales of these apps, but plan to do so. The concepts presented in today’s course are concepts on which the apps were developed. We have no non-financial relationships to disclose.

Vocabulary Defined
In everyday language, vocabulary is the knowledge of words and word meanings.
In the education setting, vocabulary is the knowledge of the kinds of words that students must know to read increasingly demanding text with comprehension (Kamil & Hiebert, 2005)

Vocabulary and Comprehension
“Vocabulary is the glue that holds stories, ideas and content together…making comprehension accessible for children.”
(Rupley, Logan & Nichols 1999)

When do students KNOW a word?
“The ability to use a word in speaking or writing demonstrates true ownership of the word.”
(Moats, 2009, p. 7)

Vocabulary Research

What We Know…
Phonics Fluency

Vocabulary

READING COMPREHENSION

What we learned at 2012 International Dyslexia Association:

RESEARCH
PHONEMIC AWARENESS VOCAB -ULARY

FLUENCY

The National Reading Panel (NICHD, 2000)
 Identified vocabulary as one of five major components of reading

 Its importance to overall school success, and more specifically to reading comprehension, is widely documented (Baker, Simmons, & Kame’enui,
1998; Anderson & Nagy, 1991)

Early Vocabulary Struggles
•Children with restricted vocabulary by Grade 3 have declining comprehension scores in later elementary years. (Chall, Jacobs, & Baldwin, 1990) •By Grade 4, many children experience a “slump” in reading comprehension caused by below grade level vocabularies. (Becker, 1977; Chall, Jacobs &
Baldwin, 1990; Chall & Jacobs, 2003)

Matthew Effect
 Children learn most new vocabulary through wide reading.
 Children with reading problems/less access or interest in reading read less than proficient readers.  Children with reading problems read less challenging texts than proficient readers.

Matthew Effect
 The result is that children with reading problems read even less and choose simpler materials.
 The more words a child knows, the more complex text that child will be able to read.  The more complex texts a child can read, the more words they will learn.  The reverse is also true. Thus, the “rich get richer and the poor get poorer.”

Comprehension
“Adequate reading comprehension depends on a person already knowing 90–95% of the words in a text.” (Nagy & Scott, 2000)

What are Common Core Standards
“The Common Core State Standards provide a consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn, so teachers and parents know what they need to do to help them. The standards are designed to be robust and relevant to the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that our young people need for success in college and careers.”

Common Core Standards Initiative
 CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.L.4: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
 CCSS-ELA-Literacy.CCRA.L.6: Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.

Common Core Standards Initiative
 CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.L.4: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
 CCSS-ELA-Literacy.CCRA.L.6: Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.

Common Core Standards Initiative
 CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.L.6.5c: Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, unwasteful, thrifty).

Common Core Standards Initiative
 “They must also be able to determine or clarify the meaning of grade appropriate words encountered through listening, reading, and media use;
 come to appreciate that words have nonliteral meanings, shadings of meaning, and relationships to other words;  and expand their vocabulary in the course of studying content.”

Gold Standard Vocabulary Instruction

Writing dictionary definitions is not recommended practice

Multiple exposures: conceptual, contextual, & definitional.

Learning new concepts requires active involvement

“Owning” Vocabulary

We cannot just teach students to use context clues, because:
 Students may presume the wrong meaning.
 There is often not enough information in the text to allow students to adequately infer meaning.  The passage may be too general.  They may miss alternate contexts and believe they “know” the word.
From Bringing Words to Life, Beck & McKeown

National Reading Technical Assistance Center Research Synthesis 2010
 Vocabulary Knowledge: “Know the definition and how it functions in different contexts.” (Stahl and Kapinus 2001)

 Long-term vocabulary development: reading extensively is important. (Cunningham 2005)
 Computer technology can be used effectively to help teach vocabulary.

Depth of Word Knowledge
Can define it

Know It can use context clues, can answer simple questions about it
can categorize, provide synonyms/antonyms, part-whole, continuum, semantic features etc.

Which Vocabulary to Teach?
Tier 3
low frequency use limited to specific knowledge domains

Tier 2 high frequency, mature language users found across a variety of knowledge domains

isotope, lathe, peninsula, refinery clock, baby, ball, happy, run
Tier 1 basic words rarely require instruction Experienced frequently

coincidence, absurd, industrious

Example from Paragraph

Organizers

Vocabulary Continuum

Vocabulary Continuum
depressed

morose

sad

happy

overjoyed

ecstatic

Using Visual Association Skills to Learn Word Meanings

Visuals to Support Vocabulary
fotosearch.com, photospin.com or dreamstime.com to support comprehension More vocabulary cards coming home from various schools with a drawing or picture of some sort

It’s still not enough…

Case Study
This dyslexic student has: 119 Performance Quotient/86 Verbal Quotient:
Words from literature Her antonym after reading definition

prominent
reluctant procure obstinate intrigued

poor
outgoing want nice ignoring

The next week I presented these pages…

Prominent

Reluctant

Procure

Obstinate

Oblivious

Clutch

InferCabulary Method
©

for nouns and adjectives

We devised InferCabulary as a method to avoid using language (the students’ primary weakness) as the initial method to teach vocabulary meaning for nouns and adjectives.

InferCabulary

©

With InferCabulary, students are exposed to one PowerPoint page containing five or six images that represent the meaning of each vocabulary term in a variety of contexts, exposing students to multiple contexts at once.

Reluctant

Should I answer the question or just be quiet?

I don’t want to go to the vet!

I don’t want to know what it says!

I know this medicine will I don’t want to get up yet. make me better, but it makes me sick.

Reluctant
Synonyms unwilling hesitant afraid averse wary cautious Antonyms enthusiastic willing brave eager ready confident

reticent

brave

Using the InferCabulary Method
©

for nouns and adjectives

1. Have your student apply a self-rating to their vocabulary words.

2. Use the words that were rated #1 and #2.

Using the InferCabulary Method
©

(continued)

Go to a photo site (such as photospin.com, dreamstime.com, etc.), type in the word and see what images are available.
Look up synonyms for the word in thesaurus.

Go back to the photo site for additional contexts.
Download images or have the student draw them on a template.

InferCabulary©

InferCabulary
Method for nouns and adjectives

©
1

________________

________________

WORD: __________________
Easy to understand definition:

_______________

______ ________________ ________________
Communication APPtitude©

InferCabulary©

InferCabulary
Method for nouns and adjectives

©
1

________________ A car that won’t start

A brother listening to his ________________ little brother throw a fit

WORD: __________________
Easy to understand definition:

exasperated

A business man who dropped all his papers
_______________

A feeling of extreme frustration or irritation

___ ________________ A student who has a mountain of homework

A________________ man whose computer has crashed
Communication APPtitude©

InferCabulary©

InferCabulary
Method for nouns and adjectives

©
1

________________ The soldier is out of sight.

________________ The eggs are hidden in the grass. WORD: __________________
Easy to understand definition:

Concealed

The magician hid the cards.
_______________

Something that is hidden

______

The hoodie________________ keeps her identity a secret.

________________ The money is hidden away.
Communication APPtitude©

Create Definition Card
Definition:

Synonyms: Antonyms: Category: Associated with: I have:

Create Definition Card
Definition:

When you clutch something, you hold it tight
Hold, grasp, grip, seize, snatch, embrace, cling to Release, ease Action word Holding Extreme emotion: anxiety, fear, pain, happiness, love, excitement I clutched my purse when I was walking downtown because I was worried I might get robbed.

Synonyms: Antonyms: Category: Associated with: I have:

InferCabulary© on iPad

Deconstructing Verbs

Case Study: Charlie
Bright middle school student with “scattered” comprehension
Difficulty visualizing due to shallow understanding of verbs

Examples of glance from Number the Stars by Lois Lowry
“Her mother shook her head quickly, and glanced at the open window covered only by the sheer curtain. Annemarie understood.” “Another man arrived: an old man, bearded. Quietly he went to the living room and sat down, saying nothing to the others, who only glanced at him.” “Annemarie did instantly as she was told. The basket. The packet, at the bottom. She covered it with a napkin. Then some wrapped cheese. An apple. She glanced around the kitchen saw some bread and added that. The basket was full.”

WordQuations© Method for Verbs
Break down the synonym into an equation:

glance =
curious

look + fast + short +

no time
nervous

+

shy casual

Base word + speed + degree + emotion/motive (+quality)

WordQuations© Method for Verbs

plod

=
feet dragging

walk + slow + heavy + exhausted +

Base word + speed + heaviness + emotion/motive + quality

BASE WORD

+ FEATURE

+ FEATURE

+ EMOTION

= SYNONYM

+

+

+

=

Walk

Slow

Shuffling feet

Bored

Plod

BASE WORD

+ FEATURE

+ FEATURE

+ EMOTION

= SYNONYM

+ Walk Slow

+ Shuffling feet

+ Exhausted

= Plod

WordQuations© Method for Verbs

slink

=
Picking up
feet

walk + slow + light + secretive +

Base word + speed + heaviness + emotion/motive + quality

BASE WORD

+ FEATURE

+ FEATURE

+ EMOTION

= SYNONYM

+

+

+

=

Walk

Slow

Picking feet up

Secretive

Slink

BASE WORD

+ FEATURE

+ FEATURE

+ EMOTION

= SYNONYM

+ Walk Slow

+

+

=
Picking feet up Searching/ Hunting

Skulk

“Slink” featuring Ian Antal & Sarah Chin

Practice

WordQuations©

meander

yelp gaze scan

WordQuations©

WordQuations© WordQuations ©
Base Word + Speed + Quality + Motive + Emotion = Synonym

walk

slow

light heavy
loud

explore relaxed meander

talk

fast

Pain outrage
love admire predatory assess Looking for something

surprise

yelp

look

slow

long

Admiration wonder enjoys

gaze

read

fast

light

hurried curious

scan

Communication APPtitude©

“Meander” featuring Ian Antal & Sarah Chin

iPad

CommunicationAPPtitude@gmail.com

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CommunicationAPPtitude.com

Stop by our table in the Exhibit Hall #1546

Beth Lawrence, MA, CCC-SLP & Deena Seifert, MS, CCC-SLP