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Modern Systems Analysis and Design

Fifth Edition

Jeffrey A. Hoffer Joey F. George Joseph S. Valacich

Chapter 14 Designing Distributed and Internet Systems

Learning Objectives

Define the key terms client/server architecture, local area network LAN, distributed database, and middleware. Distinguish between file server and client/server environments and contrast how each is used in a LAN. Describe alternative designs for distributed systems and their trade-offs. Describe how standards shape the design of Internet-based systems.
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Learning Objectives (Cont.)

Describe options for ensuring Internet design consistency. Describe how site management issues can influence customer loyalty and trustworthiness as well as system security. Discuss issues related to managing online data, including context development, online transaction processing (OLTP), online analytical processing (OLAP), and data warehousing.
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Chapter 14

Designing Distributed and Internet Systems

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The Process of Designing Distributed and Internet Systems      Similar to designing single-location systems. To create effective design. there is a need to understand the characteristics of the architecture commonly used to support the systems © 2008 by Prentice Hall 5 Chapter 14 . networks. etc. performance. More opportunity for failure due to number of components (more processors. Main issues involve ensuring reliability. availability. locations. numerous design issues must be considered. Due to multi-location deployment. data. survivability.).

 Description of data usage for each site (use. building and location infrastructure issues).Deliverables and Outcome  Document that consolidates system design information:  Description of each site (physical location. data and processing needs of each site. destroy). Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 6 . update.  Description of business process for each site.  Contrasts of alternative IS architectures for site. create.

Deliverables and Outcome Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 7 .

Client/server architecture Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 8 .Designing Distributed Systems  Distributed systems use: LAN-based file server architecture.

Usually one computer on the LAN is designed as a File Server. and file servers located in a confined geographical area. computers. hardware. LAN supports a network of personnel computers .  Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 9 .  Typically within one building or campus. each computer is able to share common devices and software attached to LAN. and software used to connect workstations.Designing Systems for Local Area Networks (LANs)  LAN: the cabling.

Designing Systems for Local Area Networks (LANs)  The LAN module of a DBMS add Concurrent access controls Extra security features Query or transaction queuing management to support concurrent access from multiple users of a shared database 10 Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .

a PC might recognize a logical F:drive.   For example.File Servers File server: a device that manages file operations and is shared by each client PC attached to a LAN. which is actually a disk volume stored on a file server on LAN 11 Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .  Acts as an additional hard disk for each client PC.

File Servers When using a DBMS on a file server. there is one database on the file server and many concurrently running copies of the DBMS on each active PC client. each client is authorized to use the DBMS application program on that PC.  Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 12 .  Thus.

not at the file server. Software at the file server only queues access request. collaborative applications (e.g. shared printing). email) and shared data. disk drives. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 13 . File servers also provide additional resources (e. The file server acts simply as a data storage device and is an extension of a typical PC.g.File Servers    All data manipulation is performed at the client PC.

File Servers  If a client PC wants to view a single customer account record in a database stored on the server:  The file containing all customer account records will be sent over the network to the client  Once at PC . the file will be searched to find the desired record  Data security checks and file and record locking are done at the client PCs Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 14 .

File Servers Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 15 .

   Decentralized data control. the network is transferring large block of data and that creates a high network traffic load.Limitations of File Servers  Excessive data movement. Thus. Each client must be powerful to provide a suitable response time. recovery. and security control. © 2008 by Prentice Hall 16  Need for powerful client workstations.  Entire data tables must be transferred instead of individual records. The DBMS copy in each workstation must manage the shared data base integrity Each application program must recognize locks on data and initiate the proper lock Need to program each application with the proper concurrency control. Each client workstation must devote memory to a full DBMS.    Chapter 14 .

Designing Systems for a Client/Server Architecture  Client/server architecture: a LAN-based computing environment in which central database server or engine performs all database commands sent to it from client workstations. and application programs on each client concentrate on user interface functions. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 17 .

Designing Systems for a Client/Server Architecture    Application processing is divided between client and server. Database server is responsible for data storage and query processing. It also responsible for database recovery. security and concurrent access management © 2008 by Prentice Hall 18 Chapter 14 . Client manages the user interface (presenting data).

Designing Systems for a Client/Server Architecture Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 19 .

Designing Systems for a Client/Server Architecture (Cont.)   Database engine: the (back-end) portion of the client/server database system running on the server that provides database processing and shared access functions. The server must be more powerful than the server in a file server environment Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 20 .

Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 21 .Designing Systems for a Client/Server Architecture (Cont.)  Client: the (front-end) portion of the client/server database system that provides the user interface and data manipulation functions.

MYSQL. operating systems and application program)  client can be running any application system (VB or any fourth generation language) that can generate the proper commands (SQL) to request data from the server  The database engine might be DB2.Designing Systems for a Client/Server Architecture  Client environment decouple from server environment  Clients can consist of multiple types (e.g. Sybase or Oracle running of variety of platforms  Application program has an API for the database engine © 2008 by Prentice Hall 22 Chapter 14 . different computers.

such as user interfaces and printing.)  Application program interface (API): software building blocks that are used to ensure that common system capabilities.Designing Systems for a Client/Server Architecture (Cont. as well as modules are standardized to facilitate data exchange between clients and servers.  An API calls library routines that transparently route SQL commands from the front-end client application to the database server  Common API interface can be used by any kind of DBMS (MySQL. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 23 . or Oracle). Sybase.

 Encourages acceptance of open systems. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 24 .   Facilitates use of GUIs. Improves response time.  Processing performed close to data source.  Reduces network traffic.Client/Server Advantages and Cautions  Advantages  Leverages benefits of microcomputer technology.

problems may arise with compatibility. data administration of distributed data. query optimization. until the API evolves Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 25 . distributed databases.  Limited system design and performance monitoring tools. etc.Client/Server Advantages and Cautions  Cautions  Difficult migration from file server to client/server due to compatibility issues (data types. crossoperating system integration. CASE tool code generation.).  As versions of different front and back end tools change.

Choosing between file server and client server architectures  File server architecture Supports only the distribution of data  Act as a shared storage devices for all clients on the network entire program and databases must be transferred to each client when accessed  Appropriate for applications that are small in size with little or no concurrent data access by multiple users Client/server architecture  Support the distribution of data and processing  Client and server share the processing workload of a task and only transfer needed information  Appropriate for large systems   Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 26 .

Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 27 . including simple summarization to complex mathematical modeling such as regression analysis. security. including the display and printing of forms and reports and possibly validating system input Data analysis: these functions transform inputs into outputs.Advanced Forms of Client/Server Architectures  Client/server architecture represent the way different application system function can be distributed between client and server computer    Data management: these functions manage all interaction between software and file and database. updating. concurrency control and recovery Data processing: these functions manage just the interface between system users and the software. including data retrieval/querying.

© 2008 by Prentice Hall 28   Chapter 14 . presentation. referred to application server Application server: a computing server where data analysis functions primarily reside. Three-tiered client/server: advanced client/server architectures in which there are three logical and distinct applications – data management.Advanced Forms of Client/Server Architectures  Different client/server architecture distribute or partition each of these functions to one or both of the client or server computer or into a third computer. and analysis – that are combined to create a single information system.

software. and analysis together into a three-tiered client/server environment.   Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a Microsoft standard for database middleware ODBC driver resides in both client and server.Advanced Forms of Client/Server Architectures (Cont.)  Middleware: a combination of hardware. for example. and communication technologies that bring data management. an Access query to retrieve data stored in an Oracle database Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 29 . presentation. allow.

so changing one can be done independently of the other. Easier maintenance: data analysis is separate from user interface.Advanced Forms of Client/Server Architectures (Cont.)    Applications can be partitioned in a way that best fits the organizational computing need. Easier customization: application code resides on application server. 30 Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . so change done only in one place.

six architectures are possible  Distributed Presentation  This architecture is used to fresh up the deliver of existing server-based applications to distributed clients.Approaches to Designing Client/Server Architectures  Given the flexibility of placing data management. Technologies called “screen scarpers” work on client to simply reformat mainframe screen data Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 31 . presentation and analysis on two or more separate machines.

Approaches to Designing Client/Server Architectures  Remote Presentation   This architecture places all data presentation functions on the client machine so that the client has total responsibility for formatting data Provide greater flexibility since the presentation on the client will not be constrained by having to be compatible with applications on server Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 32 .

Approaches to Designing Client/Server Architectures  Remote Data Management  This architecture places all software on the client except for the data management functions Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 33 .

leaving all presentation on the client and all data management on the server. This is very difficult environment in which to develop.Approaches to Designing Client/Server Architectures  Distributed Function   This architecture splits analysis functions between the client and server. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 34 . test and maintain software due to the potential for considerable coordination between analysis functions on both client and server.

Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 35 .Approaches to Designing Client/Server Architectures  Distributed Database   This architecture places all functionality on the client. except data storage and management that is divided between client and server Very unstable architecture since it requires considerable compatibility and communication between software on the client and server.

This permits greater flexibility since analysis functions and data both can be located wherever it makes the most sense Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 36 .Approaches to Designing Client/Server Architectures  Distributed Processing   This architecture combines the best features of distributed function and distributed database by splitting both of these across client and server. with presentation functions under the responsibility of the client machine.

Designing Internet Systems

Most new system development focuses on Internet-base applications (for internal processing, business-to-business, and businessto-consumer).
This is motivated by:
 The

desire to take advantage of the global computing infrastructure of the Internet.  The comprehensive set of tools and standards that has been developed.

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Designing Internet Systems

There are numerous choices for designing an internet application. The design choice can greatly influence the ease of development and the future maintainability Main design issues:  standards,  separating content from display,  future evolution,  site consistency,  site management and  online data management.

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Standards Drive the Internet

Internet design is simpler than client/server due to the use of standards. Types of Standards:
 Domain

naming (BIND): a method for translating domain names into Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.
“B” refers to Berkeley, Ca. where first developed.  Domain name www.wsu.edu translates to 134.121.1.61

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Standards Drive the Internet
 Hypertext

Transfer Protocol (HTTP): a communication protocol for exchanging information on the Internet.
It defines how messages are formatted and transmitted as well as how web servers and browsers respond to commands.  For example, when you enter a URL into your browser, an HTTP command is sent to the appropriate Web server requesting the desired Web page.

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Standards Drive the Internet  Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): the standard language for representing content on the Web via command tags../table) to create tables  Very easy language to learn  Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 41 ./b) to bold text  (table…. (b…….

translating (HTTP) and formatting (HTML) enables designers to quickly craft systems because much of the complexity of the design and implementation is removed. 42  The Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .)  Having standardized naming (BIND). standards also free the designer from much of the worry of delivering applications over a broad range of computing devices and platforms.Standards Drive the Internet (Cont.

new language are being developed to separate content (data) from its display.Separating Content and Display  HTML limitations  Tags are formatting oriented. 43 Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall . making it difficult to distinguish data from formatting information  Wireless internet phones cannot display HTML due to limited screen space  Has fixed set of tags  To address these problems.

transmission.  Designed to separate content from display  XML tags define what the data mean and do not contain an formatting information Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 44 . validation.Separating Content and Display  eXtensible MarkupLanguage (XML): an Internet-authoring language that allows designers to create customized tags. enabling the definition. and interpretation of data between applications.

90</PRICE> <YEAR>1985</YEAR> </CD> Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 45 .0" encoding="ISO8859-1" ?> <CATALOG> <CD> <TITLE>Empire Burlesque</TITLE> <ARTIST>Bob Dylan</ARTIST> <COUNTRY>USA</COUNTRY> <COMPANY>Columbia</COMPANY> <PRICE>10.Separating Content and Display <?xml version="1.

Separating Content and Display   HTML will remain a popular tool for developing personal Web pages XML will become the tool of choice for commercial internet application Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 46 .

  Thin clients (such as network PCs.Future Evolution  Thin client: a client device designed so that most processing and data storage occur on the server. wireless phones) are being designed to operate as clients in internet-based environments Thin client are appropriate for doing a minimal amount of clientside processing  Fat client: a workstation that can provide significant amounts of client-side storage and processing Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 47 . handheld computers.

 WML is an XML-based markup language that was designed specifically to describe how WAP content is presented on a wireless terminal Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 48 .Future Evolution    HTTP and HTML standards support the delivery of internet content to desktop PCs Other standard architectures are needed for delivering internet applications to wireless mobile devices Use of wireless mobile devices  Wireless Application Protocol (WAP): a wireless version of HTTP.  Wireless Markup Language (WML): a wireless version of HTML.

 There are many techniques to ensure the consistency of the site‟s appearance for any type of device Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 49 .Site Consistency  A well designed system will isolate the content presentation from the business logic and data  This to allow any internet capable device to become a part of overall distributed system.

It is a poor design decision to not to enforce a standard look to entire site  Development and maintenance can become a nightmare when implementing changes to colors. fonts across thousands of web pages within a site.Site Consistency   Professionalism requires a consistent look-and-feel across all pages of a Web site.  CSSs simplify site maintenance and ensure that pages are consistent 50 Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .  Cascading Style Sheets (CSSs): a set of style rules that tells a Web browser how to present a document.

© 2008 by Prentice Hall 51 Chapter 14 . color: red } H2 { font-size: large. color: blue } </STYLE> </HEAD>   This method is not the best method for implementing CSSs because each page will have to be changed if a single change is made to a site‟s style.Site Consistency A style sheet may be embedded within each page in the document Head element: <HEAD> <TITLE>CSS Example</TITLE> <STYLE TYPE="text/css"> H1 { font-size: x-large.

css" TYPE="text/css" MEDIA=screen> <LINK REL=StyleSheet HREF="color-8b. print">   Using HTML LINK element. only a single file needs to be updated when changing style elements across an entire site.css" TYPE="text/css" TITLE="8-bit Color Style" MEDIA="screen. 52 Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .Site Consistency An external style sheet may be linked to an HTML document through HTML's LINK element: <LINK REL=StyleSheet HREF="style.

)  Extensible Style Language (XSL): a specification for separating style from content when generating HTML documents.Site Consistency (Cont. © 2008 by Prentice Hall 53 Chapter 14 .  This separation standardizes a sites “look and feel” without having to customize to the capabilities of individual devices.  XSL allows designers to apply single style templates to multiple pages. XSL provides designers with specification that allows XML content to be displayed on various client device.

)  XSL-based formatting consists of two parts:  Methods for transforming XML documents into a generic comprehensive form.  Methods for formatting the generic comprehensive form into a device-specific form.Site Consistency (Cont. This content is then translated to a device-specific format and displayed to the user. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 54 .  For example XML content queried from a remote data source is formatted based on rules within an associated XSL style sheet.

Site Consistency (Cont.0'?> <xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.) <?xml version='1.org/TR/WD-xsl"> <xsl:template match="/"> <html> <body> <table border="2" bgcolor="yellow"> <tr> <th>Title</th> <th>Artist</th> </tr> <xsl:for-each select="CATALOG/CD"> <tr> <td><xsl:value-of select="TITLE"/></td> <td><xsl:value-of select="ARTIST"/></td> </tr> </xsl:for-each> </table> </body> </html> </xsl:template> </xsl:stylesheet> Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 55 .

choose words that assist users.Other Site Consistency Issues   Two key issues should be considered (page titles):  Use unique titles.  Do not use title such as “Welcome to My company but use “My company – Home Page” Major problem is users do not know where they are going when they follow a hyperlink. a or the at the beginning of the title.  Given that titles are used for summarizing page content.  Give each page a unique identity that represents its purpose and assists user navigation  Choose words carefully.  Eliminate the use of articles such as an. © 2008 by Prentice Hall 56 Chapter 14 .

correct. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 57 . they must feel that the site and their data are secure.Design Issues Related to Site Management  Customer Loyalty and Trustworthiness  In order to the web site to become the preferred method for the customers to interact with. data privacy policy) Comprehensive.  Designers   can convey trustworthiness in a web site by:   Design quality: a professional appearance and clear navigation Up-front disclosure: immediately inform users of all aspects of the customer relationship (e. and current content. Connected to the rest of the Web.g. shipping charge.

Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 58 .Design Issues Related to Site Management  Customer Loyalty and Trustworthiness  Personalization:  providing Internet content to a user based upon knowledge of that customer. The site is able to personalize content because the system learns each customers buying preferences and builds a profile based upon his history  Customization: Internet sites that allow users to customize the content and look of the site based on their personal preferences.

you cannot remove a page without running the risk of losing customers Links from Other Sites: Search Engine Referrals. Old Content Adds Value: old content can remain useful to users because of historic interest for recent events   Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 59 .Design Issues Related to Site Management  Web Pages Must Live Forever   Customer Bookmarks: because customers may bookmark any page on your site.

successful sites strike an appropriate balance between security and ease of use  “Remember my password”: this feature will make a users experience at a site much more convenient and smooth but it also results in a less secure environment   Use of cookies: store user information in client or server side cookies rather than requiring users to reenter information each time they visit the site © 2008 by Prentice Hall 60 Chapter 14 . security and ease of use are in conflict with each other  A secure system is much less user friendly whereas an easy-touse system is often less secure For designing an internet-based system.Design Issues Related to Site Management System Security  In a distributed system.

 This is necessary to ensure that data can be effectively collected. stored.Online Data Management  Context development : a method that helps analysts to better understand how a system fits within the existing business activities and data. metrics – integration depth and organizational breath – can be used to define a system‟s context. and managed. © 2008 by Prentice Hall 61  Two Chapter 14 .

Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 62 .Online Data Management  Integration depth: a measurement of how far into the existing technology infrastructure a system penetrates.  Shallow integration: will have minimal real-time coexistence with existing data sources.  Deep integration: the system both retrieves data from and sends data directly into the existing system.

 A narrow breadth reflects a situation in which very few departments use or access the system. © 2008 by Prentice Hall 63 Chapter 14 .Online Data Management  Organizational breadth: a measurement that tracks the core business functions affected by a system.  A wide breadth reflects a situation in which many distinct organizational area have some type of interaction with the system.

processing orders. printing receipts).  Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 64 . receiving user information.Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) Online transaction processing (OLTP): the immediate automated responses to the requests of users (e.g.  Designed to handle multiple concurrent transactions.

Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 65 .

Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 66 .  Technology chosen to process the transactions.  Data organization.  Important decisions when designing Internet systems:   The speed at which the DBMS can process transactions.Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) OLTP Plays a large role in electronic commerce applications.

 OLAP server is the chief component that understands how data are organized in the database and has special functions for analyzing the data.Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) Online analytical processing (OLAP): the use of graphical software tools that provide complex analysis of data stored in a database.  Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 67 .

 Enables user to “drill-down” into the data. beyond data summaries and aggregation of normal database queries.  Has the ability to answer „what if‟ and „why‟ questions.  Good for time series and trend analysis. 68 Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall .Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)  OLAP tools enable users to analyze different dimensions of data.

g. business analysts.  Data are consolidated into a comprehensive data warehouse from which OLAP tools can be used to extract the greatest and broadest understanding from the data. sales order processing.  Purpose: run the business on a current basis  Primary users: online customers. salespersons  Informational systems: systems designed to support decision making based on stable point-in-time or historical data.  Purpose: support managerial decision making  Primary users: mangers. clerks. history) Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 69 . customer(checking status.Merging Transaction and Analytical Processing  Operational systems: systems that are used to interact with customers and run a business in real time (e. reservation systems).

time-variant. nonvolatile collection of data used in support of management decision making. integrated. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 70 .Data Warehousing  Data warehouse: a subject-oriented.

students or products).  Integrated: data are collected from many operational systems within the organization and from external data sources and made to conform to standards (e. structure and related characteristics). customers.g.g.)  Key features:  Subject-oriented: organized around key subjects of the enterprise (e. encoding. patients. consistent naming conventions. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 71 . formats.Data Warehousing (Cont.

 Nonvolatile: data in the data warehouse are loaded and refreshed from operational systems. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 72 .Data Warehousing (Cont. but cannot be updated by users.)  Time-variant: data contains a time dimension so that they may be used as historical records pertaining to the business.

can provide a broad and coherent picture of business conditions at a single point in time.)  Data warehouses contain a broad range of data that. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 73 . if analyzed appropriately.Data Warehousing (Cont.

It contains both detailed and summary data. © 2008 by Prentice Hall 74 Chapter 14 . Users access the data warehouse via query languages and analytical tools. The data from the various source systems are transform and integrate before being load in to data warehouse.)  Data warehouse architecture  Two-level architecture  Three-level architecture  Four basic steps to build a data warehouse using twolevel architecture:     Extract data from various source system files and databases.Data Warehousing (Cont. Data warehouse is a read-only database organized for decision support.

Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 75 .)  Two level Architecture:  Data warehouse and decision support environment.Data Warehousing (Cont.

 with a large number of data sources and a heterogeneous computing environment. the two level architecture leads to problems in maintaining data quality and managing the data extraction process Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 76 .Data Warehousing (Cont.)  Two level Architecture:  Works well in small to medium sized companies with a limited number of hardware and software platforms and a relatively homogenous computing environment.

Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 77 .  Data marts.  An enterprise data warehouse.Data Warehousing  Three-level architecture:  Operational systems and data.

the EDW is too large and too complex for users to navigate for most decision support applications. integrated data warehouse that is the control point and single source of all data made available to end users for decision support applications throughout the entire organization.Data Warehousing  Enterprise data warehouse (EDW): a centralized. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 78 .    A centralized control point ensures the quality and integrity of data before they are made available to end users The single data source provides an accurate. consolidated historical record of business for time-sensitive data For large organizations.

  Contain selected information from the EDW such that each data mart is customized for the decision support applications of a particular end-user group For example an organization may have several data marts such as marketing data mart or finance data mart Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 79 .)  Data mart: a data warehouse that is limited in scope: its data are obtained by selecting and (where appropriate) summarizing data from the enterprise data warehouse.Data Warehousing (Cont.

inventories. organizing. The content is stored in a single repository along with templates for formatting any type of Web pages within the organization's Web site.Web Site Content Management   Content management system (CMS): a special type of software application for collecting. and publishing Web site content from multiple organizational data sources such as data warehouses. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 80 . personal databases.

customers. the same underlying content can be presented differently to different audiences.Web Site Content Management   Because content and formatting is separated by CMS. employees. or suppliers.as well as for different devices. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 81 . CMS allows content developers and sources to provide updated information for a Web site without having to know any thing about HTML  A personnel manager could author a new job description and post it on the CMS server using WP  The CMS server merge the job posting text with a standard template which automatically formats it into a standard Web page.

 Potential to provide customers with improved service when looking for additional products that accessorize PVF‟s product line.Electronic Commerce Application: Designing a Distributed Advertisement Server for PVF‟s WebStore  Benefits for including advertising:  Potential to increase revenue generated from the WebStore. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 82 .  Potential to create cross-promotions and alliances with other online commerce systems.

 Advertisement must be uniform in size and resolution.Advertising on PVF‟s WebStore  List of advertisement system concerns:  Advertisement must be served quickly so that site performance is not affected. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 83 .  Advertisement links must not redirect the user‟s browser away from the WebStore. so as not to disrupt the site layout.

based on where the user is in the WebStore.  Log the transaction.Designing the Advertising Component  Transactional requirements are:  Determine which advertisements apply.  Check for any seasonal or promotional advertisements. Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 84 .  Personalize the advertisement if the identity of user and preferences are known.

clicked on an advertisement for lamps?”  “How many advertisements were served to shoppers looking at filing cabinets?” Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 85 .Designing the Management Reporting Component  Queries for top-management:  “How many women. when shopping for desks.

Designing the Management Reporting Component  How many people clicked on the first advertisement they saw?”  “How many people clicked on an advertisement and then purchased something from the WebStore?” Chapter 14 © 2008 by Prentice Hall 86 .

distributed database. Describe how standards shape the design of Internet-based systems. Distinguish between file server and client/server environments and contrast how each is used in a LAN. Describe alternative designs for distributed systems and their trade-offs. and middleware. © 2008 by Prentice Hall 87 Chapter 14 .Summary      In this chapter you learned how to: Define the key terms client/server architecture. local area network LAN.

online analytical processing (OLAP). online transaction processing (OLTP).)    Describe options for ensuring Internet design consistency. Describe how site management issues can influence customer loyalty and trustworthiness as well as system security. © 2008 by Prentice Hall 88 Chapter 14 . including context development. and data warehousing. Discuss issues related to managing online data.Summary (Cont.