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Physical Activity & Health

This lecture has been dedicated to Olympics games in Beijing, China

Aug 08-24, 2008 By Supercourse Team

Physical Activity & Health

Lecture Developers (Supercourse Team) Soni Dodani MD, PhD Others: Ali Ardalan, Eugene Shubnikov, Francios Sauer,Faina Linkov, Mita Lovelaker, Jesse Huang, Nicholas Padilla, Rania Saad, Ron LaPorte Questions: How to join the Supercourse:

Learning Objectives
To encourage students to be physically active To illustrate Exercise and its effect on disease prevention To provide examples of simple, moderate intensity physical activity To encourage regular physical activity in developing countries with focus on women To encourage physical fitness in people with disabilities To build an Olympic Physical activity and health supercourse

The Olympic Games This Year Beijing 2008

Population 14,000,000 Visitors 2-2.5,000,000 Athletes 18,000 Helpers 5,000 Referees 2,500 Volunteers 6,000 Journalists 15,000

What is Physical Activity

Physical activity Bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in an expenditure of energy

A measure of a person's ability to perform physical activities that require endurance, strength, or flexibility.

Physical fitness

Regular physical activity

A pattern of physical activity is regular if activities are performed in some order


Physical activity is something you do. Physical fitness is something you acquire, a characteristic or an attribute one can achieve by being physically active. And exercise is structured and
tends to have fitness as its goal"


Spectrum of Physical Activity and Health

Physically Fit

Physically disabled

Physically Active

LaPorte RE: Am J Epidemiol. 1984 Oct;120(4):507-17

Differences between Exercise and Sport Exercise

Its a form of physical activity done primarily to improve ones health and fitness. Sports Is complex, institutionalized, competitive and these very characteristics works against moderate and rhythmical exercise.
CDC 1999

Common Reasons Not To Exercise

I dont have the time I dont like to sweat Ill look silly It hurts I dont know what to do Its not important

Why Exercise ???

Do you know?
13.5 million people have coronary heart disease. 1.5 million people suffer from a heart attack in a given year. 250,000 people suffer from hip fractures each year. Over 60 million people (a third of the population) are overweight. 50 million people have high blood pressure.

(WHO, 2003)

Do you Know that.

Adjusted RR for CVD Mortality by Fitness and % Body Fat

Adjusted RR for All-Cause Mortality by Fitness and % Body Fat

2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

Do you Know that.

Fit Unfit

lean <16%

Normal 16-24%

Obese >24%

Do you know that

Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in most part of the world Children are eating more and exercising less. Time spent watching television or using computers This lack coupled with poor dietary habits has led to significant increases in the number of children with Type II diabetes and predisposition to hypertension, coronary artery disease and others

All of these can be Prevented by Regular Physical Activity !!!

How Physical Activity Impacts Health

Helps control weight. Reduces feelings of depression and anxiety. Helps build and maintain healthy bones, muscles, and joints. Reduces the risk of developing colon cancer. Helps reduce blood pressure in people who already have high blood pressure. Causes the development of new blood vessels in the heart and other muscles. Enlarges the arteries that supply blood to the heart. WHO 2002

Health Risk of Physical Inactivity

Leading causes of disease and disability associated with physical inactivity
Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) 2. Stroke 3. Obesity 4. Type II Diabetes 5. Hypertension 6. Colorectal cancer 7. Stress and Anxiety 8. Osteo-arthritis 9. Osteoporosis 10.Low back pain

What Can Exercise do for You?

Reduce the risk of the three leading causes of death: Heart Disease, stroke, and cancer

Control or prevent development of Disease

Enhance Mental Abilities

Improve Sleeping Habits and Increase Energy


Lift Depression and Help Manage Stress

Control Weight, improving self-image, appearance and health

FACT Sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor for CVD, according to the American Heart Association

Exercise & Cardiovascular Disease

Exercise reduces Blood Pressure


blood pressure (above 140/90) is the main cause of Heart Attack and Stroke

Exercise prevents Atherosclerosis (clogged arteries)


reduces cholesterol plaques that clog arteries and can lead to stroke and heart attack WHO 2002

Exercise and Cancer

The Basics Exercise helps to prevent obesity, a major risk factor for several types of cancer Exercise enhances immune function Exercise activates antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from free radical damage
WHO 2002

Exercise and Diabetes

Increase insulin sensitivity Control blood glucose

Control Weight/Lower body fat

Reduce risk of cardiovascular disease
WHO 2002

Exercise and Depression

Exercise can help prevent depression. In fact, recent studies have shown that exercise was found to be just as effective (despite a slower initial response) as antidepressant medication for treatment of depression.

reduces health problems , making you feel better Exercise helps you sleep better Exercise controls weight, enhancing selfesteem
WHO 2002

Exercise and Your Mind

Short-term benefits: Boost alertness (possibly by triggering the release of epinephrine and nor epinephrine) Improve memory Improve intellectual function Spark creativity Long-term benefits: Exercise has been shown to slow and even reverse age-related decline in mental function and loss of short-term memory
A report of Surgeon general, Physical Activity and health, 1996

Opportunities for Physical Activity

At work For transport In domestic duties In leisure time

The majority of people do very little or no physical activity in any of these domains

Getting Started.Setting Goals

What will motivate you? Think about your reasons for exercising Are your goals important enough to keep you motivated long-term? Think short-term and long-term How will you benefit from your fitness plan day-to-day? In 1 year? In 5 years? In 10 years?

Before You Start...

If you are over 40 or have health problems (heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, muscle or joint problems) see a physician before beginning exercise

Be informed

as much as you can about exercise by reading and talking to other people Learn safety precautions before you do any exercise

Fitness Equipment / Safety

Fitness Equipment / Safety
Buy Appropriate SHOES Wear Comfortable Clothing TOO HOT! TOO COLD! Run and Walk with a Friend

More fun, safer, with a physical and mental support system

Night Time: stay to the well lit areas Select activities that are fun .. To YOU!

Get Moving!

Components of an exercise program Aerobic Activity Strength Training Flexibility Training Use an exercise log to help you plan and keep track of your exercise program
WHO 2002

Aerobic Activity
Definition Continuous movement that uses big muscle groups and is performed at an intensity that causes your heart, lungs, and vascular system to work harder than at rest Cardio respiratory Fitness is built through aerobic exercise Aerobic exercise conditions and strengthens our heart, respiratory system, muscles, and immune system
CDC physical activity report 1999

Types of Aerobic Exercise

Outdoor Activities
Jogging/running Bicycling

Indoor Activities

Basketball Soccer Jumping


machine Stair climbing machine Stationary bike Elliptical trainer Rowing machine Aerobics, boxing...

Strength Training
Muscle work against resistance that improves strength and endurance Strength allows us to move, and endurance allows us to perform work over time

Muscles = 40% of our lean body mass

Use it or lose it: unused muscle disappears (atrophy)

Types of Strength Training

Free Weights

Your body, your weight


of dumbbells and/or bars with weights on the ends involves balance and coordination; useful for enhancing function in daily activities and recreational sports Bonuses: convenient, cheap, and provides a wide variety of exercises that work several muscle groups together

most convenient form of resistance exercise Pushups, pull-ups,. Lunges, squats.

Flexibility Training
Flexibility = The ability to move a joint through its range of motion

lose flexibility with disuse and aging


chance of muscular injury, soreness, and pain Helps prevent and reduce lower back pain Improves joint health (tight muscles stress our joints)

Activities stretching, yoga, pilates, tai chi

Frequency: 3-5 days per week


How Much and How Hard?

exercise: a minimum if 3 days a week are necessary to reach most exercise goals and minimize health benefits Strength training: a minimum of 2 days per week Flexibility training: a minimum of 3-5 days per week Duration Aerobic: 20-60 minutes of continuous aerobic activity Strength: 1-3 sets of 8-12 repetitions Stretching: Stretch all muscle groups and hold positions for 10-30 seconds

What time of day is best?


Timing Questions

the most convenient time for your schedule Choose a regular time--the same time every day Timing may depend on the activity you choose

Can I eat before exercise?


is best not to eat a meal for 2 hours beforehand Be sure to drink plenty of water before and during exercise

Should I exercise when Im sick?


especially if you have a fever

Exercise for people with special needs

People with disabilities are less likely to engage in regular moderate physical activity than people without disabilities, yet they have similar needs to promote their health and prevent unnecessary disease Exercise is for everyone!!!!!!! Individuals who have physical disabilities or chronic, disabling conditions such as arthritis can improve muscle stamina and strength with regular physical activity

Exercise for people with special needs

"You don't stop exercising because you grow old. You grow old because you stop exercising." Anonymous

People with disabilities should first consult a physician before beginning a program of physical activity to which they are unaccustomed Provide community-based programs to meet the needs of persons with disabilities. Ensure that environments and facilities conducive to being physically active are available and accessible to people with disabilities, such as offering safe, accessible, and attractive trails for bicycling, walking, and wheelchair activities.

Exercise for Women in developing countries


has been several studies which have shown that less emphasis is given to exercise especially in women The reasons are several and most important one is awareness. Women sports are not encouraged in most of developing countries There is stigma that women should not be involved in outdoor sports

Exercise is for everyone

There is need for awareness for physical fitness in developing countries Exercise is not only for men but for everyone With commitment, opportunities can be developed. Even shopping malls provide opportunities for fitness walking

CDC 1997

Health Risks of Physical Activity

Most musculo-skeletal injuries sustained during physical activity are likely to be preventable Injuries sustained during competitive sports have been shown to increase the risk of developing osteoarthritis Serious cardiac events can occur with physical exertion. The overall benefit of regular physical activity is lower all-cause mortality


exercise regularly gradually increase intensity rest between sessions warm-up and cool down stay flexible dont exercise when sick dont exercise when muscles are fatigued and straining know proper form for any activity you do

Caring for Injuries

Rest: stop immediately Ice: apply immediately and repeat every few hours for 15-20 minutes Compress: wrap injured area with elastic bandage Elevation: raise injured area above heart After 2 days, apply heat if there is no swelling Gradually ease back into activity when pain is gone


Physical inactivity is one of the top 10 leading causes of death and disability in the developed world Exercise improves our body and minds Even moderate exercise has many health benefits It is important to set fitness goals that are realistic and meaningful for you It takes time to make fitness part of a lifestyle, and we will all have ups and downs in following our exercise programs Exercise feels good!

The first wealth is health."

Ralph Waldo Emerson