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AGILE OVERVIEW

Prepared By: Jennifer Brower PMP, CSM

ABOUT JENNIFER BROWER
Worked as an IT Consultant for 15 years; 7 as an Agile PM
Northern Trust Aon Hewitt JP Morgan Chase Accenture West Suburban Bank BP Robert Bosch New Labor Strategies

Masters Information Systems Management, Keller Graduate School of Management - 2007 Project Management Professional – May, 2008 Masters Project Management, Keller Graduate School of Management – 2009 Brower Technology, LLC – January, 2011 Certified ScrumMaster – May, 2013
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AGENDA
Delivering Business Value

What Is Agile?
What Is Scrum? Quick Iteration Walkthrough Using Scrum
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DELIVERING BUSINESS VALUE
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Why We Are Here In The First Place

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DELIVERING BUSINESS VALUE IS NOT EASY…
―Of the work executed: ―Many (possibly most) organizations lose as much as 45% of their total revenues due to costs associated with low quality‖ ~
Six Sigma

―Some 75 percent of most large-scale J2EE projects fail by missing both time and budget projections …‖ ~ Mark
Driver, Gartner

―64% of features actually delivered are either rarely or never used‖ ~ Jim Johnson, Standish Group
(Source: Chris Cooper-Bland, Senior Architect @ Endava Ltd)

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OBSTACLES OF DELIVERING BUSINESS VALUE
Cost Communication Difficulty adapting to change

Static, possibly outdated, documentation
Customer involvement Visibility Not balancing time, cost, and scope The software development methodologies and company culture can be a help or a hindrance to these challenges!

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WHAT ARE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES?
There are several models and each achieves different objectives depending on the project’s aims and goals Specify the various stages of the process and the order in which they are carried out

The model greatly impacts on the testing plan and largely determines which test techniques to use
Most well known:
 Waterfall (Linear)  Agile (Iterative)

(Source: http://istqbexamcertification.com/what-are-the-software-development-models/)

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HISTORY OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES

AGILE e.g. XP (Kent Beck)

WATERFALL (Royce) Requirements, design implementation, verification & maintenance Waterfall

RUP (Rational) user Incremental, driven, low process RAD Object oriented, (James Martin) iterative, time-boxed, user driven RUP Prototyping, iterative, time-boxed, user driven RAD SPIRAL MODEL (Barry Boehm) V-MODEL (Anon) Iterative Spiral Model Aligns testing to Waterfall development V-Model

1960

1970

1980

85

91

98 99

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WHEN CHOOSING A SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT MODEL…
It is important to ask if the software development model: Maximizes customer satisfaction? Provides transparency to all team members? Improves ability to make decisions and facilitate understanding of how decisions impact on time, cost, and scope? Reduces costs?  Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Improves Quality? Improves Time-To-Market (TTM)? Meets your documentation needs?

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ROYCE’S WATERFALL SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT MODEL
Requirements Design Implementation Verification

Installation & Maintenance

        

Winston Royce – 1970 - First formal description - flawed, non-working Each phase is followed in order Move to next phase ONLY IF preceding phase is complete & perfect! Requirements do not change mid-project Preparation is done at the beginning of the project Communication with the client is at a minimum Involves extensive amount of planning and documentation Possible execution time of months or years depending on the scope Emphasis early in process creates exact requirements & design
(Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waterfall_model https://www.atcoresystems.com/blog/view/project-management-agile-vs-waterfall)

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WHAT IS AGILE?
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How Does It Deliver Business Value??

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WHAT IS AGILE?
• Defined as: ―Able to move quickly and easily‖ • Software Development Framework based on the Agile Manifesto • Iterative, rather than linear • Customer & Team Driven • Basis for Methodologies like Scrum, XP, Lean, & Kanban • Eliminates waste • Amplify learning • Decide as late and fast as possible • Empower the team • Build integrity into the process • See the whole picture
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AGILE DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY
Agile Development Methodology helps overcome challenges.  Key concepts  Focuses on planning (either in iterations or releases)  Encourages change  Results in plans that are easily changed  Is spread throughout the project  Daily communication with customer and development team  Customer is an integral part of the team  Examples  SCRUM  XP (Extreme Programming)
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AGILE MISCONCEPTIONS
―letting the programming team do whatever they need to with no project management, and no architecture, allowing a solution to emerge, the programmers will do all the testing necessary with Unit Tests…‖

Agile does not mean:

Agile is NOT a free for all where you no longer do documentation! Chris Peckham will be discussing Agile documentation requirements for Northern Trust’s audit purposes this year. To provide input, email Chris or visit PSG SharePoint Site.

A project is NOT Agile merely because meetings are labeled as “Scrum.”

(Source: Chris Cooper-Bland, Senior Architect @ Endava Ltd) 8/7/2013 PREPARED BY: JENNIFER BROWER PMP, CSM 14

MANIFESTO FOR AGILE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. (Source: http://agilemanifesto.org)
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12 PRINCIPLES OF THE AGILE MANIFESTO
1. Satisfy the customer by frequent product delivery 2. Welcome changing requirements anytime 3. Deliver working software frequently 4. Business people and developers work together 7. Measure working progress by working software 8. Maintain a constant working, sustainable pace 9. Strive for technical and design excellence 10. Keep it as simple as possible

5. Build project around motivated individuals, support them, and trust them
6. Communicate face to face whenever possible

11. High performing teams a re selfdirecting and self-organizing
12. Continuously improving the team process and the product

(Source: http://agilemanifesto.org/principles.html) 8/7/2013 PREPARED BY: JENNIFER BROWER PMP, CSM 16

AGILE TRIPLE CONSTRAINT
Emphasis on bringing business value to the project

Value
Agile Triple Constraint

Traditional Project Management Triple Constraint
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Time Scope Cost

Quality

Emphasis on producing a quality product that the customer needs & wants
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WHY USE AGILE?
•Competition has demanded that businesses are more nimble and agile; lead rather than react •In turn, product development has to meet business demand by delivering problem solutions quickly and accepting and incorporating change required by business rapidly •Businesses who are most agile will likely outperform and outlast competitors •The best companies will integrate IT and product development into the business structure, not merely view it or treat it as a service

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AGILE PRACTICES: THE RESULT
Greater customer satisfaction  Improved transparency in the development process and greater customer control of the project  Early production of working software and frequent demonstrations prevent divergence between product desired and product produced  Earlier releases provide opportunity to realize ROI sooner Accurate documentation Reduction in Costs  Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Improve Quality

Improve Time-To-Market (TTM)
Retrospectives (―Lessons learned‖) – mid-point and end of project Customer Survey (post-project)
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USING SCRUM
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Isn’t Agile Scrum? I thought Agile was Scrum??

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WHAT IS SCRUM?
Scrum is an Agile framework for completing complex projects. Scrum originally was formalized for software development projects, but it works well for any complex, innovative scope of work. The possibilities are endless. The Scrum framework is deceptively simple.

http://www.scrumalliance.org/why-scrum

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WHO USES SCRUM?
•Anybody who has a complex project can benefit from using Scrum. Prioritize large to-do lists into manageable tasks with improved teamwork, better communication, and faster results. •Scrum has streamlined software development — and professionals from around the world are starting to see the value of using Scrum. Of all the possible Agile frameworks used by companies, 66 percent are Scrum or Scrum variants. •Examples include: Siemens, Robert Bosch, Intel, Amazon, Rockwell, US Military, and more

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WHY USE SCRUM?
•Scrum has the power to transform project management across every industry, every business, and even across life in general. By using Scrum, you’ll become more Agile, discovering how to react more quickly and respond more accurately to the inevitable change that comes your way. And by staying focused, collaborating, and communicating, you can accomplish what truly needs to be done — successfully. •Most important, Scrum is not unproven hype. It’s a solid and successful Agile framework that’s been applied to a variety of projects and teams. Universities use Scrum to deliver valued projects to clients. Militaries have relied on Scrum to prepare ships for deployment. In the automotive world, Team Wikispeed is using Scrum to build a fast, affordable, ultra-efficient, safe commuter car that should sell for less than $20,000.
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SCRUM PRINCIPLES & VALUES
3 Scrum Principles
• Transparency • Inspectability • Adaptability

5 Scrum Values
• • • • • Commitment (Keep promises made) Focus (Do what it takes to make commitments) Openness (Hide nothing, even if bad) Respect (Apply golden rule to all) Courage (Stand up for what is right)

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SCRUM PROCESS EXPLAINED

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SCRUM FRAMEWORK
•Scrum is a framework for building a product incrementally over a series of short time periods called sprints.
 Sprint - Fixed time period, up to four weeks long but with a preference toward shorter intervals.  During each sprint, the Scrum team builds and delivers a product increment.  Each increment is a recognizable, visibly improved, operating subset of the product, meeting understood acceptance criteria and built to a level of quality referred to as the Definition of Done.

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NO DOCUMENTATION!! WHO TOLD YOU THAT??
Scrum documentation is compiled over time. Scrum has three essential artifacts/documentation:
 Product backlog - List of ideas for the product, in the order we expect to build them. Compiled from story cards.  Sprint backlog - Detailed plan for development during the next sprint.  Product increment - Required result of every sprint, is an integrated version of the product, kept at high enough quality to be shippable if the product owner chooses to ship it.

Scrum team also openly displays the following to show progress:
 Burndown and Velocity Charts -visible displays of each sprint’s progress  Acceptance testing documentation  Story cards – Describe functionality and are displayed on bulletin boards in the team area organized by sprint

Scrum also includes five activities or meetings where documentation may change. These are the backlog refinement, sprint planning, daily scrum, sprint review, and sprint retrospective.
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SCRUM ROLES
•Product Owner – Customer, usually from business
• Maintains the project backlog & creates stories with the team • Very important role – Responsible for high level vision!

•Development Team
• Team Lead varies according to each team member’s expertise • Team makes decisions on planning sprints

•ScrumMaster (Can be part of the team)
• Coaches the team • NOT authoritarian • Encourages the team to follow the rules of scrum

THERE IS NO OFFICIAL PROJECT MANAGER IN SCRUM!
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SCRUM & AGILE PROJECT MANAGEMENT
There is no Project Manager role in SCRUM Only 16% of top performing Agile teams have a Project Manager as ScrumMaster 60% of teams performing in the bottom quartile are ―lead‖ by Project Managers

(Source: www.pmoexecutiveboard.com Agile Scrum Master: PMs Need Not Apply? February, 2013)

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WHY DO PROJECT MANAGERS FAIL AS SCRUMMASTERS?
•Project Managers tend to:

• Become ―Process-crats‖
• Agile requires a balance between standardization and flexibility to adapt to change. • 30% of PMs are capable of breaking process and applying judgment to successfully deliver process outcomes. • Remember – People over processes.

• Default to ―mini-Waterfall‖
• Gradual adoption of Agile roles, processes, and practices allows the team to default to familiar processes when challenges arise • Leader must embrace ALL aspects of Agile which is difficult for those who have managed Waterfall projects for years
(Source: www.pmoexecutiveboard.com Agile Scrum Master: PMs Need Not Apply? February, 2013)

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THREE CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE SCRUMMASTERS
84% of successful ScrumMasters say that they believe in the business value of Agile
 Companies introduce Agile by explaining how to DO Agile rather than why is it good to BE agile  ScrumMasters are coaches who help the team embrace Agile, not authoritarians who enforce rules.  ScrumMasters are responsible for helping the team through the development process and addressing obstacles. They lead by exhibiting the characteristics of the Agile mind set: solution oriented, open to change, and embracing of criticism and cause their team to develop this mindset as well.  Teams that stay intact from project to project have better outcomes  They build trust quickly by emphasizing communication and transparency by involving team members in all aspects of the project and key decisions
(Source: www.pmoexecutiveboard.com Agile Scrum Master: PMs Need Not Apply? February, 2013)

They serve as internal champions for Agile

They create a culture of trust within the team.

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WHEN TO USE SCRUM
•Use Scrum:
• Within complex environments where solutions emerge and where we get the right answer only in retrospect • When creative and innovative approaches are needed rather than a cookie cutter approach

•Scrum Is Not Suited For:
• Predictable linear projects, whether simple or complicated – expert driven application of known solutions will work better • Chaotic or disorderly environments. Taking bold, decisive hierarchal action to end the chaos is a better approach • Interrupt driven workwhere it is difficult to develop meaningful plans for even for short iterations. Kanban works better for these situations.

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CYNEFIN FRAMEWORK
Cynefin framework has five domains: • Complex - relationship between cause and effect can only be perceived in retrospect, but not in advance, the approach is to Probe - Sense - Respond and we can sense emergent practice. Use Scrum! • Simple - relationship between cause and effect is obvious to all, the approach is to Sense - Categorize Respond and we can apply best practice. • Complicated - relationship between cause and effect requires analysis or some other form of investigation and/or the application of expert knowledge, the approach is to Sense - Analyze - Respond and we can apply good practice. • Chaotic - no relationship between cause and effect at systems level, the approach is to Act - Sense Respond and we can discover novel practice. • Disorder, which is the state of not knowing what type of causality exists, in which state people will revert to their own comfort zone in making a decision. In full use, the Cynefin framework has sub-domains, and the boundary between simple and chaotic is seen as a catastrophic one: complacency leads to failure.

Use Scrum

(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynefin)
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USING SCRUM PRESENTS CHALLENGES
•Culture of traditional ways and practices •Command and control management •Organizational process obstacles

•Distrust of and objection to self-organizing teams
•Lack of transparency and propensity to hide bad news and failure •Quick blame and siloed accountability and responsibility •Absence of persistent teams and emergency room style work •Lack of collaborative environment and adequate space
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OVERCOMING OLD HABITS
•―We did testing the old way and waited until the end – we didn’t understand the test driven benefits. That was a huge mistake!‖ •―Sure we do agile, but we gather all the requirements and do the design up front!‖

•My favorite: ―Well, I’m the PM. So, if Scrum means that the team will do what I want done, when I want it done, and how I want it done, then I’m all for it!‖
•―We played by Scrum’s rules and our results showed it – it’s powerful when you do it right.‖

•―You have to throw out all of your old habits.‖
•―If you think it will be easy, you are in for a surprise. When you see the great product you can actually build well, you are in for an even bigger surprise.‖
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FACTORS FOR SUCCESS
Choose the right project
 Size  Importance  Visibility

Get buy-in of senior management Communicate to all Use experienced team members Don’t trust blindly Use common sense – no silver bullets! Effort = people * environment * size (process) - Royce
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CHANGING THE ORGANIZATION
People  Team rewards  Celebrate success  Leadership  Management must ask the right questions  Communication, brown bags etc. Understand perceptions of success What does finished mean? Quality/stage gates Senior Management control  Estimating and budgeting  Real options  Portfolio planning Structure of the organization
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QUICK ITERATION WALKTHROUGH
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Using Scrum

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OVERVIEW – THE AGILE METHODOLOGY
• Day 1 & 2 • Project overview • Team introductions • Story gathering • Process flow • Theme creation

• Story point estimation
• Day 3 & 4 • Technical design • ―Happy Path‖ • Release Begins • Iteration 0

• Setup tasks
• Release/Iteration planning • Iteration 1, 2, 3… • Development begins • End of Release

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WHAT IS A SPRINT?
•Usually a week or two but time boxed to no more than 30 days •Team works daily toward completing the stories/functionality it selected from the Product Backlog •Team is self-organizing and self-directing •No change is allowed to Product Backlog work selected unless the team agrees •After the sprint, a retrospective meeting is held to determine what went well and what needed improvement during the sprint. Also, a demo may be held.

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DAY 1 & 2
Day 1 & 2
•Project overview •Team introductions •Story gathering •Process flow •Story point estimation

Day 3 & 4
•Technical design •Theme creation •“Happy Path”

Iteration 0
•Setup tasks •Release planning •Iteration planning

Iteration 1, 2, 3…
•Iteration begins •Development begins

• Who Is Involved
• • • Product Owner Development Team ScrumMaster

• Project overview • Story gathering • Functionality Grouping • Admin, Profile, Order Process, etc. • Story point estimation
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WHAT IS A STORY?
•3 C’s of stories
• Card – Written on a card or post it as a sentence; details are written on the back and can be checked off during the acceptance test • Conversation – Details behind the story come out during conversations with the product owner • Confirmation – Acceptance tests confirm that the story was coded correctly

• Written from a user/actor perspective. Should include role and action and sometimes a value • As a <role> I want to <action>, so I can <value> • Examples • As an end user I want to login • As a customer I want to add items to my shopping cart • As an admin I want to add a user

• Epics - Large stories that can be decomposed into smaller stories
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EXAMPLES OF STORIES

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STORY POINTING SESSION
• Entire Development Team • Relative Level of Effort/How Complex It Is/Team Expertise • Planning Poker – 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 20, 40, 100 • As an end user I want to login - 2 • As a customer I want to add items to my shopping cart 8 • As an admin I want to add a user - 13 •Total Points = effort of application

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EXAMPLE OF POINTED STORIES

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DAY 3 & 4
Day 1 & 2
•Project review •Team introductions •Story gathering •Process flow •Point estimation

Day 3 & 4
•Technical design •Theme creation •“Happy Path”

Iteration 0
•Setup tasks •Release planning •Iteration planning

Iteration 1, 2, 3…
•Iteration begins •Development begins

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ITERATION ZERO
Day 1 & 2
•Project review •Team introductions •Story gathering •Process flow •Point estimation

Day 3 & 4
•Technical design •Theme creation •“Happy Path”

Iteration 0
•Setup tasks •Release planning •Iteration planning

Iteration 1, 2, 3…
•Iteration begins •Development begins

Begin Release

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ITERATION ZERO
Organize development team Begin technical setup stories Release planning Identify most important features Sprint planning

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SPRINT PLANNING
•First day of sprint •1-4 hours pre-sprint meeting •Prepare for the next sprint

•Product Owner presents prioritized backlog
•Development team reviews and revises story estimates •Agree on the goals of the sprint

•Development team selects stories that it believes it can deliver based on work capacity and sprint goals

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ITERATION 1, 2, 3…
Day 1 & 2
•Project review •Team introductions •Story gathering •Process flow •Point estimation

Day 3 & 4
•Technical design •Theme creation •“Happy Path”

Iteration 0
•Setup tasks •Release planning •Iteration planning

Iteration 1, 2, 3…
•Iteration begins •Development begins

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DAILY SCRUM MEETING
•NOT a status meeting – it is a planning meeting •All team members must attend
• What did you do yesterday? • What will you do today? • What obstacles are in your way?

•All other discussion needs to take place after the Scrum is over. •Only team members talk.
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ITERATION WALKTHROUGH – SINGLE ITERATION VIEW
Monday
•15 minute stand-up •Developer selects stories •Developer passes tests •Review status charts •Priorities adjusted

Tuesday
•15 minute stand-up •Developer selects stories •Developer passes tests

Wednesday
•15 minute stand-up •Developer selects stories •Developer passes tests •Mid-iteration review •Priorities adjusted •Next iteration stories selected •Next iteration tests completed

Thursday
•15 minute stand-up •Developer selects stories •Developer passes tests

Friday
•15 minute stand-up •Developer selects stories •Developer passes tests •Customer demo •Close iteration

Begin New Iteration

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KPI METRICS ARE MEASURED USING
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Velocity & Burndown Charts

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VELOCITY CHART
Velocity – Represents how many story points are completed per iteration

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BURNDOWN CHART
Burndown Chart shows expected date of completion if current velocity level is maintained

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ITERATION 1, 2, 3…
Day 1 & 2
•Project review •Team introductions •Story gathering •Process flow •Point estimation

Day 3 & 4
•Technical design •Theme creation •“Happy Path”

Iteration 0
•Setup tasks •Release planning •Iteration planning

Iteration 1, 2, 3…
•Iteration begins •Development begins

Retrospective Meeting

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SUMMARY
•Agile will help to deliver business value •Agile is an iterative software development model that is flexible, adapts to change, and is team driven •Scrum is only one type of Agile methodology and it is robust. •If you follow the rules of Scrum, you will be happy with the results. •You must have senior management buy-in. They need to understand what Agile & Scrum entail, including the change in corporate culture at all levels

•Scrum & Agile have documentation, just not all at once. We took a look at how sprints work, what stories are, and some basic KPI metric charts.
•This is the beginning, not the end!
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QUESTIONS??

jennifer@jenniferbrower.com or jb358@ntrs.com http://www.jenniferbrower.com
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SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
 Articles
 Banker, et. al., ―Software Complexity and Maintenance Costs‖, Communications of the ACM, Vol 36, no. 11.
 Chris Cooper-Bland, Introducing Agile Processes into a Waterfall Organisation. PowerPoint.  Gill, Geoffrey and Kemerer, Chris, ―Cyclomatic Complexity Density and Software Maintenance Productivity,‖ IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol 17, No. 12, December 1991.  Hakan Erdogmus and John Favaro, ―Keep Your Options Open: Extreme Programming and the Economics of Flexibility‖ in G. Succi, M. Marchesi, L. Williams, D. Wells: Extreme Programming Perspectives, (Boston:Addison Wesley, 2002).  Kaman Erdil, et. al. Software Maintenance As Part of the Software Lifecycle Cost, Appendix 1 (Tufts University), 2003.  Koskela, L. and Howell, G., The Underlying Theory of Project Management is Obsolete. Proceedings of the PMI Research Conference, 2002. Pg. 293-302.  PMO Executive Board. Agile Scrum Master: PMs Need Not Apply? February, 2013  Saboe, Michael, ―The Use of Software Quality Metrics in the Material Release Process—Experience Report‖, 0-7965-12879/01 IEEE 2001.  SAP, AgileDevelopment@SAP, Presentation at XP Days 2006, Hamburg, Nov 2006.  Sobek II, Durward & Ward, Allen, ―Principles from Toyota’s Set-Based Concurrent Engineering Process,‖ Proceedings of the 1996 ASM Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers in Engineering Conference, 1996.  Spear, Steven & Bowen, H. Kent. 1999. ―Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System.‖ Harvard Business Review, Sept-Oct, pp. 97-106.  Sutherland, Jeff, Agile Can Scale: Inventing and Reinventing SCRUM in Five Companies, Cutter IT Journal, Vol 14, No 12, 2001  Wegner, P. ―Why Interaction is More Powerful Than Algorithms.‖ Communications of the ACM, Vol. 40, No. 5 (May 1997).  Ziv, H. and D. Richardson. ―The Uncertainty Principle in Software Engineering.‖ In Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE’97). IEEE, 1997.

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SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTINUED
Books
 Cohn, Michael, Agile Estimating and Planning (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006).
 Cohn, Michael, User Stories Applied (Boston: Addison-Wesley, 2004).  Feathers, Michael, Working Effectively with Legacy Code (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2004).  Larman, Craig, Agile & Iterative Development: A Managers Guide (Boston: Addison-Wesley, 2004)  Martin, Robert C. Agile Software Development: Principles, Patterns and Practices, (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2003).  McConnell, Scott. Rapid Application Development, (Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 1996).  Mugridge, Rick & Cunningham, Ward, Fit for Developing Software (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005)  Poppendieck, Mary & Tom, Lean Software Development: An Agile Toolkit, (Boston: Addison Wesley, 2003)  Rüping, Andreas, Agile Documentation (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2003)

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SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTINUED
Websites
 http://agilemanifesto.org
 https://www.atcoresystems.com/blog/view/project-management-agile-vs-waterfall  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynefin  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waterfall_model  http://istqbexamcertification.com  http://www.scrumalliance.org

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