You are on page 1of 73

The Integumentary System

Anatomy Epidermis Skin Dermis Subcutaneous layer or hypodermis

EPIDERMIS
Stratum corneum
Stratum lucidum**

Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum


Stratum basale (germinativum)
**Thick skin only

Stratum Basale

Stratum Basale
Lowest epidermal layer, near dermis Good nutrient supply Reproduces by mitosis Cuboidal, columnar in shape Moves to upper epidermis in 27 days Stem cells that produce keratinocytes Melanocytes - # the same for all races
Melanin produced in a melanosome.

Stratum Spinosum

Stratum Spinosum
Living cells Dividing 8-10 cells thick Keratinocytes numerous

Stratus Granulosum
Poor nutrient supply. Flatten layer of cells. 3-5 cells thick. No cell division. Keratin accumulates.

Lucidum

Found only in very thick skin. Translucent. Highly keratinized. Dead cells

Stratum Corneum
25-30 cells thick. Cells are filled with keratin and hardened. Sloughed off. Outer most layer of epidermis. Keratinocytes

Layer

Superficial or Deep Layer?

Characteristics

Are cells Seen in keratinized THIN in this skin layer? too?

Stratum Basale
Stratum Spinosum

Stratum
Granulosum

Stratum Lucidum Stratum Corneum

Skin Layers Epidermis

Properties Outer layer of skin, composed of 5 zones of stratified epithelium (keratinocytes); contains melanocytes and Langerhans cells.

Function Responsible for the continual replenishing of skin, resists friction, waterproof, prevents water loss.

Stratum corneum (Horny layer)

15-25 layers of dead, flat, keratinized Resists friction, waterproof, prevents squamous epithelial cells, without water loss. nuclei. Normally thin but thick over the soles of the feet and palms of the hands. Only found in thick skin (palms and soles of the feet). Transition between the corneum and lucidum layer. Resists friction, waterproof, prevents water loss.

Stratum lucidum (Clear layer)

Stratum granulosum (Granular layer) Stratum spinosum (Prickly layer)

3-5 layers of keratinocytes containing They form keratin and expel lipids keratin granules. which stick the cells together and form a waterproof barrier. Usually the thickest layer of keratinocyte cells, they are joined together by desmosomal connections. Also contains Langerhans cells. Langerhans cells are part of the immune response.

Stratum basale (Basal cells)

A layer of cuboidal-shaped cells, lined Keratinocyte cell division occurs here up on a basal membrane. It contains to replenish skin. Melanocytes protect stem cells, keratinocytes, and the skin from UV. melanocytes (pigment cells).

DERMIS

Irregular Dense Connective Tissue Collagenous fibers

Dermis
Connective tissue layer Collagen and elastic fibers, nerves, blood vessels, muscle fibers, adipose cells, hair follicles and glands. Papillary layer
1/5 of dermis loose areolar connective tissue Highly vascular Dermal papillae - fingerprints

Reticular (net) layer


Dense irregular connective tissue Sebaceous (oil) glands Hair follicles Ducts of sudoriferous (sweat) glands Striae or stretch marks Meissners corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles

Hypodermis
Attaches the reticular layer to the underlying organs Loose connective tissue and adipose tissue Major blood vessels rete cutaneum

Skin Layers Dermis

Properties Deep layer of skin, composed of collagen and elastin rich connective tissue. It contains hair follicles, sebaceous glands, blood vessels and sense receptors. Projections push into the epidermis. Highly vascular and innervated. Dense, interlacing connective tissue, predominantly parallel to the skin's surface. Not part of skin layer. Subcutaneous connective tissue, rich in fat and vessels.

Function It is responsible for the elasticity and mechanical support of skin. Supplies the epidermis with nutrients. Important in thermoregulation. Forms finger prints, brings capillaries closer to the avascular epidermis. Forms lines of skin tension, cleavage lines. Protective cushion and insulator.

Papillary

Reticular

Hypodermis

Dermis

Sweat gland Sebaceous gland Arrector pili muscle Blood vessels

Hair Follicle

Hair Follicles

Accessory organs or epidermal derivatives


Hairs
Epidermal growths that function in protection Shaft, root, and folllicle Sebaceous glands, arrector pili muscle, and hair root plexus (touch) Hair growth and replacement have a cyclical pattern male-pattern baldness

Nails
Plates of highly packed, keratinized cells Protection, scratching, & manipulation Formed by cells in nail bed called the matrix ( in area of lunula) 1 mm / week Eponychium - cuticle

Sebaceous Gland
Exocrine gland Associated with follicle Secretes oily substance Holocrine gland

Sebaceous Gland

Skin Glands
Sebaceous (oil) glands
Usually connected to hair follicles Holocrine glands Fats, cholesterol, proteins, salts, and cell debris Moistens hair and waterproofs skin

Sweat Gland
Exocrine gland Sudoriferous glands Produces water, salts Eccrine glands respond to temperature Apocrine glands respond to pain, emotions

Sweat Gland

Sweat Gland Exiting the Skin

Types of Sweat Glands (Sudoriferous Glands)


Merocrine glands: release fluid by exocytosis Eccrine
Most common Secretion is mostly water with solutes Cools body down

Apocrine
Develops scent as bacteria metabolize secretion Stimulated when frightened, during pain, during emotional upset

Sweat (sudoriferous) glands


Eccrine sweat glands
Merocrine glands Water, salt, wastes Function is to cool the body (also nervous)

Apocrine sweat glands


Larger, merocrine glands Associated with hair follicles More viscous fatty acids and proteins Odor occurs when broken down by bacteria

Eccrine Gland

Sensory Structures of Dermis


Kinds of sensory neurons.
1.Meissner's corpuscles/tactile disks (Georg Meissner) detect light touches 2. Pacinian Corpuscles (Filippo Pacini) detect pressure

3. Free Nerve endings detect pain 4. Bulb of Krause (Wilhelm Johann Friedrich Krause) detects cold 5. Corpuscles of Ruffini (Angelo Ruffini) detect heat

Hypodermis (Subcutaneous)

Recognized by adipose tissue.

WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF SKIN?

Functions:
1. Regulation of body temperature
Cellular metabolism produces heat as a waste product . High temperature
Dilate surface blood vessels Sweating

Low temperature
Surface vessels constrict shivering

2. Protection physical abrasion dehydration ultraviolet radiation 3. Sensation touch vibration pain temperature

4. Excretion
5. Immunity/ Resistance 6. Blood Reservoir 8-10 % in a resting adult 7. Synthesis of vitamin D uv light aids absorption of calcium

REMINDER
Bring the following materials (by group) on thurs., (Nov. 15, 2012) 1/8 illustration board Glue or paste Scissors Coloring materials (colored pencils, crayons, pastel colors) Craft materials for design

Ceruminous glands
Modified sudoriferous glands Secrete cerumen (ear wax)

Mammary glands
Secrete milk

Skin color
Genetic factors
Same number of melanocytes Albinism

Environmental factors
Uv light or x-rays

Physiological factors
Amount of blood Amount of oxygen
Cyanosis Carotene accumulation Jaundice liver disorder

Wound healing
Inflammation
Blood vessels dilate and become permeable
Heat, redness, swelling and pain

Shallow cuts
Epithelial cells migrate Contact inhibition

Deeper wounds
Inflammatory phase
Fibrin forms clot

Migratory phase
Fibroblasts make granulation tissue

Proliferative phase Maturation phase Scars hypertrophic scar


keloid

Burns
First degree or partial thickness burn
Only epidermis is damaged Erythema, mild edema, surface layer shed Healing a few days to two weeks No scarring

Second degree- deep partial-layer burn


Destroys epidermis Blisters form Healing depends on survival of accessory organs No scars unless infected

Third degree or full-thickness burn


Destroys epidermis, dermis and accessory organs of the skin Healing occurs from margins inward Skin grafting may be needed
Autograft Homograft

Rule of Nines

Mucous membranes
Line cavities that open to the exterior Layer of epithelium over connective tissue; epithelium varies with location Tight junctions and goblet cells

Cutaneous membrane is the skin


the major organ of the integumentary system

Integumentary system is the skin and the organs derived from it (hair, glands, nails) One of the largest organs
2 square meters; 10-11 lbs. Largest sense organ in the body

The study of the skin is Dermatology