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# Rocket Propulsion Contents:

## Review Types of Rockets Examples Whiteboards

Microsoft Encarta

Rocket Propulsion
So far we have: Impulse = Ft = mv F = Force (N) t = Elapsed time (s) m = Mass (kg) v = Change in velocity (m/s)

Rocket Propulsion
So: F = engine thrust t = time to burn fuel m = mass of fuel burned v = exhaust gas velocity

Ft
= mv

Demo F14

## Rocket Propulsion If we re-arrange this formula: mv = Ft t t

Rocket Propulsion You get F = Engine thrust (N) F = mv m = Fuel burn rate (kg/s) t t Where:
v = Exhaust velocity (m/s)

Rocket Propulsion
Solid Fuel Engine:

Microsoft Encarta

## Rocket Propulsion Solid Fuel Engine: Thrust of the Engine: F = mv t

Big v means big F Big v also means lots of pressure Danger Will Robinson!
Microsoft Encarta

Estes

Lookout!

Estes

100 N

5.0 s

## Impulse is area under = (40 N)(6.0s) = 240 Ns

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5.0 s

560 Ns

5.0 s

470 Ns

## What is the impulse of the D12 engine?

Impulse = (10. N)(1.73 s-0.11 s) + (28 N-10 N)(0.42 - 0.21) = 19.98 Ns (about 20 Ns)
20 Ns

Rocket Propulsion
Liquid Fuel Engine:

How do you keep it from tipping? Why the steam coming off?
Microsoft Encarta

Saturn V Rocket - Apollo missions Escape Tower Command Module L.E.M Third stage

Second stage

First stage

## Saturn V Animation (Flash in IE)

Rocket Propulsion
Example 1: A rocket burns fuel at a rate of 1.2 kg/s, with an exhaust velocity of 1250 m/s. What thrust does it develop? Ft = mv v = 1250 m/s m = 1.2 kg t = 1 s (F)(1 s) = (1.2 kg)(1250 m/s), F = 1500 N

Rocket Propulsion
Example 2: A model rocket engine develops 12 N of thrust with an exhaust velocity of 718 m/s. What is its fuel burn rate? Ft = mv F = 12 N v = 718 m/s m = ? kg t = 1 s (12 N)(1 s) = m(718 m/s), m = .0167 kg Burn rate = .0167 kg/s

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A certain rocket engine burns .0352 kg of fuel per second with an exhaust velocity of 725 m/s. What thrust does it generate?
Ft = mv F(1 s) = (.0352 kg)(725 m/s), F = 25.5 N

25.5 N

The Saturn Vs first stage engines generated 33.82 MN of thrust (33.82 x 106 N) with an exhaust velocity of 2254.7 m/s. What was its fuel burn rate?
Ft = mv (33.82 x 106 N)(1 s) = m(2254.7 m/s), m = 15,000 kg Burn Rate = 15,000 kg/s

15,000 kg/s

A D12 engine generates 11.80 N of thrust burning fuel at a rate of .0143 kg/s. What is the exhaust velocity?
Ft = mv (11.80 N)(1 s) = (.0143 kg)v, v = = 825.2 m/s

825.2 m/s

A model rocket has a total mass of 235 grams, 145 grams of which is fuel. The engine burns the fuel in 2.74 s, with an exhaust velocity of 890 m/s. What thrust does the engine generate?
Ft = mv F(2.74 s) = (.145 kg)(890 m/s), F = 47.1 N

47.1 N

A model rocket has a total mass of 235 grams, 145 grams of which is fuel. The engine burns the fuel in 2.74 s, with an exhaust velocity of 890 m/s. What are the initial and final rocket masses?

F = 47.1 N

W

## .235 kg and .090 kg

A model rocket has a total mass of 235 grams, 145 grams of which is fuel. The engine burns the fuel in 2.74 s, with an exhaust velocity of 890 m/s. What is the initial rocket acceleration?

F = 47.1 N
mo = .235 kg, m = .090 kg, <F>=ma (hint)

<47.1 N - (.235 kg)(9.8 m/s2)> = 2 (.235 kg)(a), a=44.8 N/.235 kg=191 m/s
initial = 191 m/s/s

A model rocket has a total mass of 235 grams, 145 grams of which is fuel. The engine burns the fuel in 2.74 s, with an exhaust velocity of 890 m/s. What is the final rocket acceleration?

F = 47.1 N
mo = .235 kg, m = .090 kg, <F>=ma (hint)

<47.1 N - (.090 kg)(9.8 m/s2)> = 2 (.090 kg)(a), a=44.8 N/.090 kg=514 m/s
final = 514 m/s/s