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# Single pair shortest path problem

MD Tanvir Anwoar

Introduction: In graph theory, the shortest path problem is the problem of finding a path between two vertices (or nodes) in a graph such that the sum of the weights of its constituent edges is minimized. This is analogous to the problem of finding the shortest path between two intersections on a road map: the graph's vertices correspond to intersections and the edges correspond to road segments, each weighted by the length of its road segment.

Application: * The traffic and length of the highways are path weights. * Vehicle routing problem solving * Solving network design problem * In video games, these algorithms are frequently used to find the shortest path between two points on a map Purpose of the problem solving: * Improve Quality of the service, Reducing time and cost

## Problem solving methods :

Dijkstra Algorithm : a. All edge weights should be non-negative b. Each iteration of Dijkstra takes O(n^2) for array-based or O(m log n) for heap-based c. Total complexity is either O(n^3) or O(mn log n) d. This is a case where just repeatedly using a solution to a simpler problem works out fine.

Problem solving methods : Bellman-Ford Algorithm: a. If some edge weights are negative b. It has complexity O(nm) for a single source c. Total sources solution is O(n^2 m), which is O(n4) for dense graphs

## Problem solving methods :

Floyd-Warshall Algorithm : a. If some edge weights are negative b. Dynamic programming solution to compute all sources shortest paths c. Works with negative weights (or without) we assume no negative cycles d. Complexity O(n^3)

Floyd-Warshall Algorithm 1. Graph should be directed 2. It may contain negative edges but no negative cycle 3. Find the shortest path between all the pairs of nodes

Floyd-Warshall Algorithm 1. Graph should be directed 2. It may contain negative edges but no negative cycle 3. Find the shortest path between all the pairs of nodes

-2 A B

-1

1 1,4 =

1 1,4 =

1 ,2,4

1 1,4 =

1 ,2,4 ; 1,4

## Floyd-Warshall Algorithm matrix formation :

(k) (I,j) =

{ min (D if k>= 1

(k-1)

(I,j)),

(k-1) (I,k )

+D

(k-1) (k,j)

Floyd-Warshall Algorithm
matrix formation :

3 1

-4

7 5

8 3

0 X X 2 X

3 0 4 X X

D(0) 8 X X 1 0 X -5 1 X 0

-4 7 -4 7 0

2
6 4 -5

Floyd-Warshall Algorithm
matrix formation :

3 1

-4

7 5 2 6 4

8 3

0 X X 2 X

3 0 4 X X

D(0) 8 X X 11 0 X -5 1 X 0

-4 7 -4 7 0

-5

(0) (2,4)

=1

Floyd-Warshall Algorithm
matrix formation :

3 1

-4

7 5 2 6 4

8 3

0 X X 2 X

3 0 4 5 X

D(1) 8 X X 1 0 X -5 0 X 6

-4 7 X -2 -2 0

(1) (4,5)

= -2

Floyd-Warshall Algorithm
matrix formation :

3 1

-4

7 5 2 6 4

8 3

0 3 7 2 8

1 0 4 -1 5

D(5) -3 2 -4 1 -4 0 5 -5 0 1 6

-4 -1 3 -2 0