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Student Industrial Internship Program

PRESENTATION OUTLINE

OBJECTIVES
Presentation
o To describe and share the works and tasks done during the industrial training. Industrial Training Program
At the end of the industrial internship, student should be able to: 1. Apply theoretical knowledge in industrial applications. 2. Acquire skills in communication, management and team-work. 3. Practice ethical and professional work culture. 4. Implement Health Safety and Environment (HSE) practices at workplace.

Host Company

PETRONAS Gas Berhad (PGB)

Managing Director / Chief Executive Officer

POD

TOD

CUF

Head Office

CCSD TFDD

Support Services

Support Services

Support Services

FAD HSE HRM

Centralised Utility Facilities, CUF

Cooling Tower Unit

COGEN Plant

CUF

Nitrogen Generation Plant

Demineralized Water Plant

Fuel Gas

Generator

36 MW

X 3 units

108 MW

Steam HRSG (Boiler)


120 t/hr

X 4units

480 t/h

HP

430 oC 52 bar

IP
LP

300 oC 23 bar
170 oC 5 bar

8700Nm3/hr

Atmospheric Air

NGU

Gaseous Nitrogen 9.5 bar, ambient temperature Liquefied Nitrogen

- 196 oC

500 m3/hr

Raw Water

Demin Plant

COGEN Plant

Customers Silica = < 20ppb Conductivity = < 0.2 S/cm

What did I learn ??


Water Chemistry
- Demin Plant
- Cooling water - Boiler Feed Water

Internal Combustion Engine


- Gas turbine

Heat Transfer applications


-Heat exchangers
- Boilers -Cryogenics ( -170 oC)

Separation Process
-Extraction

of Nitrogen from Air -Purification of Nitrogen Gas


Distillation Column Reboiler Condenser

-Water purification in Demin Plant


Multimedia Filters Reverse Osmosis Ion Exchange

-Pressure Swing Adsorption


Air Driers Molecular Sieves

Mechanical
- Pumps
Types of pumps NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head) Cavitation of Pumps

Compressors
Types of compressors Compressors Surging ( Surge Line) Compressor efficiency

Thermodynamics -Brayton Cycle


-Refrigeration Cycle -Superheated and saturated Steam

Control & Instrumentation

Distributed Control System - Flow Meters - Logic Diagram - P & ID -Valves - Controllers
-

Electrical
- Power Generation
Electrical Distribution System

ACTIVITIES
PLANT ACTIVITIES

UNIT SHUTDOWN

PROJECTS

DATA COMPILATION

HSE

CLASSES & TRAININGS

Plant Activities
Gas Turbine inlet Air Filters Replacement
Spider-Web Cellulosics Cartridges
Number of cartridge : 144 Type of cartridge pair : cylindrical + cone Why Replace : Pressure Drop increases across the filters which eventually effects the compressor efficiency

MRO chemical Cleaning


After a certain period of continuous operation, the RO

membrane becomes fouled with dirt and other minerals deposited on the RO membrane. Chemicals Used : Sodium Hydroxide, Hydrochloric Acid, detergent, Continues Monitoring of Parameters such as PH , Temp , and pressure during RO chemical Cleaning must be done.

MRO membrane Replacement.


MRO profiling data shows high

conductivity .
Membranes never been replaced since commissioning Total of 168 membranes replaced.

Performance of MRO monitored after


that. All membranes condition was checked to select the membranes to be re-used for

other unit.
Profiling data shows positive result after replacement.

Fire Water System Isolation.


The system is sized to deliver a maximum flow rate of only 1220 m3/h (at 10 kg/cm2g) Why isolate : - Pump Overhaul - Valves repairing Pressure inside the pipelines should be reduced by draining the water out of the pipes.

Daily Plant performance monitoring.


Monitor NGU plant Overall Equipment Effectiveness every day to ensure the best running mode is selected for maximum plant optimization. Join daily morning meeting with all other departments .

Slit Density Index to monitor the amount of suspended solid in water Hydrometer used to check the acid and caustic concentration during regeneration

Level of resin need to be monitored to ensure proper separation for Regen

Projects
1) NGU Recycle Compressor Trip Investigation 2) Instrument Air Compressor Trip Investigation 3) Mix Bed A higher Throughput (Root Cause Analysis)
4) LIN loss from Storage Tanks

5) Chemical consumption during Regeneration

Undergoing NGU 2 Debottlenecking Preparing NGU training module for Operators.

NGU 2 Recycle Compressor Trip


28th February 2011 at 09:19:46 pm

Objective: To investigate the cause of recycle air compressor trip. Methodology: Root Cause Analysis Brain Storming Based on system logs/trending and interview staff.

Sequence of event:
Date 2/28/2011 Time 09:19:46 Description Recycle Air compressor Trip Alarm activated at panel. No alarm at local. Attempt to start Recycle Air Compressor but failed due to Emergency Stop alarm. Start Recycle compressor but failed due to the Emergency stop alarm still appear at local panel. Cant reset. Electrical checked at sub 4, no alarm appeared and compressor in healthy condition. Contacted system Eng to check and rectify. (Reference : SS Log Sheet) Reduced inlet pressure recycle compressor to 3.6 bar, alarm still not clear. (Reference: SS Log Sheet) Managed to clear trip alarm for NGU-2 recycle compressor. Started the recycle compressor. (Reference: SS Log Sheet)

2/28/2011

09:30:09

3/1/2011

10:30:00

3/2/2011

00:24:00

3/2/2011

09:15:00

Recycle Air Compressor Trip

Inlet Air Pressure

Outlet Air Pressure High

Air Temp (Discharge & Inlet)

Motor Overload

Lube Oil (Pressure/ Temp)

Emergency Stop Push Button

High

Low

Button Pushed By Someone

Faulty Push Button

No alarm at Sub 4 (Checked by Electrical)

Not Available

Unhealthy Relay

Loose Connection

Indicates that the possible cause is checked and proved not true.
Cable/ Wiring Problem

Inlet Pressure Control Valve

Recycle Valve. Opening Depends on Outlet pressure and Flow

Suspected reason that can cause Rec Comp to stop

Service Diagram for Local Panel )


Emergency Stop Push Button

All process values were checked from the trending. No change in process values observed before recycle compressor trip. No warning alarm was activated before trip alarm. From the interlock alarm list, there were only two alarms on the list for recycle air compressor.

Alarms

Tag no: 1B80-TRP

Service Recycle Comp.Trip

Location MMI

Detector Local Panel

Action Switch(On at trip)

1B80-ALM

Recycle Comp.Alarm

MMI

Local Panel

Switch (On at alarm)

Recommendations:
Loop Test for Push Button Check the healthiness of the Relay (Recommended to be done during shutdown) Reconfirm alarm list for recycle compressor.

INSTRUMENT AIR COMPRESSOR TRIP


ON 1ST March 2011 at 3.34pm

Objective: To investigate the cause of Instrument Air Compressor trip. Methodology: Panel interview 5 whys Abstract : Instrument air compressor tripped on 1st March 2011. 2 alarms were activated. Delivery Pressure High High Interstage Pressure High High It has been reported that the trip had happen earlier also in the month of February due to the same reason Interstage Pressure High High . In both scenarios, the transmitter reading doesnt shows that it has crossed the limits but the alarm shows that the pressure is High High

Interstage Pressure & Delivery Pressure High High

Motor/ Gearbox

Intercooler

Suction Regulator

Lube oil System

Cooling water system for compressor

Transmitter

No abnormalities found

No abnormalities found

No abnormalities found

No abnormalities found

No abnormalities found

Reading not true

Alarm indication

To be confirmed

Alarm ON but reading is normal. Not exceeding the limits

Action Taken
Observe several other trips which shows the same alarm. Inform Control and Instrument engineer

Mix Bed Exchanger A abnormal throughput


Root cause analysis

Throughput for MBE A


20000.00 13-Dec, 17904.13 18000.00 30-Nov, 17410.42 16000.00

14000.00

Throughput (m3)

12000.00

10000.00

8000.00

6000.00
Throughput

4000.00

Design TP

2000.00

0.00 14-Oct

3-Dec

22-Jan

13-Mar

2-May Date

21-Jun

10-Aug

29-Sep

18-Nov

7-Jan

Abnormal Throughput Silica Analyzer Failure Regen Efficiency RO water Quality

Silica Analyzer Failure

Insufficient Reagent

Data Trending Failure

PI system

DCS System

Trending Normal

DCS system working well

Abnormal Throughput Silica Analyzer Failure Regen Efficiency RO water Quality

Regeneration
Backwash Settle Preheat

Acid & Caustic Injection

Acid displacement / Caustic Injection

Acid displacement/ Caustic displacement Drain and

Rinse and final rinse

Slow fill and fast fill Air Mix and

Caustic Injection

Concentration Used

Flow

Temperature

Duration

Volume of NaOH Used

Normal Concentration

Normal Flow

Normal Temperature 5o C

Normal Duration

Increase in volume NaOH used

Chemical (Volume 45%NaOH)(m3)

0.5

0.45

0.4

0.35

0.3

0.25 Chemical (Volume 45%NaOH)(m3)

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

Action Taken
Increased in Volume of NaOH used

No of pumps running

Interview of field operator

Observation at plant during Regen

Way Forward
Send resins for analysis to check Resin performance ( exchange capacity etc) Keep close monitoring on concentration of acid and caustic used for regeneration ( Hydrometer)

Do feasibility study on this case and try to apply to other mix beds too (if resin analysis shows positive result)

LIN Loss at Storage Tanks

Problem Statement : Level of Liquid Nitrogen in storage tanks decreasing rapidly.

Objectives :
-To define possible causes of Lin Loss at NGU plant -To improve plant optimization and equipment efficiency

Vacuum Space

Expanded Perlite

Liquid Nitrogen

PBC Vaporizer

Valtek Valve

100000

Filling

Standby

Filling

Standby

90000

80000

70000

60000

50000

Nm3

40000

30000

However, no liquid was used to backup Gas production

20000

10000

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Possible causes : Valtek Valve Passing Insufficient Vacuum Pressure Perlite Insulation Slippage
PBC Vaporizer

Valtek Valve

Estimated Loss

For one tank / year

Findings
Vacuum Pressure of the thermal insulation was more than the required pressure. Very thick layer of icing at the vent line.

Way Forward
To perform vacuuming for all the storage tanks To service the valtek valve

Template for total chemical Consumed during Regen and Total amount of chemical Top-uped

Problem Statement - No exact information available about how much volume of


chemical is consumed or added to the tank.

- Only the level of liquid inside the tank is available


- normal r2L formula cant be use since the tank is Horizontal not vertical .

300mm

300mm

NGU Debottlenecking
Debottlenecking is to improve and existing facilitys capacity and profitability.

Nitrogen Recovery : Gas and liquid Nitrogen in Product Feed air flow to Cold Box + Recycled air
Current Nitrogen Recovery: 6000___ 11350+4500 : 37 %
7000 Nm3/hr

Target

Identify the bottlenecks Gather all equipment datasheets and current running mode Check DCS setting , Interlocks, and Transmitter ranges Test run

Unit Shutdown

Boiler Shutdown. Gas Turbine Shutdown Demin Plant Shutdown ASU Shutdown Isolation List Blind List

Importance of good planning Importance of leadership skills Importance of safety Importance of communication with contractors Importance of punctuality

Inside a Mix Bed Exchanger

Siphoning method used to unload media

Health, Safety and Environment Permit to work Safety tips Process Safety Management Job Safety Analysis Process Hazard Analysis Pre-Activity Safety Review Safety Observation

Training ,Classes etc Gas Turbine training by Senior Panel CCMS and control system training by TP Vendor Presentations DCS (Distributed Control System) upgrading.

Data Compilation Overall Equipment Effectiveness for NGU


Quality Production _______________ Adjusted Capacity X 100 Improving the Overall Equipment Effectiveness by just 1% can lead to a disproportionate change in throughput and consequent reduction in unit cost of the product Previously, was checked monthly, Now, updated daily and immediate action is taken to overcome any gap.

Throughput for Mix Bed Exchanger and Condensate Polisher.


Volume of demineralized water produced after regeneration until the
resins are exhausted. To see regen efficiency To monitor mix bed and CP performance

Monthly Operation Report


Alarm Management NGU OEE Power OEE Plant Highlights

Co-generation Unit
Heat Rate Heat Rate = NG Consumption (NM3) X GCV(MJ/NM3) X 1000(KJ/MJ) Unit Power Generated(kwh)

= 12079 kj/kwh GT Efficiency=


Unit Power Generated (Mwh) X 3600 (Mj/Mwh) NG Consumption (KG) X GCV(MJ/NM3) / Density (kg/NM3) X 100 =

30.2 %

Generation Index
Generation Index TotalFuel Consumed to generate Steam & Electricity TotalSteam & Electricity Delivered

Standard Reference Fuel (SRF) is used to place fuels with different calorific values on a common basis
40.5 GJ = 38.38 MMBTU = 9.67 GkCal = 1 TSRF Electricity: 3.5 MWh Electricity = 1 TSRF SRF Steam (pressure level): Tonnes to Tonnes SRF

MRO performance monitoring


Water Recovery Salt Rejection Feed Pressure Pressure Drop Across the different stages. MRO Profiling ( PH and Conductivity of product from each vessel )

Overall Demin, NGU, Cooling Water,


Instrument Air Plant Performance Monitoring Template

LESSON LEARNT

Importance of teamwork and communication in work place.

Importance of HSE/Safety at workplace

Exposure to working environment.

Enhance communication skill

RECOMMENDATION UTP
The university should make a system that is not totally marks oriented, but knowledge oriented.
o Plant visit. o Make good use of Lab sessions

The internship period should be 6 months

CUF
To have a training schedule for trainees To allow trainees to be part of organizing committee of events

CONCLUSION
An excellent practice for students to gain experience and knowledge about real-life working environment. An improvement platform of personal skills such as management skills, social skills and communication skills.

I would like to acknowledge my appreciation to Dr Azmi for coming here. Special acknowledgement to Mr. Jayavishnu (Plant Supervisor) for his support and guidance and to all CUF staff for their co-operation, openness and hospitality .

Q&A Q&A