You are on page 1of 23

PROCESS SCHEMES FOR LNG

TRAIN

MOHAMMED SHARIQUE KHAN
23. 07. 2009
LIQUIFIED NATURAL
GAS
• LNG is predominantly methane, CH4 converted to liquid for
ease of storage and transportation by cooling it to -260 0F
or -160 0C.

• LNG takes up 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the
gaseous form.

• LNG is an odorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive liquid if
spilled would not result in slick. Absent an ignition source
LNG evaporates quickly and disperse leaving no residue.

• No environmental cleanup needed for LNG spills on water or
land
LNG TRADE
• LNG accounted for 7% of the world’s natural
gas demand.

• The global trade in LNG has increased at a rate of 7.4 % per year over the
decade from 1995 to 2005 and expected to grow substantially.

• LNG demand is heavily concentrated in Northeast Asia– Japan, Korea and
Taiwan at the same time Pacific Basin supplies dominated world LNG trade.

• By the end of 2007 there were 15 LNG exporting countries and 17 LNG
importing countries.

• LNG trade volumes increased form 140 MT in 2005 to 158 MT in 2006, 165
MT in 2007, 172 MT in 2008 and is forecasted to be increased to about 300
MT in 2012.

• The Biggest LNG exporters in 2007 were Qatar(28 MT), Malaysia (22MT)
LNG
TRANSPORTATION

• LNG is transported in especially designed
ships with double hulls protecting cargo and ship from
leaks and damage.

• Ships are designed with insulated walls in which LNG is kept
at its boiling point by the process of Auto refrigeration.
LNG PROCESS
LNG PROCESS

• A typical LNG process the gas is first extracted and
transported to processing plant .

• Purified by removing condensates such as water,
oil, mud, as well as other gases like CO2 and H2S
and some times mercury by amine treatment.

• The gas is then cooled down in stages until it is
liquefied. LNG is finally stored in storage tanks and
can be loaded and shipped.

• Reducing volume makes LNG cost effective to
transport over long distances by LNG carriers.
LIQUEFACTION TECHNOLOGY
LNG TRAIN
SCHEMES FOR LNG
TRAIN
• APCI Propane Pre cooled
mixed refrigerant process(
MCRTM ).

• Phillips optimized cascade
process.

• Black & Veatch PRICO
Process.

• Statoil / Linde mixed fluid
cascade process(MFCP).

• Axens liquefin process.
APCI Propane Precooled mixed refrigerant
process
APCI Propane Precooled mixed refrigerant
process
• APCI accounts for about 81% of the world’s baseload LNG
production capacity.

• Train capacities of 4.7 MTPA were built or are under construction.

• Two main refrigerant cycles are used in this process.

i) Propane Precooling cycle:
It uses propane at four different pressure level and cool
process gas to -40 0C & also partially liquefy the MR.

ii) Mixed refrigerant liquefaction and sub-cooling cycle :
It is used in main cryogenic exchanger(MCHE) & the partially
liquefied refrigerant is separated into vapour and liquid and sub-
cool the process stream form -35 0C to -160 0C.
Phillips Optimized Cascade Process
Phillips Optimized Cascade Process
• Three pure components used for refrigeration.
i) Propane pre-cooling
ii) Ethylene
iii) Methane
• Loss of one train does not cause plant shut down.
• Production carries on with reduces capacity.
• Easily shift from LNG recovery to LPG recovery to ethane
recovery.
• Utilization of pure components minimized the risk of two
phase flow.
• Many plant still being designed and built using the cascade
process—simple and reliable.
Axens LiquefinTM process
Axens LiquefinTM Process
Axens LiquefinTM Process

• Two mixed refrigerants are used which are made up of methane ,
ethane , propane, butane, and nitrogen.

• It uses reduced number of main equipment items and uses plate-fin
heat exchangers.

• Easy adjustment of pre-cooling temperature and can operate with
significant variations in feed gas composition and pressure.

• Process feedstock containing high concentration of mercaptans and
benzene.

• Efficiency remains the same over a large spectrum of production rate
from 3 MTPA to 8 MTPA

• Uses limited number of control loops.
Statoil/Linde mixed Fluid cascade
process(MFCP)
• Three mixed refrigerants are
used to provide cooling and
liquefaction duty.

• Pre-cooling is carried out in
PFHE by mixed refrigerant .

• Sub-cooling and liquefaction is
carried out in a spiral wound
heat exchanger by other two
refrigerant.

• This process is selected for
SnØhvit LNG project (Ekofisk,
Norway) it is a single train of
4 Million TPY Plant.
Black & Veatch PRICO Process

• PRICO uses a single-mixed
refrigerant loop for natural gas
liquefaction.

• It is a simplified refrigeration
system require minimum
equipment and simplified control.

• Flexible in feed gas composition
receives natural gas from multiple
sources.

• It has lowest capital cost of all
competing technologies hence
suitable for midsize train.
AP-X Hybrid LNG Process
TM
AP-X Hybrid LNG Process
TM

• It is a hybrid of Propane Pre cooled APCI Process.

• Uses both Propane Pre-cooling and Nitrogen subcooling for
LNG Liquefaction.

• Train capacities up to 8 Mta are feasible.

• AP-X achieves high efficiencies and low production cost by
TM

using both cycles to their best advantage.

• Retrofitting of APCI process change it to AP-X Hybrid
TM

Process.
Technology Selection
• Technology selection of LNG process and equipment will
mainly based on technical and economical considerations.

• Technical consideration includes process and equipment
experience, reliability , process efficiency ,site conditions
and environmental impact.

• Economic issues include capital cost, operating cost and
lifecycle costing.

• Technical risks associated with a process relate to the track
record of the process in operation.

• Other selection include deciding heating and cooling
medium , compressors and drivers and equipments.
References
• http://www.adgas.com

• http://www.scribd.com

• http://www.freepatentsonline.cm

• www.lngindustrys.com

• www.toodoc.com

• www.lngfacts.org

• www.naturalgas.org

• www.adventuresinenergy.org