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HIV- Human immunodeficiency virus invades the host, attacks T-helper (CD4) Lymphocytes- progressively weakens the immune system. AIDS- Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome- combination of symptoms & signs seen in person with HIV infection consequent on very weak immune status . HIV/AIDS- Not just a disease or a public health challenge it is also a development crisis.

HIV- 2 types (Type 1&2)

HUMAN Found only in humans Transmitted between humans Preventable by humans

IMMONO- DEFIDIENCY Body lacks ability to fight of infections

VIRIUS Types of germs Lives and reproduces in body cells



1. A healthy person is infected with HIV 2. A person begins to suffer frequent bouts of illness. This indicates that the bodys ability to fight off diseases is becoming impaired. 3. AIDS- The immune system deteriorates to the point where the person is more often ill than well

Incubation period varies from individual to individual There is no set time period within which a person will begin to feel ill. This will depend on a number of factors, including that persons condition.

Some people can show AIDS symptoms within months of getting HIV. Others can be healthy for many years.

CONT You can become infected from only one exposure. Once you are infected you can infect others. Within several weeks to months of infection many people develop a flu-like illness lasting 1-2 weeks. Years or months may pass before other signs develop. If you are HIV+ you can continue to live a healthy life.

Acquired- received, not inherited (does not run in families). Immuno- protected from (in this case the system protects the body from disease) Deficiency- a lack of Syndrome- a group of symptoms or diseases

AIDS is the medical name for a combination of illnesses which results when the immune system that part of the body which protects it from infections and diseases, is weakened or destroyed. More than 1 dozen opportunistic infections, several cancers (1982) Revised CD4+ cells count of less than 200+ other indicators

Exchange of HIV contaminated body fluids Unprotected sexual intercourse with a HIV infected person- oral, anal, vagina-penis sex Sharing injected needles with infected person Transfusion with contaminated blood to blood products(blood transfusion, accidental exposure) Vertical transmission ( mother-to-child)

Mosquito bites Sharing kitchen utensils/food, hugging, or caring for an infected person Touching, hugging, or caring for an infected person. Sharing toilet/ bathroom facilities Kissing, sneezing, coughing Air, food or water.


The HIV test check for antibodies or chains/ structures of the virus itself in the blood. The normal response to a virus: When a virus (germ) enters the body, the cells in the immune system begin to work at once. These cells produce antibodies. The antibodies attack the germs and destroy them, therefore helping the person to get better. It is the presence of these HIV antibodies in the blood which is used to indicate whether a person is infected with the virus or not

What testing


Truly negative OR. Antibodies not yet produced (may be in the window peroid- 1 to 3 months)

You can continue to practice unsafe in sex It does not mean that you may not get infected in the future.

What is testing

means: You have the antibodies You are infected with HIV You can infect others

It does not means that you have AIDS. Only your doctor can confirm whether you already have AIDS. It may not mean you are going to die soon. It does not mean you have to deal with this by yourself.

Any person who receive a negative test result should do a second test three months later to be absolutely sure of his/her HIV status.
During the 3 months waiting period he/she should either abstain from sex or use a condom properly at all times so as not to risk exposure to the virus.

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25 20 15 10 5 0 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006

The Caribbean is the second-most affected region in the world . Nearly one adult in 62 is living with HIV, and AIDS is the leading cause of death among adults. Jamaica ranks fourth in the caribbean, with a 1.5% prevalence in the population. Over 25000 cases of AIDS have been reported in Jamaica since 1982 Most cases of HIV/AIDS occur in persons between 20-49 yrs (parents) St. James has the higest no. of reported cases in Jamaica(929 AIDS cases per 100,000 pop.)

Ignorance and denial Stigma and discrimination Poverty, high unemployment Poor perception of personal risk Migration & population movement Sex tourism

Sexual transmitted infection Sexual practices- multiple partners; unprotected sexual intercourse Homo/bisexuality- anal sex Commercial sex work/ prostitution Substance abuse

Prevention of Mother To Child transmission of HIV (PMTCT)

There is no vaccine for HIV There is no cure for HIV Pregnancy in HIV mothers can hasten the manifestation of AIDS

BUILD LIFE SKILLS Refusal skills Problem solving skills Self awareness skills Critical thinking skills Decision making skills Negotiating skills Social skills Effective communication skills Empathy skills

This will help you to: Address fears that sex education leads to sex

Prevent high risk sexual behaviours Practice the ABDs of HIV prevention

Do not discriminate Show love to people with HIV/AIDS Join our Peer-Based programme Improve parenting skills Get involved in community programmes/ projects Lobby for politicans to place GHIV/AIDS at the centre of there agenda