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Motors Fault Diagnosing& Maintenance

Prepared by Dr. M.Mahfouz ASEC Repelco Managing Director

Induction Motor Faults


Sources of Machine Faults

Internal

External

Mechanical

Electrical

Electrical

Environmental

Mechanical

Rotor Strikes Bearing Faults Coil and Lamination Movement

Rotor bars crack Dielectric failure

Voltage Transient

Unbalanced Voltage

Temperature

Pulsating Load

Over Load

Magnetic circuit faults Voltage Fluctuations

Humidity

Cleanliness

Eccentricity

Poor Mountin g

Induction Motor Common Faults and Their Causes


Common Machine Faults

Rotor Faults

Stator Faults

Defective Installation, Incorrect Loading, Unbalanced Magnetic Pull, Over Heating, Loss of Lubrications, Contamination Oil Thermal Cycling, Unbalanced Magnetic Pull, Large Transient, Negative Sequence in Supply Defective Rotor Forgoing or Fabrication, Thermal Cycling, Over Torque Incorrect Coupling, Large Bearing Clearance, Over Loading, Defective Installation Defective Installation, Bearing Failure, Unbalanced Magnetic Pull Over Heating, Oil Seal Failure, Contamination Oil

Bearing Failure

Frame Vibration

Unbalanced Magnetic Pull, Coil Movement, Unbalanced Supply Voltage, Over Loading, Defective Installation, Rotor Strike Turn to Body Fault, Abrasion of Insulation, Thermal Cycling, Slack Core Laminations, Slack Slot Wedges, Shock Damage During Installation or Service, Frequent Starting, High or Low Humidity and Temperature Excessive Heating, Surge in Supply, High Humidity, Vibration, Contamination Oil Failure of Insulation, High Temperature, Unbalanced Supply, Slacking of coils Shock Due to Faults, Repeated Starting, End Winding Vibration Slack joints, Contamination, Excessive Vibrations

Rotor Broken Bars

Earth Faults

Rotor Body Failure Bearing Misalignment Rotor Misalignment

Damage of Insulation

Turn-Turn Faults

Phase-Phase Faults Displacement of Conductor

Bearing Loss of Lubrication


Rotor Mechanical or Thermal unbalanced

End Ring Movement, Asymmetric Blocking

Failure of elect. connections

Fault Percentage

0.0
Bearing Faults Stator Faults

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Fault Percentage
Rotor Faults

0.0

Misalignments
Fault Percentage
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Coupling Wear

Unbalance
Bearing Faults

Ring Wear

Faults Statistical Studies

B&K Study

Leakage

0.2

EPRI Study

Faults

Worn Belts

0.4

Bearing Faults

0.6

0.8

1.0

Others

Stator Faults

Faults

Rotor Faults

Others

IEEE Study

Faults

Algorism of Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosing


Fault Diagnosing Algorithm

Models for Fault Simulation

Condition Monitoring

Signal Processing and Fault

Experimental Fault Diagnosing System Using ANN

3-ph. Supply

MCC

IM Monitor
Current signals

Control system

Card

DSP ANN
program

Experimental on line system using ANN for fault diagnosing

Fault ratio

Fault type

A/D

Motor Maintenances

Maintenance Targets
Economical security of invested Capital Reduction of unplanned stoppage Increase the loss of production Increase the safety and reliability

Inspection
Test Measure Asses

Maintenance
Clean Care

overhaul
repair Replace

Maintenance Strategies
Maintenance

Breakdown

Time Oriented

State Oriented

How can we realized the state oriented Maintenance?

Knowing the machine state parameters

A reliable assessments can be attained by the followings:

Test Diagnosis Comparison of the test results Comparison with the limit results Trends

Pointes for the state oriented Maintenance?

Machine Vibration Assessment of the winding conditions (diagnosis) Commutator or slip rings surface measurements
(Brush behavior and wearing)

Vibrations pointer
Measurement

Analysis (frequency-Tends-Standers)

Diagnosis
Unbalance Alignment Bearings Electrical

Vibrations Limits
The IEC standers limits of the motor vibrations are as follows:

Motor Status
Good Satisfactory Unsatisfactory Unaccepted

Rigid Foundation (mm/Sec)

Rigid Foundation (mm/Sec)

< 1.8

< 2.8

1.8- < 4.5


4.5- < 11.2 >11.2

2.8- < 7.1


7.1- < 18 >18

Note: for upper bearing for Vertical motors are as the same of elastic foundation

Windings condition pointer


Diagnosing Method Motors Up to 3.3Kv Motors more than 3.3Kv

Visual inspection (R/S) Check slot wedges

X x -

X
x X X X

Megger test(R/S)

Tan Delta Hipot / Surge PD

Testing Voltage
AC Hipot Test V(test)= 2Vn+1 (Kv)

Megger Test ( for 1 Min)


Motor Nominal Volt.(Kv) Testing Volt.(V)

Up to 1 >1 - 3.3 > 3.3- 6.6 > 6.6

500 1000 2500 5000

Insulation Resistance Limits


Winding Type Insulation Resisitane( M ohm)

AC windings

3(Un+1)

DC field windings

Armauture windings

Motor Standard Overhauling

AC Motor Overhauling
Stator Overhauling: Motor disassembling. Stator visual check.

Stator cleaning.
Stator drying in the oven. Stator impregnation in varnish class H Stator insulation curing in the oven. Stator insulation resistance test. Rotor Overhauling: Rotor static balancing. Rotor dynamic balancing.

Motor assembling.
Motor final test. Motor painting.

DC Motor Overhauling
Stator overhauling:
Motor disassembling. Stator cleaning. Stator drying in the oven. Stator impregnation in varnish class H.

Stator insulation curing in the oven.


Field, poles and IInterpoles Insulation Testing

Rotor overhauling:
Rotor cleaning Rotor drying in the oven. Rotor impregnation in varnish class H. Rotor insulation curing in the oven. Commutator machinery. Commutator mica under cutting.

Commutator grinding and O-vality test.


Change Brushes & Bearings. Motor assembling. Motor final test. Motor painting.