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Chapter 13 – Simple Harmonic Motion

Unit 5

Describing Periodic Motion

Any motion that repeats itself precisely over equal periods of time is classified as periodic motion. If that motion is generated by a linear restoring force (something that makes it smooth), then it is simple harmonic motion.

Describing Periodic Motion

Can anyone remember what Hooke’s Law is?

Describing Periodic Motion

What does the negative sign in the equation represent?

So, the force that a spring exerts on a mass causes the mass to oscillate with simple harmonic motion.

The Period of a Mass on a Spring

Any characteristics that you can describe for the motion of a mass on a spring you can use to provide a model for all types of simple harmonic motion. What are two related quantities that help us describe any form of periodic motion?

The Period of a Mass on a Spring

The period (T) is the length of time required for an object to complete one full cycle of motion. The frequency (f) is the inverse of the period and is the number of cycles that occur in a given time period. In SI units, it is the number of cycles per second. Frequency can either have units of inverse seconds (s-1) or Hertz (Hz).

The Period of a Mass on a Spring

So, how can we solve for the spring constant?

The Period of a Mass on a Spring

The Period of a Mass on a Spring

We can use this information to derive an expression for the speed of the mass at any position of its motion.

The Period of a Mass on a Spring

The Period of a Mass on a Spring

The Period of a Mass on a Spring

If we compare our equation to circular motion, because they are both periodic, we can get a function that describes the equation in terms of the period.

Model Problem

You stretch a spring a distance of 12.0cm from its rest length and release it. A 125g mass on the end of the spring completes exactly 20.0 cycles in 15.5s. Find:
(a) the period. (b) the force constant of the spring (c) the total energy of the system (d) the maximum speed of the mass (e) the speed of the mass when it is 10.0cm from its equilibrium position.

Model Problem

Model Problem

Model Problem

Period of a Simple Pendulum

What are some common pendulums that you know of?

When you pull a pendulum bob to the side, what kind of energy are you giving it? So, it is the force of gravity that causes the pendulum to return to its equilibrium position.

Period of a Simple Pendulum

Period of a Simple Pendulum

Would the pendulum on the Moon have the same period as on Earth?

Would a pendulum swing if it was at the International Space Station (i.e. virtually no force of gravity)?

Model Problem
(a)

(b)

Find the period of a pendulum with a 2.45kg bob and having a length of 1.36m? By what amount would you have to increase the length in order to double the period?

Model Problem

Review of Chapters 11, 12 & 13
p. 623 #22-28 p. 624 #10-12, 14-17

p. 626-627 #39-44