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# UNIT 3

Momentum & Energy

EFFICIENCY

Efficiency is the ratio of useful energy or work output to the total energy or work output.

EFFICIENCY

A model rocket engine contains explosives storing 3.5*10^3J of chemical potential energy. The stores energy is transformed into gravitational potential energy at the top of a rocket’s flight path. Calculate how efficiently the rocket transforms stored chemical energy into gravitational potential energy if the 0.500kg rocket is propelled to a height of 1.00*10^2m.

EFFICIENCY

CHAPTER 17 – CONSERVATION OF ENERGY AND MOMENTUM

Law of conservation of energy: Energy can not be created or destroyed, or may only be transformed. Thus, the total energy of an isolated system must be constant over time.

ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS

You’ve talked about kinetic, potential, and gravitational energy – all mechanical energies. Now we will talk about what happens to the energy after you’ve done work on the object.

If you shoot a hockey puck down an ice surface, what will eventually happen? It has lost the mechanical energy that we’ve given it!

CONSERVATIVE AND NONCONSERVATIVE FORCES

If you lift a book one meter above a table and release it, what happens? If you push a book across a table, will it automatically return to its original spot? What are we doing work against in the first case?

And the second?

CONSERVATIVE AND NONCONSERVATIVE FORCES

Now, if you lift the book one meter above the table, and then carry it across the room, have you done more work on the book than in the first case? If you push the book from one side to the other, and then push it back to its original position, have you done more work than before?

CONSERVATIVE AND NONCONSERVATIVE FORCES

Conservative force – does work on an object in a way that is path independent. Non-conservative force – does work on an object in a way that is path dependent. Conservative forces are reversible!

CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY

When all of the work done throughout a process is done by conservative forces, the total mechanical energy of the system before the process is equal to the total mechanical energy at the end of the process. Ek + Eg + Ee = E’k + E’g + E’e k = kinetic g = gravitational e = elastic

CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY

What kind of energy transformation is happening if you drop a rock? What happens the total energy? What is happening to the different energies throughout the process?

CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY

A skier is gliding along with a speed of 2.00m/s at the top of a ski hill, 40.0m high. The skier then begins to slide down the icy (frictionless) hill.
a. What will be the skier’s speed at a height of 25.0m? b. At what height will the skier have a speed of 10.0m/s?

CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY

CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY

CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY

Homework problems: pg. 287, #1-4

ELASTIC POTENTIAL ENERGY AND KINETIC ENERGY

You’ve leaned what elastic potential energy is and how to express it when stored in a stretched or compressed spring:

Now, what are some practical examples of transforming elastic potential energy into kinetic energy?

ELASTIC POTENTIAL ENERGY AND KINETIC ENERGY

ELASTIC POTENTIAL ENERGY AND KINETIC ENERGY

A low friction cart with a mass of 0.25kg travels along a horizontal track and collides head on with a spring that has a spring constant of 155N/m. If the spring was compressed by 6.0cm, how fast was the cart initially travelling?

CONSERVATION OF TOTAL ENERGY

CONSERVATION OF TOTAL ENERGY

A system is any object or group of objects.
An internal force is any force exerted on any object in the system due to another object in the system. An external force is any force exerted by an object that is not a part of the system on an object within the system.

CONSERVATION OF TOTAL ENERGY

An open system can exchange both matter and energy with its surroundings. A closed system can exchange energy, but not matter, with it’s surroundings. An isolated system can not exchange energy or matter with its surroundings - nothing can enter or leave.

CONSERVATION OF TOTAL ENERGY

CONSERVATION OF TOTAL ENERGY

You often hear that a system “lost” energy. Since the energy can not be created or destroyed, what happens to the energy?

CONSERVATION OF TOTAL ENERGY

We can now state the law of conservation of energy mathematically:

The work done by non-conservative forces is the difference between the final mechanical energy and the initial mechanical energy of a system.

CONSERVATION OF TOTAL ENERGY
A roller-coaster with a mass of 200.0kg is moving to the right at a speed of 4.00m/s at point A, 15.00m above the ground. The car then heads down the slope towards point B, 6.00m above the ground. If 3.40*10^3J of work are done by friction between points A and B, determine the speed of the car at point B.

CONSERVATION OF TOTAL ENERGY

CONSERVATION OF TOTAL ENERGY

CONSERVATION OF TOTAL ENERGY
Example: A 65.0kg skydiver steps out from a hot air balloon that is 5.00*10^2m above the ground. After free-falling a short distance, she deploys her parachute, finally reaching the ground with a velocity of 8.00m/s.
a. What is the gravitational potential energy of the skydiver, relative to the ground, before she jumps?

b. What is the kinetic energy just before she
lands on the ground? c. How much work did the non-conservative frictional force do?

CONSERVATION OF TOTAL ENERGY

CONSERVATION OF TOTAL ENERGY

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

Elastic collisions – kinetic energy is conserved. Inelastic collisions – kinetic energy is not conserved. Newton’s third law of motion states that “for every action force on object B due to object A, there is a reaction force equal in magnitude (but opposite direction) acting on object A due to object B.

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

So how do we derive the conservation of momentum law from Newton’s third law? We use the impulse-momentum theorem!

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

The conservation of momentum law states that the total momentum of two objects before a collision is the same as the total momentum of the same two objects after the collision.

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

We all know that systems are rarely perfectly isolated, and that immediately after a collision, frictional forces and interactions with other objects change the momentum of the objects.

So is this law still useful?

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

Yes! We can still use the conservation of momentum law to describe a system from the instant before to the instant after a collision.

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM
A 1.75*10^4kg boxcar is rolling down a track toward a stationary boxcar that has a mass of 2.00*10^4kg. Just before the collision, the first boxcar is moving east at 5.45m/s. When the boxcars collide, they lock together and continue down the track. What is the velocity of the two boxcars after the collision?

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM
A 0.250kg billiard ball moving at 5.00m/s collides head-on with a stationary, 0.800kg steel ball. If the billiard ball bounces directly backwards at 2.62m/s, was the collision elastic?

REAL LIFE EXAMPLES

What are some examples that make this important for everyday events?

Homework: pg. 327 # 2,7,8 pg. 332 # 38, 42, 44, 46, 49