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# What is friction? Friction opposes the relative motion between two surfaces in contact. It acts on both surfaces.

Friction depends on the following factor :a) Materials of the bodies in contact b) Roughness of the two surfaces in contact. More rough the surfaces, greater is the friction. Irregularities on the two surfaces lock into one another. When a person attempts to move any surface, he/she will have to apply a force to overcome interlocking. On rough surfaces, there are a larger number. So the force of friction is greater if a rough surface is involved

Although friction is undesirable, it is important for activities like sitting, walking, braking etc. Harmful effects of friction a) increases in wear and tear b) produces heat c) decreases efficiency Few examples of wear and tear are:a) soles of shoes b) tires of cycles, bikes, cars etc.

Increasing friction
The figure given beside is of a tyre used for increasing friction. Increasing friction can also be done by increasing the number of irregularities on the surface of contact.

Decreasing friction
The substances which reduce friction are called lubricants. We use powder on the carom board to reduce friction.

STATIC FRICTION
The figure given beside is a figure of static friction. What is static friction? It comes to play when a force is applied on an object is at rest.

SLIDING FRICTION
The figure given beside is of ball bearing, an example of sliding friction What is sliding friction? Sliding friction comes into play when an object is sliding over another object.

ROLLING FRICTION
The figure given beside is of rolling friction What is rolling friction? Rolling friction comes into play when one body rolls over another body.

## Which friction is greater?

Static friction is greater than sliding friction. It means that friction acts on static friction more compared to sliding friction. Sliding friction is greater than rolling friction. It means that friction acting on sliding friction more compared to rolling friction. So the order in which friction acts most to less is Static friction, Sliding friction, rolling friction

Fluid friction
In science, the common name of gases and liquids is fluid. The frictional force exerted by fluids is also called drag. The frictional force on an object in a fluid depends on its speed with respect to the fluid. The frictional force also depends the shape of the object and the nature of the fluid. When objects move through fluids, they have to overcome friction acting on them. In this process they lose energy. Efforts are, therefore, made to minimize friction. So, objects are given special shapes

## Points covered so far in alphabetic order

Ball bearing Drag Fluid friction Friction Interlocking Lubricants Rolling friction Sliding friction Static friction

## Questions based on your understanding

What is friction? What does friction depend on? How is friction bad as well as good for us? What is static friction? What is sliding friction? What is rolling friction? Arrange the friction in ascending order on which friction is acting most.

What is fluid friction? What is drag? Explain why objects moving in fluids must have special shapes?

Ans 1:- Friction is force that opposes the relative motion between two surfaces in contact. It acts on both surfaces. Ans 2:- Friction depends on the following factor :a) Materials of the bodies in contact b) Roughness of the two surfaces in contact. More rough the surfaces, greater is the friction. Ans 3:- Harmful effects of friction a) increases in wear and tear b) produces heat c) decreases efficiency Although friction is undesirable, it is important for activities like sitting, walking, braking etc.

Ans 4:- Static friction comes to play when a force is applied on an object is at rest Ans 5:- Sliding friction comes into play when an object is sliding over another object Ans 6:- Rolling friction comes into play when one body rolls over another body. Ans 7:- Static friction, Sliding friction, rolling friction. Ans 8:- In science, the common name of gases and liquids is fluid.

Ans 9:- The frictional force exerted by fluids is also called drag Ans 10:- When objects move through fluids, they have to overcome friction acting on them. In this process they lose energy. Efforts are, therefore, made to minimize friction. So, objects are given special shapes

## Text book questions

1.Fill in the blanks Friction opposes the _____________ betwee n the surfaces in contact with each other. Friction depends on the _____________ of surfaces . Friction produces ____. Sprinkling of powder on the carrom board ______ friction. Sliding friction is ___________ than the static friction.

2. Four children were asked to arrange forces due to rolling, static and sliding frictions in a decreasing order. Their arrangements are given below. Choose the correct arrangement. (a) Rolling, static, sliding (b) Rolling, sliding, static (c) Static, sliding, rolling (d) Sliding, static, rolling 3. Alida runs her toy car on dry marble floor, wet marble floor, newspaper and towel spread on the floor. The force of friction acting on the car on different surfaces in increasing order will be

(a) Wet marble floor, dry marble floor, newspaper and towel. (b) Newspaper, towel, dry marble floor, wet marble floor. (c) Towel, newspaper, dry marble floor, wet marble floor. (d) Wet marble floor, dry marble floor, towel, newspaper 4. Suppose your writing desk is tilted a little. A book kept on it starts sliding down. Show the direction of frictional force acting on it. 5. You spill a bucket of soapy water on a marble floor accidently. Would it make it easier or more difficult for you to walk on the floor? Why?

6. Explain why sportsmen use shoes with spikes. 7. Iqbal has to push a lighter box and Seema has to push a similar heavier box on the same floor. Who will have to apply a larger force and why? 8. Explain why the sliding friction is less than the static friction. 9. Give examples to show that friction is both a friend and a foe. 10. Explain why objects moving in fluids must have special shapes.