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MODEL TO PROTOTYPE MULTIPLIER FOR THE VARIABLES COMMONLY USED IN MECHANICS UNDER FROUDE SCALING

GEOMETRY

VARIABLE Length Area Volume Angle

UNIT L L2 L3 None

SCALE FACTOR 2 3 1

REMARKS Any characteristic dimension of the object Surface area or projected area on a plane For any portion of the object e.g., between members or solid angle

VARIABLE

UNIT

SCALE FACTOR

REMARKS

Radius of Gyration
Moment of Inertia Area

L
L4

Measured from a fixed point

Moment of Inertia Mass


Center of Gravity

ML2
L

Taken about a fixed point


Measured from a reference point

KINEMATICS & DYNAMICS

VARIABLE Time

UNIT T

SCALE FACTOR REMARKS 1/2 Same reference point (e.g., starting time) is considered as zero time Rate of change of velocity Rate of change of displacement Position at rest is considered as zero

Acceleration Velocity Displacement

LT-2 LT-1 L

1 1/2

Angular Acceleration
Angular Velocity

T-2
T-1

-1
1/2

Rate of change of angular velocity


Rate of change of angular displacement

VARIABLE Angular Displacement

UNIT None

SCALE FACTOR REMARKS 1 2 5/2 Zero degree is taken as reference Force per unit length of extension Resistance (viscous) against oscillation Ratio of damping and critical damping coefficient Period at which inertia force = restoring force

Spring Constant (Linear)

MT-2

Damping Coefficient

MT-1

Damping Factor

None

1 1/2

Natural Period

VARIABLE Momentum Angular Momentum Torque Work Power Impulse

UNIT MLT-1 ML2T-1 ML2T-2 ML2T-2 ML2T-3 MLT-1

SCALE FACTOR REMARKS 7/2 9/2 4 4 7/2 7/2 Mass times linear velocity Mass moment of inertia times angular velocity Tangential force times distance Force applied times distance moved Rate of work Constant force times its short duration of time

Force, Thrust, Resistance

MLT-2

Action of one body on another to change or tend to change the state of motion of the body acted on

STATICS

VARIABLE Stiffness

UNIT ML3T-2

SCALE FACTOR 5

REMARKS Modulus of elasticity times the moment of inertia, EI Force on an element per unit area Applied force times its from a fixed point Force per unit cross sectional area parallel to the force Area moment of inertia divided by the distance from the neural axis to the extreme fiber

Stress Moment Shear

ML-1T-2 ML2T-2 MLT-2

4 3

Section Modulus

L3

HYDRAULICS

VARIABLE

UNIT

SCALE FACTOR

REMARKS

Kinetic Energy

ML2T-2

Capacity of a body for doing work due to its configuration


Energy due to pressure head Capacity of a body for doing work due to its configuration

Pressure Energy Potential Energy

ML2T-2 ML2T-2

4 4

Friction Loss

ML2T-2

Loss of energy or work due to friction

SCOUR

VARIABLE Particle Diameter Free Settling Velocity

UNIT L LT-1

SCALE FACTOR

REMARKS For same prototype material Final velocity of a freely falling particle in a medium Nondimensional no. based on velocity and particle size Nondimensional no. based on velocity and particle size

Sediment Number

None

Shields Number

None

WAVE MECHANICS

VARIABLE Wave Height

UNIT L

SCALE FACTOR

REMARKS Consecutive crest to trough distance Time between two successive crests passing a point Distance between two successive crests at a given time

Wave Period

Wave Length

Celerity

LT-1

Velocity of wave (crest, for example)

VARIABLE

UNIT

SCALE FACTOR

REMARKS

Particle Velocity

LT-1

Rate of change of movement of a water particle


Rate of change of velocity of a water particle Path of a water particle (closed or open) Form of wave (distance from still waterline) Force exerted by a water particle per unit area Dependence of hydrodynamic coefficients on this parameter

Particle Acceleration

LT-2

Particle Orbits

Wave Elevation

Wave Pressure

ML-1T-2

Keulegan-Carpenter Parameter

None

STABILITY

VARIABLE Displacement (Volume)

UNIT L3

SCALE FACTOR 3

REMARKS Volume of water moved by a submerged object (or part therof)

Righting & Overturning Moment (Hard Volume)

ML2T-2

Moment about a fixed point of a displaced weight and dead weight, respectively
Period of free oscillation in still water due to an initial disturbance Instantaneous center of rotation Distance of C.G. of displaced volume from a fixed point Volume of trapped air in a member Increase in displaced volume per unit tilt angle

Natural Period

Metacenter Center of Buoyancy

L L

Soft Volume Buoyancy Pickup per Unit Angle

L3 L3

3 3

MATERIAL PROPERTIES

VARIABLE

UNIT

SCALE FACTOR

REMARKS

Density Modulus of Elasticity

ML-3 ML-1T-2

Mass per unit volume Ratio of tensile or compressive stress to strain Ratio of shearing stress to strain

Modulus of Rigidity

ML-1T-2