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Basic CDMA Network Elements - Voice


Main Switching Center

Visitor Location Register Home Location Register Base Station Controller Base Transceiver Station

Soft Site - Relay BTS

MS Mobile Station

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CDMA Network Elements - DATA


Packet Control Function

Packet Data Switching Node Authentication & Accounting


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Architecture CDMA Network Connectivity

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Interfaces in cBSC 6600

ABIS Interface (BSC -> BTS) 2048 Kbps Includes ABIS Traffic, ABIS Signaling & OML Abis Traffic IFC connecting the SDU of BSC & Channel Processing Unit of BTS

Abis Signaling
OML signaling

Transfers Signaling between BSC & BTS

Implementing relevant O&M commands from the BSC to BTS
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Interfaces in cBSC 6600 contd

A1 IFC A2 IFC A3 IFC Call control Signals b/w MSC & BSC Carries 64 Kbps PCM voice Services b/w MSC & BSC Includes A3 Signaling & A3 Traffic A3 Signaling is used to control & allocate channels for user traffic transmissions for IWF A5 IFC Used for signaling b/w Inter working Functions boards (Ckt data Switching)
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Interfaces in cBSC 6600 contd

A7 IFC A8 IFC A9 IFC A10 IFC A11 IFC Transfers signaling b/w Source & Target BSC Carries user traffic b/w BSC & PCF Transfers signaling b/w BSC & PCF

Carries Traffic b/w PCF & PDSN

Signaling b/w PCF & PDSN
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cBSC 6600 Supported Bands

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Chapter 6 - Major Functions

Over head Messages Sync, PCH & TCH channels Call Control MSC responsible in UM & A interface Terrestrial Circuit Resource Management BSS & MSC Radio Channel Management Sectors/Carriers/CH alloc Power Control Manages Power of MS Mobility Management MS registration & N/W access Handoff HHO, SHO etc Authentication validity of MS Packet Data Services BSC is in WAN
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Major Functions
Supplementary Services
call wtng, call hold, conf, voice mail etc

Location Services Cell based location / GPS Signaling Tracing UM, Abis & A IFC Fractional ATM Function ATM cells thro multiple E1 time slots Voice processing AEC & ALC

Circuit data services Fax, Point to Point data trfr

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ATM Sub -Session Objective

ATM theory & concepts ATM cell format

Application of ATM in a CDMA2000 System

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Why do we need a new technology?

To provide a high-speed, low and switching network to any

delay multiplexing

type of user traffic,

such as voice support, data,or video applications.

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What is ATM?

ATM for Telecom - Asynchronous Transfer Mode

Transport, Switching, network management, and customer services built into it right from the start. Traffic is carried in small, fixed-length packets called cells. Integrates advantages of circuit switch and packet switch.

Support any type of user services, such as voice, data, or

video service.
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3 Stages
5-Bytes Header 48-Bytes Payload

53byte fixed length cell= 5Bytes cell header+48Bytes payload.

ATM must set up virtual connection before communication.


ATM network will confer with terminal on parameter of QoS before the connection is set up.
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ATM provides CBR & VBR transport

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Connectionless & Connection-oriented

Connection-oriented : All packets are transferred from the same route , so the receiving order of packets depends on the sending order. Time delay is fixed.

Connectionless: Every packet is transferred from different routes, so the receiving order of packets doesnt possibly depend on the sending order.
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Traditional Switch Models Characteristic

Circuit Switching Data is sent from the same route, so time delay is fixed High-speed switching Fixed rate

Packet Switching
Support multi-rate switching Take full advantage of bandwidth/waste of bandwidth Time delay is not fixed
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ATM Switch Models Characteristic

Any users cell will not be send periodically Bandwidth - shared and statistically multiplexed Many types of service in the same time and Quality of Service is supported in an ATM network Fixed length cell, so switch can be controlled by hardware and high-speed switching is easy to be realized.

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ATMs Advantage

Voice, image, video, data and multimedia. Standardization of network structures and components.

This results in cost savings for network providers.

Any Transmission media ATM is scaleable - Bandwidth Guaranteed transmission quality

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ATM Cell

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ATM Cell

GFC ( Generic Flow Control): It is intended for control of a possible bus system at the user interface and is not used at the moment. VPI ( Virtual Path Identifier): The VPI contains the second part of the addressing instructions and is of higher priority than the VCI. VCI ( Virtual Channel Identifier): VCI in each case indicates a path section between switching centers or between the switching center and the subscriber. PTI ( Payload Type Identifier): Indicates the type of data in the information field. CLP ( Cell Loss Priority): Determines whether a cell can be preferentially deleted or not in the case of a transmission bottleneck. HEC ( Header Error Control): Provided in order to control and, to some extent, correct errors in the header data that may occur. The HEC is used to synchronize the receiver to the start of the cell.
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VP and VC

Why two fields? think of VPI as a bundle of virtual channels. (256 VPI on one link) the individual virtual channels have unique VCIs. The VCI values may be reused in each virtual path.
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ATM Cell Switching

ATM Network Node
User B ATM Terminal
Cell and users VPI=2 VCI=37 data change each other UNI

Port 1 Port 2

ATM Switch
Port 1 2 VPI 2 1 VCI 37 51

VPI=1 VCI=51


ATM Network Node

Port 1
User A ATM Terminal
Cell and users UNI data change VPI=3 VCI=39 each other

ATM Switch
Port VPI 1 3 VCI 51 39

Port 2

1 2

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ATM Virtual Connection

Port 1 A UNI cell VPI =1 VCI =1 2
1 2 3

VPI 1 26

VCI 1 44

UNI cell VPI =20 VCI =30 3


NNI cell VPI =26 VCI =44

1 2

NNI cell VPI =6 VCI =44 NNI cell VPI =2 VCI =44
1 3 2

Port 2 3 Port 1 2 VPI 2 6

VPI 6 20

VCI 44 30

Port 1 2

VPI 26 2

VCI 44 44

ATM Virtual Connection

VCI 44 44

In order to exchange cells between A and B, several tables must be set up in network node where the cells passed. After these tables have been set up, all the cells will be transferred along this route. This route is called Virtual Connection. HFCL Connect 24

Signaling In ATM
Permanent Virtual Channel (PVC):
The connections are analogous to leased lines that are switched between certain users. A change can only be made by the network provider. This type of ATM network often forms the initial stage in the introduction of this technology.

Switch Virtual Channel (SVC):

Users connected to this type of network can set up a connection to the user of their own choice by means of signaling procedures. This can be compared with the process of dialing a telephone number.

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Types of ATM Virtual Connection

According to the switching mode, ATM Virtual Connection can be classified : VPC (Virtual Path Connection)

VCC (Virtual Channel Connection)

According to connection establishment, ATM Virtual Connection can be classified:

SVC(Switching Virtual Connection)

PVC(Permanent Virtual Connection)
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Three Communications Planes

The user plane transports the user data for an

application. It uses the physical, ATM and ATM adaptation layers to do this The control plane takes care of establishing, maintaining and clearing down user connections in the user plane. The key word here is signaling The management plane includes layer management and plane management. Layer management monitors and coordinates the individual layer tasks. Plane management handles monitoring and coordination tasks in the network
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ATM in CDMA2000 BSS system Large Capacity Configuration

BTS baseband frame service/ signal-in-band AAL2 maintenance / signal-out-band AAL5

Abis interface: signal-in-band/serviceAAL2 signal-out-band /maintenanceAAL5 IPOA If Abis interface is connected with several E1 cables, IMA mode will be adopted to transfer ATM cells.
Integrated Processing Subrack (CIPS)
Optical fiber or several E1 cables Resource Optic Management & Packet Processing fiber Subrack (CRPS) Optic fiber Connected to MSC


Switch Subrack
Optic fiber

GPS/Glonass receiver

BSC inside VoiceAAL2 signal/data service:AAL5 maintenanceAAL5 IPOA

Ethernet cable Integrated Management Subrack (BAM)

Data Service Processing Subrack (CPMS)


Connected to PDSN

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IMA Mode
If Abis interface is connected with several E1 cables, IMA mode will be adopted to transfer ATM cells. In this way, cells of high speed ATM link could be transferred on several low speed physical links.

IMA Group


Physical Link #0


IMA Group

ATM Layer


Physical Link #1


ATM Layer


Physical Link #2


Virtual ATM Link

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ATM Basics
ATM switching is cell switching,it has advantage of circuit switch and packet switch, connection oriented ATM cell:53byte fixed length cell= 5Bytes cell header+48Bytes payload ATM switching ATM switching has two types:VP and VC switch. As a rule: only VPI has been changed in VP switch,Both VCI and VPI have been changed in VC switch. VPI and VCI is only of effect between the two ATM physical nodes.

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State ATM application in CDMA2000 BSS system?

What is the difference between SVC and PVC? What is the difference between VP switch and VC switch?

Back to cBSC

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