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Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Mathematics from High School to Community College

Thursday, October 10, 1:45-3:15p

RP Group Conference Strengthening Student Success
SFO Marriott

Presenters
• Dr. Louise Jaffe, Trustee Santa Monica College • Dr. Roberto Gonzalez, Associate Dean Santa Monica College • Dr. Terry Deloria, Assistant Superintendent Santa Monica-Malibu USD • Ken Sorey, Project Director Cal-PASS Plus
Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Building the Pipeline

College and workforce readiness begins with early childhood education and continues along the educationto-workforce pipeline.
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Why Math?
Math Functions As A Roadblock

It’s going to take all of us….
Leveraging…. Heavy lifting…

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

It’s going to take all of us….
Communicating… Working together….

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

It’s going to take all of us….
Working independently…

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Data can show us the way
• Shared research – cross-systems analyses – can help us increase college readiness • Collective and Collaborative Impact
– If school districts and community colleges see the same findings for shared students, they can implement reforms and interventions that align and increase student success, and – work together more easily and more effectively.

Data Can Show Us The Way
Teaching Learning
Assessing Placing Assessing Placing Messaging Teaching Learning Messaging Community College District
Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Scheduling

School District

To be covered…
Research example – Louise Jaffe K-12 actions – Terry Deloria CC actions – Roberto Gonzalez Cal-PASS Plus Actionable Data – Ken Sorey
Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Problem
Students are coming to community college unprepared for college-level coursework as determined by the community college placement assessment.

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Sample: 2920 12th Grade Students
Classes of 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 from a single high school

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

CC Freshmen Ethnicity (N=953)
9%

Black Latino 48% 35% A/PI White

Other

7%

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

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High School Math Pathway Markers
• Where students start: Grade 9 Math
• Geometry or Above • Algebra 1 or Below

• When students stop: Math in Grade 12
• Yes or No

• Where students stop: Highest-Level Math
• Above Algebra 2 • Algebra 2 • Below Algebra 2

Every course beyond Algebra 2 doubles the odds of college completion (Adelman, 2006)
Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Students travel different pathways through high school mathematics
High School Observed Math Pathways
Path 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Grade 9 Math Class Math in Grade 12 Highest-Level Math All Students N=2920

CC Freshmen n=953

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Students travel different pathways through high school mathematics
High School Observed Math Pathways
Path 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Grade 9 Math Class Geometry Math in Grade 12 Yes Highest-Level Math Above Algebra 2 All Students N=2920 36.5%

CC Freshmen n=953
17.7%

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Students travel different pathways through high school mathematics
High School Observed Math Pathways
Path 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Grade 9 Math Class Geometry Algebra 1 and Below Math in Grade 12 Yes No Highest-Level Math Above Algebra 2 Algebra 2 All Students N=2920 36.5% 12.4% 48.9%

CC Freshmen n=953
17.7% 19.5% 37.2%

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Students travel different pathways through high school mathematics
High School Observed Math Pathways
Path 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Grade 9 Math Class Geometry Algebra 1 and Below Algebra 1 and Below Geometry Algebra 1 and Below Algebra 1 and Below Algebra 1 and Below Geometry Geometry Geometry Algebra 1 and Below Geometry TOTAL Math in Grade 12 Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes No No Highest-Level Math Above Algebra 2 Algebra 2 Above Algebra 2 Above Algebra 2 Algebra 2 Below Algebra 2 Below Algebra 2 Algebra 2 Algebra 2 Below Algebra 2 Above Algebra 2 Below Algebra 2 All Students N=2920 36.5% 12.4% 11.0% 9.6% 6.0% 2.0% 1.5% .9% .4% .4% .2% .1% 81% (2363)

CC Freshmen n=953
17.7% 19.5% 11.6% 10.3% 10.4% 2.9% 2.2% 1.3% .5% .6% .2% .2% 78% (739)

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

All 12 high school math pathways lead to high school graduation
Path

High School Observed Math Pathways
Grade 9 Math Class Math in Grade 12 Yes
No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes No No

Highest-Level Math
Above Algebra 2 Algebra 2 Above Algebra 2 Above Algebra 2 Algebra 2 Below Algebra 2 Below Algebra 2 Algebra 2 Algebra 2 Below Algebra 2 Above Algebra 2 Below Algebra 2

All Students N=2920 36.5% 12.4% 11.0% 9.6% 6.0% 2.0% 1.5% .9% .4% .4% .2% .1% 81% (2363)

CC Freshmen n=953 17.7% 19.5% 11.6% 10.3% 10.4% 2.9% 2.2% 1.3% .5% .6% .2% .2% 78% (739)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Geometry Algebra 1 and Below Algebra 1 and Below Geometry Algebra 1 and Below Algebra 1 and Below Algebra 1 and Below Geometry Geometry Geometry Algebra 1 and Below Geometry TOTAL

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

The goalposts have moved…

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

How do the different high school mathematics pathways prepare students for community college?

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Enter Community College, Take Math Placement Assessment
Assessment College-level Mathematics 1-level below 2-levels below 3-levels below 4-levels below Placement College-level Mathematics Intermediate Algebra Algebra 1 Pre-Algebra Basic Arithmetic

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

College Math Placement Results
All CC Freshmen CC Freshmen by Ethnicity

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

What predicts placing into college-level or belowcollege-level coursework on the community college placement assessment?

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Variables Tested in Predictive Model
1. Gender 2. Ethnicity 3. Parent Education 4. Low SES 5. Grade 9 Math Course – where students start 6. Highest-Level Math Course – where students stop 7. No Math in Grade 12 – when students stop 8. Grade 9 Math GPA 9. Grade 10 Math GPA 10. Grade 11 Math GPA 11. CAHSEE Math

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Significant Predictors of Placement in Below College-Level Mathematics
Delta-p
Variable Grade 9 Math GPA

1-level below

2-levels below

3-levels below

4-levels below
14.42**

Grade 10 Math GPA
Grade 11Math GPA 14.96** 21.99** 22.27* 16.69** 22.39**

16.74*
21.38***

Grade 9 Math No Math in Grade 12
* p < .05, ** p < .01, ***p < .001

57.64**

45.66*

49.20**

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Who Took No Math in Grade 12?
All Students (N=2920) CC Freshmen (N=953)

By Ethnicity (N=2895)

How does not taking mathematics in grade 12 negatively impact students matriculating to community college?

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Where students stopped was determined in part by when students stopped

Students All
(n=2920)

Last Grade
12 11

Above Alg. 2

Alg. 2

Alg. 1 and Geom. below

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Where students stopped was determined in part by when students stopped

Students All
(n=2920)

Last Grade
12 11

Above Alg. 2
52% 11% 63%

Alg. 2 9% 15% 24%

Alg. 1 and Geom. below
1% 3% 4% 2% 1% 4%

Total

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Where students stopped was determined in part by when students stopped

Students All
(n=2920)

Last Grade
12 11

Above Alg. 2
52% 11% 63% 34%

Alg. 2 9% 15% 24% 14%

Alg. 1 and Geom. below
1% 3% 4% 1% 2% 1% 4% 3%

Total CC Freshmen
(n=953)

12

11

12%
46%

23%
37%

4%
6%

2%
5%

Total

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Students who advanced beyond Algebra 2 were more frequently college-ready
Highest-Level Math with CC Math Placement
High School Math
Highestlevel
> Algebra 2

Community College Math Placement
Collegelevel 1-level below 2-levels below 3-levels below 4-levels below

Grade Taken
12 11

N

Algebra 2

12 11

< Algebra 2

12 11

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Students who advanced beyond Algebra 2 were more frequently college-ready
Highest-Level Math with CC Math Placement
High School Math
Highestlevel
> Algebra 2

Community College Math Placement
Collegelevel 1-level below 2-levels below 3-levels below 4-levels below

Grade Taken
12 11

N

Algebra 2

12 11

< Algebra 2

12 11

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Students who advanced beyond Algebra 2 were more frequently college-ready
Highest-Level Math with CC Math Placement
High School Math
Highestlevel
> Algebra 2

Community College Math Placement
Collegelevel 1-level below 2-levels below 3-levels below 4-levels below

Grade Taken
12 11

N

Algebra 2

12 11

< Algebra 2

12 11

2% 1.9%

2% 3.8%

5% 5.7%

24% 34%

67% 55%

42 53

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Students who advanced beyond Algebra 2 were more frequently college-ready
Highest-Level Math with CC Math Placement
High School Math
Highestlevel
> Algebra 2

Community College Math Placement
Collegelevel 1-level below 2-levels below 3-levels below 4-levels below

Grade Taken
12 11

N

Algebra 2

12 11

11% 11% 2% 1.9%

8% 14% 2% 3.8%

9.5% 16% 5% 5.7%

32% 28% 24% 34%

40% 31% 67% 55%

12 6 21 0 42 53

< Algebra 2

12 11

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Students who advanced beyond Algebra 2 were more frequently college-ready
Highest-Level Math with CC Math Placement
High School Math
Highest-level
> Algebra 2

Community College Math Placement
Collegelevel
54% 48% 11% 11% 2%

Grade Taken
12 11

1-level below
16% 16% 8% 14% 2%

2-levels below
13% 15% 9.5% 16% 5%

3-levels below
11% 12.5% 32% 28% 24%

4-levels below
6% 8% 40% 31% 67% 55%

N
30 7 10 4 12 6 21 0 42 53

Algebra 2

12 11

< Algebra 2

12

11 1.9% to clear 3.8% 5.7% 34% Using shared research pathways to college-readiness

No Math in Grade 12: Different Students, Different Needs
High School Mathematics HS Pathway Markers Path Grade 12 HighestGr 9 Math* Math** level Math 2 4 ≤ Algebra 1 Geometry No No Algebra 2 > Algebra 2 CAHSEE Math * Grade 10 380+ 380+ Community College Placement Level College-level College-level % of HS Path 9% 46% n 17 43 60 % of 903 2% 5% 7%

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

No Math in Grade 12: Different Students, Different Needs
High School Mathematics HS Pathway Markers Path Grade 12 HighestGr 9 Math* Math** level Math 2 4 4 4 ≤ Algebra 1 Geometry Geometry Geometry No No No No Algebra 2 > Algebra 2 > Algebra 2 > Algebra 2 CAHSEE Math * Grade 10 380+ 380+ 380+ 380+ Community College Placement Level College-level College-level 1-level below 2-levels below % of HS Path 9% 46% 13% 14% % n of 903 17 43 12 13 2% 5% 1% 1%

85

9%

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

No Math in Grade 12: Different Students, Different Needs
High School Mathematics HS Pathway Markers Path Grade 12 HighestGr 9 Math* Math** level Math 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 ≤ Algebra 1 Geometry Geometry Geometry ≤ Algebra 1 ≤ Algebra 1 ≤ Algebra 1 No No No No No No No Algebra 2 > Algebra 2 > Algebra 2 > Algebra 2 Algebra 2 Algebra 2 Algebra 2 CAHSEE Math * Grade 10 380+ 380+ 380+ 380+ 380+ 380+ 380+ Community College Placement Level College-level College-level 1-level below 2-levels below 1-level below 2-levels below 3-levels below % of HS Path 9% 46% 13% 14% 9% 11% 11% % n of 903 17 43 12 13 17 20 19 2% 5% 1% 1% 2% 2% 2%

14 15% 1

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

No Math in Grade 12: Different Students, Different Needs
High School Mathematics HS Pathway Markers Path Grade 12 HighestGr 9 Math* Math** level Math 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 ≤ Algebra 1 Geometry Geometry Geometry ≤ Algebra 1 ≤ Algebra 1 ≤ Algebra 1 ≤ Algebra 1 ≤ Algebra 1 No No No No No No No No No Algebra 2 > Algebra 2 > Algebra 2 > Algebra 2 Algebra 2 Algebra 2 Algebra 2 Algebra 2 Algebra 2 CAHSEE Math * Grade 10 380+ 380+ 380+ 380+ 380+ 380+ 380+ 350-379 350-379 Community College Placement Level College-level College-level 1-level below 2-levels below 1-level below 2-levels below 3-levels below 3-levels below 4-levels below % of HS Path 9% 46% 13% 14% 9% 11% 11% 19% 27% % n of 903 17 43 12 13 17 20 19 34 48 2% 5% 1% 1% 2% 2% 2% 4% 5%

6

≤ Algebra 1

No

< Algebra 2

350-379

4-levels below

41%

11

1%

23 26% 4

No Math in Grade 12: Different Students, Different Needs
High School Mathematics HS Pathway Markers Path Grade 12 HighestGr 9 Math* Math** level Math 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 ≤ Algebra 1 Geometry Geometry Geometry ≤ Algebra 1 ≤ Algebra 1 ≤ Algebra 1 ≤ Algebra 1 ≤ Algebra 1 No No No No No No No No No Algebra 2 > Algebra 2 > Algebra 2 > Algebra 2 Algebra 2 Algebra 2 Algebra 2 Algebra 2 Algebra 2 CAHSEE Math * Grade 10 380+ 380+ 380+ 380+ 380+ 380+ 380+ 350-379 350-379 Community College Placement Level College-level College-level 1-level below 2-levels below 1-level below 2-levels below 3-levels below 3-levels below 4-levels below % of HS Path 9% 46% 13% 14% 9% 11% 11% 19% 27% % n of 903 17 43 12 13 17 20 19 34 48 2% 5% 1% 1% 2% 2% 2% 4% 5%

6

≤ Algebra 1

No

< Algebra 2

350-379

4-levels below

41%

11

1%

23 26% 4

79% of students who “passed” the CAHSEE Math in Grade 10 placed 3- or 4-levels below college-level math (n=340)
2% 10% 9%

33%

college-level

1-level below
2-levels below 3-levels below 46% 4-levels below

PASS 350-379
Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

By not taking mathematics in grade 12, the students in Groups 2, 3, and 4 did not just miss an opportunity; they diminished their chances for postsecondary success.

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

How is our school district addressing these findings? How is our community college addressing these findings?

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Different Worlds, Same Data

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Santa Monica-Malibu USD
• • • • District Demographics Multiple Measure of College Readiness SMMUSD College Readiness Dashboard SMMUSD Response

Using Shared Research to Clear Pathways to College-Readiness

SMMUSD Overview
• • • • • • PreK-12 District Santa Monica AND Malibu 11,417 White 51% Black 6% Hispanic 30% Asian 6% English Learners 9% Socio-Economically Disadvantaged 27%

Using Shared Research to Clear Pathways to College-Readiness

SMMUSD Overview
• • • • 53 Administrators 66 Pupil Services 554 Teachers 663 Classified Staff

Using Shared Research to Clear Pathways to College-Readiness

SMMUSD Overview
• • • • • • • • Child Development Services (0-Pre-K) 10 K-5 Elementary Schools 2 Middle Schools (6-8) 1 High School (9-12) 1 Middle/High School (6-8, 9-12) 1 Alternative (K-8) 1 Continuation High School (11, 12) 1 Adult School
Using Shared Research to Clear Pathways to College-Readiness

So Many CR Metrics!
• A-G completion rate • Early Assessment Program (EAP) • SAT CR

• SMC Freshmen Course Enrollment Data
• Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) • All of them as each provides useful information

Using Shared Research to Clear Pathways to College-Readiness

SMMUSD CR Dashboard (%)
75
58 39

26

32

2
A-G Rate EAP English EAP Algebra EAP 2 Summative Math SAT CR CC CollegeLevel Math

A-G is necessary and required BUT is insufficient as a measure of CR.

SMMUSD Response
• Goal: All seniors graduate prepared to enroll in post-secondary, freshmen-level math courses

Using Shared Research to Clear Pathways to College-Readiness

Curriculum Alignment Assessment

Professional Development
Equity and Access

SMMUSD Plan: Increase College Readiness in Math Homework
Intervention & Enrichment Parent Involvement Program Monitoring

Curriculum Alignment: What do we want students to know?
• Pre-K Alignment to K-5 • K-12 Alignment: Curriculum AND Rigor
– Vertically and horizontally – Standards-based (CCSS, NCTM, SAT, AP)

• How?
– Curriculum Guides – Teacher collaboration – Data – Classroom Walk-Through’s
Using Shared Research to Clear Pathways to College-Readiness

Curriculum Alignment: What do we want students to know?
• Reshape school culture: Require parents/caregivers to “opt out” of senior math • Create two new senior math electives
– Review of math concepts required for placement in post-secondary freshman math courses – Intensive reteaching of math concepts required for placement in post-secondary freshman math courses

• Team with SMC to administer math placement test at SMMUSD sites as appropriate
Using Shared Research to Clear Pathways to College-Readiness

Assessment: How will we know if students learned?
• Formative—Used effectively twice a week for one school year resulted in a mean gain of 30 percentile points over control group (Ahead of the Curve, p. 106) • Summative • Common, teacher-created (School & District) • Data used to inform teaching, intervention and enrichment • CR Diagnostic Tools beginning in grade 5
Using Shared Research to Clear Pathways to College-Readiness

Professional Development: Teachers
• Content • Cognitive Strategies (visualization, active engagement, vocabulary, culturally responsiveness, etc.) • Non-cognitive strategies (grit, self-control, curiosity, conscientiousness, optimism, etc.) • RTI2, Differentiation and Small Group Instruction • STEM Connections
Using Shared Research to Clear Pathways to College-Readiness

Professional Development: Others
• Who else?
– Principals, Co-Administrators, District Leaders – Counselors/Advisors – Parents/Caregivers – Students

• Focus
– Rationale : Why all students need to be CR – Roles and Responsibilities
Using Shared Research to Clear Pathways to College-Readiness

Equity and Access
• Review of Board Policies and Administrative Regulations • Review of school practices and traditions
– Progress and Repeat “rules” – Grading policies – Homework policies – Reteach and Retest policies – Homework policies
Using Shared Research to Clear Pathways to College-Readiness

Homework
• Homework practices contribute to achievement gaps • Harris Cooper (Duke University)
– Meta-analysis of empirical research – Class Comparison: homework vs. no homework – Grade Level Studies  Elementary – no academic gain  JHS – 12-15 percentile gains on nationally-normed tests  HS – 24-31 percentile gains on nationally-normed tests

Using Shared Research to Clear Pathways to College-Readiness

Homework
• Professional Development
– Effective homework – Differentiated homework

• Monitoring completion rates • Comprehensive Response: The only consequence for not doing homework is to do the homework!
– Classroom – Department – School

Using Shared Research to Clear Pathways to College-Readiness

Intervention and Enrichment: How will we respond when students don’t learn? What if they already know the content?
• Comprehensive system response
– Classroom level – Department/grade level – School level

• Data and Assessment • Small group instruction (practice, intervention, enrichment) • Timely, high-quality corrective action
Using Shared Research to Clear Pathways to College-Readiness

Parent Involvement
• Parenting: Help all families establish home environments to support children as scholars • Communication: Design effective tools for school-tohome AND home-to-school on programs, policies and student progress • Volunteer support • Learning at home strategies • Collaboration • Training

Using Shared Research to Clear Pathways to College-Readiness

Program Monitoring and Refinement
• Common District Assessments • Collaboration
– Among teachers – Among leaders – Among partners

• Classroom Walkthrough’s • Data, data, data

Using Shared Research to Clear Pathways to College-Readiness

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Santa Monica College Programs
• Prep 2 Test • Early Assessment Program (June 2013) • Accelerated Math Pathways • SMC First Year Experience (FYE) • SMC FYE Summer Bridge • Summer Jams • Supplemental Instruction

Using Shared Research to Clear Pathways to College-Readiness

Overcoming Barriers to College Success Through Actionable Data and Collaboration

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Finding Solutions: Using Actionable Data and Collaboration
• Creating a shared pathway to college and career readiness by connecting Pre-K through 12 to postsecondary education. • Increasing college completion by reducing the need for remedial coursework through the use of effective interventions and multiple measures of placement.

• Targeting and improving the transition from postsecondary education to the workforce.

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The Disconnect

The Disconnect

Academic Proficiency

College Readiness

The Challenge

Proficiency Scatterplot for Washington Academic Middle, Sanger Unified Grade 8 Language Arts 2013

Percent Socioeconomically Disadvantaged

College Readiness Scatterplot for Washington Academic Middle, Sanger Unified Grade 8 Language Arts 2013

Percent Socioeconomically Disadvantaged

3 out of 4 Freshmen Need Remediation

Fewer Unprepared Students Complete

First-term Promise Pathways Results in English
Early educational milestone achievement rates
60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Attempted Successfully Transfer-Level Completed English Transfer English LBUSD F2011 (n=1660)

F2012 Success Rates in Transfer Level English
80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

52.9%

63.9%

62.0%

32.8%

5.5%

3.8%

Transfer Level English (English 1, English 1H, English 3) Non-Pathways (n=2095) Promise Pathways (n=516)
78

Promise Pathways (n=976)

Source: Promise Pathways Board of Trustees Update, Long Beach City College, March 12, 2013 from http://www.lbcc.edu/promisepathways/

First-term Promise Pathways Results in Math
Early educational milestone achievement rates
18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% 16.0% 80% 70% 60% 8.2% 5.2% 2.8% 50%

F2012 Success Rates in Transfer Level Math 55%

51%

40%
30% 20% 10% 0%
Transfer Level Math Non-Pathways (N=1803)

Attempted Successfully Transfer-Level Completed Math Transfer Math LBUSD F2011 (n=1660) Promise Pathways (n=976)

Promise Pathways (N=156)
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Source: Promise Pathways Board of Trustees Update, Long Beach City College, March 12, 2013 from http://www.lbcc.edu/promisepathways/

Could this change how we understand college readiness
60%
50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% English 8% 18% 27% 30%
Adding Alternative Placement for all Adding LBCC college-ready (Accuplacer&Alternative)
EAP college-ready

College Readiness – S2012 Graduates, Unduplicated

6% 6% Math

Source: Hetts, J.J. (2013, May). Promising Pathways: The Potential of High School Data to Spur Student Progress and Achievement. Presentation to the Second CCCLLI Institute, May, 6, 2013, Sacramento, CA 80 from http://www.careerladdersproject.org/initiatives-programs/california-community-college-linkedlearning-initiative-ccclli-2/ccclli-institute-2-may-6th/

The data aligns our efforts. The path is more clear and accessible.

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

She’s on her way to college completion!

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness

Thank you!
Contacts
Terry Deloria Assistant Superintendent, Educational Services Santa Monica Malibu USD tdeloria@smmusd.org Louise Jaffe Independent Researcher Santa Monica College Trustee louisecjaffe@gmail.com Ken Sorey Project Manager CalPASS-Plus ken@calpass.org

Roberto Gonzalez Dean, Student Success Initiatives Santa Monica College gonzalez_roberto@smc.edu

Using shared research to clear pathways to college-readiness