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Presented by: Dhairya Mehta Shamel Merchant Shashank Maindarkar Manish Medar

What is Static Electricity  Major Sources in Industry  Some Calculations for Spark Ignition  Minimum Ignition Energy  Hazard Assessment  Precautions to be taken  Case Study


which under favorable (?) conditions can lead to explosion  3 .What is Static Electricity? Electrical Imbalance on the surface of a material  Transfer of Electrons  Causes Spark ignition.

or from orifices into tanks or containers  The flow of gases from orifices  The use of rubber-tyred vehicles  4 .Major Sources of Static in Industry Use of Power / Conveyor belts  Pulverized materials / dusts pneumatically transported  The flow of fluids through pipes or conduits.

5 x C x V C = 10-6 C.10 -6 -4 10 .mhos/cm Sieving: Pouring: Micronising: Pneumatic Transport: 10 . V = 10 kV (typical value for spark discharge) Then discharge energy E = 5 mJ 5 .Typical Numbers Charge production in typical operations for nonaccumulators[C/kg]: Non-Accumulators: Conductivity < 50 pico .10 -11 -9 Calculation example: Pouring operation of 100 kg Product: (10-8 C/kg) Charge on product: 10-6 C Spark energy: E = 0.10 -7 -4 10 .10 -9 -7 10 .

temp) 6 .p.068 mJ Hydrogen: 0. Sulphur: < 1mJ Methane: 0.3 mJ Carbon disulphide: 0.012 mJ Energy for Ignition Min (air) Min (oxygen) Concentration (v.Minimum Ignition Energy MIE the minimum energy that can ignite a mixture of a specified flammable material with air or oxygen. measured by a standard procedure Typical minimum ignition energy values for Combustible Vapors: Soot: > 4000 mJ Natural products: > 10 mJ Organic chemicals: 1-10 mJ Aluminium.

logic ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Is there a flammable atmosphere? Will charge be generated? Can charge accumulate? Is the field strength high enough to breakdown the surrounding air? ◦ Is there sufficient energy to ignite the flammable atmosphere – discharge type?  If the answer is YES. then there is a risk of ignition! 7 .Electrostatic Hazard Assessment .

General Means of Control Bonding and earthing of stationary conductive equipment. wheels and tyres  Increasing the conductivity of nonconductors  8 . footwear.  Increasing the conductance of floors.

Fig. Filling a Tanker with a Flammable Liquid 9 .

plant & items o Generally <10 ohm o Special cases <106 ohm Earth Personnel MAXIMISE CHARGE DISSIPATION Liquids Increase Conductivity (e. ‘improver’ Stadis 450) 10 . specially near vessels AVOID CHARGE ACCUMULATION Earth All Conducting Parts .e.Precautions MINIMISE CHARGING Fluids ◦ Keep Flow Velocity Low ◦ Avoid 2nd Phase entrainment ◦ Avoid Pumps.g. Filters etc.g.

Study Flammable Liquid: VM & P Naphtha  Incident: While Transferring VM & P Naphtha to a storage tank. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board  Main Cause: Static Electricity Spark Ignition  11 . 2007)  Investigated by: U.S.Barton Solvents Wichita facility Case . (July. an explosion occurred.

Key Findings  Tank Contained ignitable vapor-air mixture in the head space  Stop-start filling. 12 . trapping air in the transfer piping  The tank had a liquid level gauging system float with a loose linkage  The MSDS for the VM&P naphtha involved in this incident did not adequately communicate the explosive hazard.

Nonreactive (inert) gas to tank head Space  Modify or Replace Loose Linkage tank level floats  Use Anti-Static Additives  Reduced flow (Pumping) Velocity  13 .Recommendations Add a Nonflammable.

3. 2.CLEANING OF EQUIPMENT IN PROCESS INDUSTRIES  Main methods: Chemical Mechanical 1. Combination of chemical and mechanical 14 .

Chemical cleaning to remove  1. Algae and slime organisms Degradation deposits Preoperational deposits 15 . 4. 3. Deposits build up due to: Carbonaceous or organic structure molecules 2.

Caustic Soda-Surfactant . iron oxides and calcium scales 16 .Caustic Soda plus potassium permanganate (for sulfide deposits) • Organic Acids .5) • Inorganic Acids .CHEMICAL CLEANING SOLVENTS Alkaline Cleaners .Monoammoniated Citric Acid Citric Ion – Chelating agent for iron (pH 3.Remove oxides. Inhibited Sulphuric Acid • .Degreasing of metal surface . mill scale and other impurities .Remove water side deposits.Inhibited Muriatic Acid (HCl).

Expensive but selective complexation .Removal of grease and oil spots . forming water soluble complexes . chelating or sequestering agents .Spent solution might be recyclable .M-Pyrol for PVC Reactors Complexing. gluconates and polyphosphonates 17 .EDTA.React with hardness ions.CHEMICAL CLEANING SOLVENTS • • Organic Solvents .Ease and safety .

Solvent Cleaning Methods • • Circulation .Circulation of solvent Cascade Method .Soils at bottom of tray –unremoved .Used for towers .High pumping capacity of solvents .Chemical pumped through reflux line and cascade down over trays and interior tower .

Solvent Cleaning Methods • Fill and Soak .Vent – to remove gases produced during reaction between soil and deposit • On stream Cleaning .Cost effective compared to fill and soak .Foam also has characteristic property of reducing static electricity .15 min – 1 hour .Foam Cleaning – Foamed solvent solution to increase contact time .Aeration reduces total weight – important when structural integrity ? .Vessel filled with solvent and let to soak .Steam Vapor phase cleaning – solvents introduced at high pressure.Proper flushing to remove loose soil . soils carried with vapor .

Agents act as corrosion inhibitors and passivators .Gel type cleaning agent sprayed or brushed on surface .Solvent Cleaning Methods • • Gel Cleaning . naval gel Pickling and passivating .Remove iron oxide prior to painting . Alloy use ammoniated citric acids .Similar to foam cleaning .Eg.CS use HCl.

Extremely dangerous .Mechanical Methods  Water jetting .Hyperblasting water used at 1000-10000 psi .Consists of lances and specially designed nozzle .Sheer force remove deposits .

Mechanical Methods  Hydrodrilling. Plugs.Water –Lubricant and flushing . Crawlers .Special drills used with water to cut through heavy deposits in tube walls .

Case Studies Xerox  670000 pounds of emissions  Replacement of chlorinated solvents with citric acid  Reduction of emissions by 90%  Saves USD 40000/yr in hazardous waste disposal  .

Case Studies DuPont-Merck  Installed integrated ultrasonic transducer and rod-shaped tubular ultrasonic resonator  Eliminates the need to buy cleaning solvents and to dispose of solvent waste  Vapor emissions on site were reduced by 80%  8 cleaning cycles to pay for the system  .

 Payback.Case Studies Parr Paints  Installed high pressure system  Reduction in latex adhering to walls  Cost of high pressure unit. 1.  Savings in waste disposal. $800.7 months  . $3000/yr.