Materials Science & Engineering

Chapter 8 Solidification shrinkage
 General shrinkage behavior  Solidification shrinkage  Feeding criteria

 Feeding --- the five mechanisms
 Initiation of shrinkage porosity  Growth of shrinkage pores  Final forms of shrinkage porosity
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John Campbell著 《Castings》(第二版) 安阁英《铸件形成理论》
陈金德,邢建东. 材料成形技术基础, 北京:机械工业出版社, 2000 王寿彭. 铸件形成理论及工艺基础. 西安:西北工业大学出版社, 1994. 马幼平,许云华. 金属凝固原理及技术. 北京:冶金工业出版社, 2008. 周尧和等. 凝固技术. 北京:机械工业出版社, 1998 大野笃美(日), 邢建东 译. 金属的凝固理论、实践及应用, 北京:机械工业出版社, 1990. Kurz W.,Fisher D.J,毛协民等译. 凝固原理(Fundamentals of solidification), 西安:西北工业大学出版社,1987. 胡汉起主编. 金属凝固原理(第2版),北京:机械工业出版社,2000. 常国威, 王建中. 金属凝固过程中的晶体生长与控制, 北京:冶金工业出版社,2002. 张伟强. 金属电磁凝固原理与技术,北京:冶金工业出版社,2004. 陶春虎. 定向凝固高温合金的结晶,北京:国防工业出版社,2007. 王家炘,黄积荣,林建生. 金属的凝固及其控制,北京:机械工业出版社,1983 李庆春,铸件形成理论基础,北京:机械工业出版社,1982 M.C. Fleming著,关玉龙译. 凝固过程. 北京:冶金工业出版社,1981. G. J. 戴维斯(英).陈邦迪,舒震译. 凝固与铸造,北京:机械工业出版社, 1981.

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 Understand and master the concepts of shrinkage void and porosity  Know the formation and effective factors of shrinkage void and porosity  Know the protective measures for shrinkage void and porosity

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Materials Science & Engineering 8.10 Ref.30 5.14 5. Table 1 Solidification shrinkage for some metals metal Al Cu Ni Pb Fe K Rb Cd Mg Crystal structure Fcc Fcc Fcc Fcc Bcc Bcc Bcc Bep Bep Melting point/℃ 660 1083 1453 327 1536 64 303 321 651 Liquid density/kgm-3 2368 7938 7790 10 665 7035 827 11 200 7998 1590 Solid density/kgm-3 2550 8382 8210 11 020 7265 1655 Volume change/% 7.16 2.54 2.22 3.00 -4.5 2 2 3 Henan Polytechnic University .11 3.1 General shrinkage behavior Shrinkage The molten metal in the furnace occupies considerably more volume than the solidified castings that are eventually produced. 1 1 1 1 1 4.2 4.

Materials Science & Engineering * Regimes of shrinkage  In the liquid It is the first contraction in the liquid state.  During freezing The contraction of solidification: occurs at freezing point because of the greater density of the solid compared to that of liquid  In the solid As cooling progresses. the normal thermal contraction. The volume reduces linearly with falling temperature. the casting attempts to reduce its size in consequence Henan Polytechnic University Figure 1 Schematic illustration of three shrinkage regimes .

Materials Science & Engineering *Consequences of contractions  Regime I: in the liquid The shrinkage of liquid metal is not troublesome  Regime II: during freezing The solidification contraction may cause a number of problems: (i) the requirement for feeding (ii) shrinkage porosity Henan Polytechnic University .

Materials Science & Engineering

 Regime III: in the solid The final stages of shrinkage in solid state can cause a series of problems: the casting usually constrained to some extent either by the mould or by other parts of the casting that have solidified and cooled already.
 it is not easy to predict the size of the pattern the mould constraint during the solid state  contraction can also lead to more localized problems such as hot tearing or cracking of the casting

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Materials Science & Engineering

8.2 Solidification shrinkage

*Solidification shrinkage cases
In general, liquids contract on freezing because of the rearrangement of atoms from a rather open “random close-packed” arrangement to a regular crystalline array of significantly denser packing.
 The greatest values for contraction on solidification are seen for the densest solids are those that have cubic closepacked (fcc and hcp) symmetry.

 The exceptions to this general pattern are those materials that expand on freezing, including water, silicon and bismuth, and perhaps the most important alloy, such as cast iron.
See next table.
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Table 2 Solidification shrinkage for some metals

fcc (face-entralcubic), cubic close-packed symmetry.

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Henan Polytechnic University .Materials Science & Engineering Graphitic cast irons with carbon equivalent above approximately 3. graphite. the relations for higher carbon have been calculated by J.6 expand because of the precipitation of the low density phase. Campbell. Figure 2 Volume change on freezing of Fe-C alloys. The relations up to 4.3 per cent carbon are due to Wray (1976).

Figure 3 Solidification model for an unfed sphere Henan Polytechnic University .Materials Science & Engineering *Solidification shrinkage model As an ideal case of an unfed casting. it is instructive to consider the freezing of a sphere. Assume: The sphere has been fed via an ingate of negligibly small size up to the stage at which a solid shell has formed fo thickness x.

or the liquid has to expand a little. Henan Polytechnic University . the reduced volume occupied by the layer dx compared to that of the original liquid means that either a pore has to form.Materials Science & Engineering As the solidification continues with the freezing of the following onion layer of thickness dx. and the surrounding solid correspondingly has to contract a little.

The liquid and liquid/solid interface is easily able to withstand such stresses. Henan Polytechnic University .Materials Science & Engineering More details: ► If there is no favorable nucleus available for the creation of a pore. and the solid shell is drawn inwards by plastic collapse though a creep process. or negative pressure. ► As more solid layers form. the liquid has to expand and thus create a state of tension. the liquid expands. the tension in the liquid increases. ► It seems that negative pressures of -100 to -1000 atm may be expected under ideal conditions.

Materials Science & Engineering ►These hydrostatic stress is a driving force for the formation of shrinkage porosity. ►Whether the driving force for pore formation wins over the driving force for feeding will depend on whether nuclei for pore formation exist. of course. Henan Polytechnic University . at the same time. However. the pressure gradient between the outside and inside of the casting is also the driving force for the varies feeding mechanisms that help to reduce the porosity.

• The internal porosity is more troublesome than the porosity occurring on the outside of the casting.Materials Science & Engineering •For the vast majority of cast materials. shrinkage porosity is one of the most important and common defects in castings. • The shrinkage porosity can be reduced by (i) improvements to the cleanness of the metals (ii) the design and provision of good feeding. Henan Polytechnic University . thus the elimination of internal porosity and its displacement to the outside of the casting is a powerful technique that is strongly recommended.

called “feeder” since its action is to feed the casting and compensate for the solidification shrinkage. Henan Polytechnic University . There are seven rules that the author has used to help in the systematic approach to a solution.3 Feeding criteria To allow for the fact that extra metal needs to be fed to the solidifying casting to compensate for the contraction on freezing. The provision of a feeder can be complicated to get right. it is normal to provide a separate reservoir of metal.Materials Science & Engineering 8.

1 The seven feeding rules In this list in the following text. Henan Polytechnic University . and finally the pressure requirements.Materials Science & Engineering 8. followed by the geometrical requirements.3. the order is modified slightly to group the thermal requirements (1 and 3) together.

 The first reason is cost  Many casting are actually impaired by the inappropriate placing of a feeder.  It is easy to make an error in estimation of the appropriate feeder size. The avoidance of feeding is to be greatly encouraged.Materials Science & Engineering Rule 1 Do not feed unless absolutely necessary It’s the main question relating to the provision of a feeder on a casting. Henan Polytechnic University . Probably half of the small and medium-sized castings made today do not need to be fed. with the result that the casting can be more defective than if no feeder were used at all.

the casting This is the heat-transfer criterion.Materials Science & Engineering Rule 2 The feeder must solidify at the same time as. Henan Polytechnic University . attributed to chvorinov. or later than.

Materials Science & Engineering Rule 3 The feeder must contain sufficient liquid to meet the volume-contraction requirements of the casting. However. geometrical and pressure criteria that are absolutely necessary conditions for the casting to freeze soundly. but which define additional thermal. Henan Polytechnic University . see next page. there are additional rules which are also often overlooked. This is usually known as the volume criterion.

if not avoided. leads to “under-feeder shrinkage porosity”. Henan Polytechnic University .e. has a freezing time greater than either the feeder or the casting. This is a problem that.Materials Science & Engineering Rule 4 The junction between the casting and the feeder should not create a hot spot. i.

as the communication criterion. Henan Polytechnic University . The reader can see why this criterion has been often overlooked as a separate rules: the communication criterion appears self-evident.Materials Science & Engineering Rule 5 There must be a path a allow feed metal to reach those regions that require it.

Rule 7 There must be sufficient pressure at all points in the casting to suppress the formation and growth of porosity. Henan Polytechnic University . and the flow needs to be in the correct direction.Materials Science & Engineering Rule 6 There must be sufficient pressure differential to cause the feed material to flow.

The wide prevalence of porosity in castings is a sobering reminder that solutions are often not straightforward.Materials Science & Engineering  It’s essential to understand that all the rules must be fulfilled if truly sound casting scale to be produced.  Of the remainder of castings that do suffer feeding demand. Henan Polytechnic University . many could avoid the use of a feeder by the judicious application of chills or cooling fins. The breaking of only one of the rules may result in the ineffective feeding and a porous casting. The reader must not underestimate the scale of this problem.

Henan Polytechnic University . of course. presents increasing difficulties for the passage of feeding liquid. often in the form of a tangled mass of dendrites. not all five processes are likely to operate in any single case. although.Materials Science & Engineering 8.the five mechanisms During the solidification of a casting. There appear to be at least five mechanisms by which hydrostatic tension can be reduced in a solidifying materials.4 Feeding --.

Materials Science & Engineering  Liquid feeding  Mass feeding  Interdendritice feeding  Burst feeding  Solid feeding Figure 3 Schematic representation of the five feeding mechanisms in a solidifying casting (Campbell 1969) Henan Polytechnic University .

1 Liquid feeding Liquid feeding is the most “open” feeding mechanism and generally precedes other forms of feeding. Henan Polytechnic University .4.Materials Science & Engineering 8. It should be noted that in skin-freezing materials it is normally the only method of feeding.

so that the pressure difference required to cause the process to operate is negligibly small.Materials Science & Engineering The liquid has low viscosity. and for most of the freezing process the feed path is wide. Results of theoretical model of a cylindrical casting only 20mm diameter (see left figure) indicate that pressures of the order of only 1 Pa are generated in the early stages. Figure 4 Hydrostatic tensions in the residual liquid calculated for the various feeding regimes during the freezing of a 20mm diameter aluminium alloy cylinder (Campbell 1969) Henan Polytechnic University .

Liquid feeding effectively becomes interdendritic feeding. Inadequate liquid feeding will result in a sponge shrinkage pipe. and subsequently only air is drawn into the casting.Materials Science & Engineering Inadequate liquid feeding is often seen to occur when the feeder has inadequate volume.  Long. Henan Polytechnic University .  For skin-freezing alloys. Thus liquid flow from the feeder terminates early.freezing-range alloys will be filled with a mesh of dendrites in a sea of residual liquid. inadequate liquid feeding will result in a smooth shrinkage pipe extending from the feeder into the casting as a long funnel-shaped hole.

Henan Polytechnic University . cast with an inadequate feeder resulting in a spongy shrinkage pipe.Materials Science & Engineering Figure 5 Porosity in the long-freezing-range alloy Cu-10Sn bronze.

depending on the pressure differential driving the flow.Materials Science & Engineering 8.2 Mass feeding Mess feeding is the term coined by Baker (1945) to denote the movement of s slurry of solidified metal and residual liquid.4. and depending on what percentage of dendrites are free from points of attachment to the wall of the casting. which is arrested when the volume fraction of solid reaches anywhere between 0 and 50%. Henan Polytechnic University .

 Grain refinement is useful in reducing porosity in castings. so that the flow of the slurry can become an important mechanism to reduce the pressure differential along the flow direction.Materials Science & Engineering  The important criterion to assess whether mass flow will occur is the ratio of casting section thickness to average grain diameter. or where grains have been refined. there may be 20 to 100 grains or more.  In large sections. Henan Polytechnic University .

Materials Science & Engineering 8. At a point at which the grains in liquid/solid mixtures finally impinge strongly and stop is the point at which mass feeding starts to become appreciably more difficult. This is the regime of interdendritic feeding.3 Interdendritic feeding Interdendritic feeding is to describe the flow of residual liquid through the pasty zone. Henan Polytechnic University .4.

Materials Science & Engineering  The pressure differential required to cause a fluid to flow along a capillary is controlled by a number of factors such as viscosity. the dendrite arm spacing and the length of pasty zone. Henan Polytechnic University . the radius of the capillary.  The pressure is most sensitive to the size of the flow channels.

Henan Polytechnic University .4.4 Burst feeding Where hydrostatic tension is increasing in a poorly fed region of the casting.Materials Science & Engineering 8. it seems reasonable t expect that any barrier might suddenly yield. like to dam bursting. allowing feed metal to flood into the poorly fed region.

since freezing is complete at C. Figure 6 Gas-shrinkage map Henan Polytechnic University .Materials Science & Engineering Left figure shows the path of development to early pore nucleation at P.  This delay is successful in avoiding pore nucleation.  In a contrasting case. culminating in complete plastic collapse in the form of burst feeding processes at A and B. slow mechanical collapse of the casting delays the build-up of internal tension.

allowing an inrush of air or mould gases. However. Henan Polytechnic University . it seems reasonable to expect that any barrier may be suddenly yield.  If the feeding barrier is substantial then it may never burst.Materials Science & Engineering  Where hydrostatic tension is increasing in a poorly fed region of the casting. allowing the feed metal to flood into the poorly fed region. not a feeding process. this is a gaseous burst that corresponds to the growth of cavity. like a dam bursting. bursts will reduce the internal stress and allow the casting to remain free from porosity. a type of burst feeding is the rupture of the casting skin.  For small and intermediate barriers. causing the result stress to rise and eventually exceed the nucleation threshold.  On a microscale.

like any other feeding mechanism.4.  This inward flow of the solid relieves the internal tension.5 Solid feeding At a late stage in freezing it is possible that sections of the casting may become isolated from feed liquid by premature solidification of an intervening region. sucking it inwards by plastic or creep flow.Materials Science & Engineering 8. In analogy with “liquid feeding”. the author called it “solid feeding or “self feeding”” Henan Polytechnic University .  In this condition the solidification of the isolated region will be accompanied by the development of high hydrostatic stress in the trapped liquid: sometimes high enough to cause the surrounding solidified shell to deform.

And by the time the sphere solidify completely.  For a solidifying iron sphere of diameter 20mm. the stress in the liquid becomes limited by the plastic yielding of the solid. and so is a function of the yield stress and the geometrical shape of the solid. showing localized solid feeding in action (Campbell 1969) Henan Polytechnic University . the internal pressure is about -1000 atm Figure 7 Plastic zones spreading from isolated volumes of residual liquid in a casting. the elastic limit at the inner surface of the shell was reached at an internal stress of about -40 atm.Materials Science & Engineering When solid feeding starts to operate.

Henan Polytechnic University .Materials Science & Engineering Figure 8 Cross-section of 25 mm diameter wax castings injected into a an aluminum die at various temperature  It is evident that sound casting can. be produced without any feeding in the classical sense. in principle. feeding has been successfully accomplished by skillful choice of mould temperature to facilitate uniform solid feeding.  In this case.

with the result that the internal hydrostatic tension will increase. the solidification shrinkage appears on the outside of the casting. if the internal tension is kept sufficiently low by effective solid feeding. then no porosity will be found in the casting.Materials Science & Engineering 8.5 Initiation of shrinkage porosity Ideal situation: In the absence of gas. Conversely. the mechanisms for internal pore formation are not triggered. Henan Polytechnic University . reaching a level at which an internal pore may form a in a number of ways. In the real world: many castings are sufficiently complex that one or more regions of the casting are not well fed. and if feeding is adequate.

Figure 9 Schematic representation of the origin of porosity (a) thin section Henan Polytechnic University . In thin-section castings.Materials Science & Engineering 8. then liquid that is still connected to the outside surface may be drawn from the surface. but automatically exhibit good soundness. or even no apparent feeding. causing the growth of porosity connected to the surface.1 Internal porosity by surface initiation If the pressure inside the csting falls. that explains why thin sections require little feeding. the withdrawal of surface liquid is negligible.5.

This dull patch is a warning that interdendritic liquid is being drained away from the surface indicating an internal feeding problem that requires attention. Figure 9 Schematic representation of the origin of porosity (b) intermediate section Henan Polytechnic University .Materials Science & Engineering In a section of intermediate thickness the experienced caster will often notice a local frosting of the surface.

Materials Science & Engineering Figure 9 Schematic representation of the origin of porosity (c) large section Henan Polytechnic University .

In castings of large length to thickness ratio this is widely referred to as centreline porosity. and liquid feeding continues unhindered through widely open channels.Materials Science & Engineering 8. Henan Polytechnic University . They form a sound. solid skin at an early stage of freezing.5. such as aluminum bronze and Al-Si eutectic. castings in such alloys are normally leak-tight. do not normally exhibit surface-connected porosity.2 Internal porosity by nucleation Short-freezing-range alloys. Thus unless subsequent machining operations cut into the porosity.

Materials Science & Engineering * The nucleation of shrinkage pores Gas-shrinkage map showing the path of conditions within the residual liquid in the casting in relation to the nucleation threshold for pore formation. the conditions for heterogeneous nucleation of a gas pore on nucleus 1 are met. the gas progressively concentrated in the residue liquid. Ps=0. as showed in figure along the line ADCE. As freezing proceeds. Figure 10 Gas-shrinkage map Henan Polytechnic University .  The initial rapid growth of the gas bubble will exhaust its surroundings of excess gas in solution to D.  For a well fed casting.  At point E.

progressing along the line AF.Materials Science & Engineering  If the casting is free from gas. Figure 10 Gas-shrinkage map Henan Polytechnic University . The internal pressure in the casting falls. but is poorly fed. and a cavity forms.  The hydrostatic tension is explosively released and conditions in the casting shoot back to point A.  At F the fracture pressure for nucleation on heterogeneous nucleus 1 is met.

The combined gas and shrinkage pore will form at B on nucleus 1. causing the local environment to progress to D. Figure 10 Gas-shrinkage map Henan Polytechnic University . the pressure in the liquid immediately reverts to point C. both gas and shrinkage will be present to some degree in the average casting. and both will cooperate.  On the formation of a mixed pore at B.Materials Science & Engineering  In practice.  Subsequent slower diffusion of gas into the pore will deplete the immediate surroundings of the pore. causing the conditions to progress along a curve AB.

then it constitutes a defect known as a “sink” or a “draw”.3 External porosity If internal porosity is not formed (either by surfacelinked initiation or by nucleation events) then the lowering of the internal pressure will lead to an inward movement of the external surface of the casting.5. Henan Polytechnic University .Materials Science & Engineering 8. If the movement is severe and localized. The feeding of the internal shrinkage by the inward flow of solid is “solid feeding” or “self feeding”.

so maintaining the shape of the casting and keeping it sound. Henan Polytechnic University .Materials Science & Engineering Adequate internal pressure within the casting will reduce or eliminate solid feeding. In such favorable feeding conditions neither internal nor external porosity will occur.

Henan Polytechnic University . The elastic stress in the liquid and the surrounding solid can be dissipated at the spread of sound.Materials Science & Engineering 8. For pores that are surface initiated. The tensile failure of a liquid is like the tensile failure of a strong solid. the initial stress is probably lower. and the puncture of the surface will occur relatively slowly as the surface collapse plastically into the forming hole.6 Growth of shrinkage pores For internal pores that are nucleated within a stressed liquid. Then the subsequent growth of the pore is controlled by the solidification or the rate of heat extraction by the mould. the initial growth is extremely fast.

Henan Polytechnic University . These linked advances by the solid and liquid fronts generate a smooth conical funnel. the gradual progress of the solidification front towards the centre of the casting is accompanied by the steady fall in liquid level in the feeder.1 Shrinkage cavity or pipe During liquid feeding.7.7 Final forms of shrinkage porosity 8. which is a shrinkage pipe. Figure 11 stages in the development of a primary shrinkage pipe.Materials Science & Engineering 8. Stage (4) is the appearance of stage (3) on a planar cut section if the central pipe is not exactly straight.

 There is no fundamental difference between microporosity and macropore. This is occasionally called a macropore to distinguish it from microporosity. its final location will not be in the thermal centre of the isolated region.  In the case of the single isolated area of macroporosity. Henan Polytechnic University .  The shape and the position of the porosity can be altered by changing the angle of the casting.Materials Science & Engineering In the situation where the shrinkage problem is in an isolated central region of the casting. a narrow-freezingrange material will give a smooth single cavity. since the pore floats.

Henan Polytechnic University . by gravity. outlined by the broken line. but is offset from the centre of the trapped liquid region. Note that the porosity is not concentrated in the thermal centre. Figure 12 Stages in the development of an internal shrinkage cavity.Materials Science & Engineering Stage (4) is again the equivalent cut section to stage (3).

Shrinkage cavity in short-freezing-range alloy as a function or orientation a. not linked to the casting geometry).Materials Science & Engineering Note: the long parallel walls of the casting give a corresponding long tapering extension of the shrinkage cavity. Figure 13 Shrinkage cavity in short-freezing-range alloy Henan Polytechnic University . b and c. Porosity shown in d illustrates some other source of porosity (it can not be a shrinkage type because of its random form.

2 Layer porosity Alloys of long freezing range are particularly susceptible to a type of porosity that is observed to form in layers parallel to the supposed positions of the isotherms in the solidifying casting.Materials Science & Engineering 8. known as layer porosity.7. Henan Polytechnic University .

Materials Science & Engineering Conditions favorable to the formation of layer porosity appear to be a wide pasty zone arising from long freezing range and/or poor temperature gradients. Henan Polytechnic University . copper. Figure 14 Radiograph of interdendritic porosity in a carbon steel (Campbell 1969) Given these favorable conditions. aluminum and high-temperature alloy based on nickel and cobalt. including those based on magnesium. steel. layer porosity has been observed in practically all types of casting alloys.

The mechanism of formation of this defect is easily understood. but on the contraction of the liquid on solidification.Materials Science & Engineering * A new explanation of layer porosity --. Henan Polytechnic University .Campbell (1968) It avoids the difficulties mentioned above because it is based not on thermal contraction in the solid as a driving force. The sequence of events in the solidifying casting is shown in next figures.

Henan Polytechnic University .Materials Science & Engineering Figure 15 Schematic representation of the formation of layer porosity (part I) • The stresses in liquid of pasty zone continue to increase with advancing solidification until the local stress at some point exceeds the threshold at which a pore will form. it will immediately spread along the isobaric surface. • As soon as a pore is created. forming a layer and instantly dissipating the local hydrostatic tension.

Henan Polytechnic University . stress once again gradually increases with time until another pore-formation event occurs as at stage 4. The maximum stress in the liquid at this stage falls dramatically since the length of pasty zone has now approximately halved.Materials Science & Engineering • • • Figure 15 Schematic representation of the formation of layer porosity (part II) The new layer-shaped pore effectively provides a free liquid surface. Because of the progressive decrease of the size of the flow channels. adjacent to which no large stresses can occur in the liquid.

Materials Science & Engineering • • • Further nucleation and growth events produce successive layers until the whole casting is solidified. The final state consists of layers of porosity that have considerable interlinking. the action of gas and shrinkage in combination also contribute to the formation of layers. Figure 15 Schematic representation of the formation of layer porosity (part III) Henan Polytechnic University . Although these arguments have been presented for the case of porosity being formed only by the action of solidification shrinkage.

 The close spacing of dendrites. would ensure that they would be capable of resisting large pressure differences across their surface. providing support for the films. creating a series of shrinkage cavities arranged generally transverse to the flow direction. Henan Polytechnic University .Materials Science & Engineering Note: consideration of bifilm It seems likely to suppose that bifilms would interfere with the flow of residual liquid through the dendrite mesh. but be sucked open by the downstream demand.  Bifilms transverse to the flow would halt the upstream flow.

 If the porosity is clearly not strongly influenced by the shape of the casting and by gravity (for instance. (Most often it will be bubble damage.3 Summary of shrinkage cavity morphologies  Without exception.7. all the morphologies are dictated by: (i) the geometry of the casting (ii) gravity These two key features allow shrinkage-dominated porosity to be clearly differentiated from other sources of porosity.Materials Science & Engineering 8. porosity in random corners. or well away from the thermal axis of the casting) we can conclude it is not shrinkage porosity.) Henan Polytechnic University .

Materials Science & Engineering (a) Centreline porosity is formed in a skin-freezing alloy that has suffered an inadequate supply of liquid from the feeder. Henan Polytechnic University . (b) Sponge porosity formed in a long-freezing-range alloy. The geometry dictates that the pore is closely parallel to the thermal axis of the casting. but inadequate feed liquid from the feeder. with adequate temperature gradient.

Henan Polytechnic University .Materials Science & Engineering (d) Surface-initiated porosity generated in a long-freezing-range alloy in conditions of poor temperature gradient. The nucleation of internal porosity indicate a poor clearness of the liquid metal. Geometry dictates that the pores are closely at right angles to the axis of the casting. (c) Layer porosity is the result of inadequate interdendritic feeding in a poor temperature gradient. but good clearness of the melt.

but good clearness of melt. resulting in good solid feeding. Henan Polytechnic University .Materials Science & Engineering (e) Surface sink (external shrinkage porosity) formed in conditions of no liquid available from the feeder. Notice gravity dictates that the sink is usually sited on the cope surface of the casting.

Repeat the main feeding rules.Materials Science & Engineering Assignment 1. What the main mechanism of feeding? 6. Summarize the final shrinkage cavity morphologies. 3. Henan Polytechnic University . 5. Under what conditions the volumes of shrinkage void and porosity initiated in casting would be large relatively? 2. When hupoeutectic white cast iron (C%=4%) and gray cast iron (Si%≈2%) crystallizing. what are the values of volume contraction for each other during solidification? And what’s the main cause of the different between both? 4. Analyze the tendency of the initiation of shrinkage void and porosity in gray castiron and spheroidal graphite iron.