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What is DNA????

Consists of phosphate groups, nitrogenous bases and deoxyribose sugar molecule. DNA is a nucleic acid located in the cell's nucleus. Makes up the genetic material - informationcontaining molecules in the cell.

Extraction??

The process of obtaining something from a mixture or compound by chemical or physical or mechanical means. Example of extraction processes commonly used:
i. ii. iii. Solid - liquid extraction Liquid-liquid extraction Aqueous-two phase extraction

Extraction of DNA?? ~DNA Extraction is the removal of deoxyribonucleic acid


(DNA) from the cells or viruses in which it normally resides. ~ Extraction of DNA from cells and its purification are of primary importance to the field of biotechnology and forensics.

What it is used for?? To detect genetic disorders Produce DNA fingerprints of individuals Create genetically engineered organisms that can produce beneficial products such as insulin, antibiotics, and hormones However. The nuclear and the cell membranes are a tough protective barrier, made of lipids and proteins, which need to be eliminated in order to release the DNA.

Lysis or break open the cell by: i. Manually chopping into small bits ii. Add salt solution such as NaCl and a detergent solution containing the compound SDS (sodiumdodecyl sulfate). iii. grinding this mixture in a blender. Filter the blended solution.

Add ethanol to the DNA filtrate - because DNA is soluble in water. The alcohol causes DNA to precipitate.

Onion little starch (allows DNA to be seen clearly) Activity Technique quick and easy 50 minutes Kitchen products and laboratory glassware

Solution

-Water -sodium chloride salt (NaCl) -washing liquid


saltiness

and acidity (pH) -very close to that in living things) -DNA will like to dissolve

To

break down cell walls, emulsifies lipid and protein of the cells walls- long polar molecules with a greasy end and a charged end.
apart the greasy molecules in cell walls

Cell

tear

break at

the cell walls

the very least expose the cell walls so the detergent can break them down

chopped

onion + buffer solution (blender) -expose the onion to the detergent solution. -detergent will break up the cell walls, releasing the onion DNA into the buffer solution.

Clear

solution

Solution

-dissolved DNA fragments -some other biochemical compounds (RNA, Proteins)


Heating

not necessary - ensures (proteins are precipitated)

Alcohol

is added (recover)

-DNA is liberated from the nucleus and the cell -95% alcohol (less dense then water) floats -The lipids and proteins will fall to the bottom of the test tube while the DNA, which is less dense than the proteins and lipids, will rise into the alcohol layer -ethanol (lowers the isoelectric point of DNA thus precipitating it out)

stringy glass

substance bubbling out of solution

rod was gently twirled in the petri dish to pick up the DNA method to extract DNA.

crude

DNA extraction technique plays important role in the field of biotechnology and forensics.

Extraction of DNA can be easily performed by: - breaking of cell walls and cell membranes by chemical agents and mechanically - Using of ethanol to precipitate out DNA