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Change - making or becoming different, difference from previous state, substitution of one for another, variation. 3 types of changes :- Evolution, Revolution, Planned change Drivers of Change in Business Vision, mission task, & goal Structure Strategy Systems, procedures, technology Organizational Values Management styles Culture Human resource : knowledge, skills, attitudes, values


Lewins 3 step model

Organization is a system comprising many inter-related / inter dependent components. Change in one component affects others. Accepting ownership in the change process best facilitates change. Any change upsets the equilibrium of the organizational system hence it will be resisted. Change interventions should be made in a planned way, otherwise the system would return back to its past patterns. People really dont resist change; they resist the pain or threat, which they anticipate for themselves or others out of it. An enlightened self-interest of stakeholders helps in changing. There is a high significance of timing in change time should be ripe while making changes. An accurate & comprehensive design diagnosis is essential for designing appropriate interventions. Through Power, one gets what one wants to get, by posing resistance one tries to avoid what he does not want to get or do.


Change agents are required for affecting changes. They must know how to analyze & manage the restraining & driving forces. High adaptability helps change agents & change plans. High self-awareness is required in change agents, which helps the planning for change. Honoring it, rather than suppressing, avoiding or minimising it best manages resistance. The people affected by change should actively participate in making the change. A person can work best with others resistance by first understanding & accepting his own resistance. The acceptance of organizational change will increase if the people affected are invited to contribute to the change process, communicated honestly about all facets of change, given concrete feedback about the change & recognized appropriately for their specific contributions.

Persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities. People who stimulate, facilitate and coordinate change within a system while remaining independent of it. Newstorm and Davis Persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility of managing change activities in an organization. Robbins, P. Stephen.


Consultant, Trainer, Researcher, Catalyst, Process helper, Solution provider, Resource linker


Cognitive - Analytical thinking & Conceptual thinking. Functional - Depth of Knowledge and Skills , Breadth of Knowledge and Skills, Expertise Acquisition Motive, Distribution / Dissemination of Expertise Personal Self control, Self Confidence, Flexibility, Organizational commitment, Initiative. Inter-personal Communication, Understanding, Service orientation, Influencing, Understanding of power dynamics, relationship & negotiation Consulting Contracting, Diagnosing, Problem solving, Decision making, Implementation, Evaluating, Maintenance.


Institution may be defined as a responsive, adaptive organisation which is a product of social needs and pressures. Esman and Blaise (1966) idefine institutions as organisations which incorporate, foster and protect normative relationships and action patterns and perform functions and services which are valued in the environment.

An institution is an organisation which is relatively more enduring and is perceived as an indispensable part of the community. Its functions and services are related to societys commonly agreed requirements. It has the ability to adopt overtime to changing needs and values in the society and contribute to the community needs. Its internal structures embody and protect commonly held norms and values of the society. Its achievements overtime include influencing the environment in positive ways through the values it creates, (where such necessity arises). Its influence extends to other similar institutions which are linked to it. It is a change protecting and change inducing format organisation. It tends to protect positive values within the community or create new beliefs and values that are necessary for the sustenance of the community or to bring social order at times where negative forces are likely to affect the community. It has permanence that extends beyond the role incumbents who may come and go.

transforming an organisation into an integrated organic part of the community, so that the organisation can effectively play the role of projecting new values and become an agent of change in the community. Hence institution building refers to the process aspects of: establishing or transforming an organization; making an organisation an integrated or organic part of the community; the maintenance role of adopting or adjusting to the existing values; projecting new values through its own efforts of self growth and organisational renewal, and thus; and the proactive role of bringing change contributing to change in the existing values of needs of the society.

FACTORS AFFECTING IB Goals & objectives People Org. Structure & Design Org. Culture Top Level Leadership Linkages with environment