Automatic Controllers & Control Modes | Control Theory | Control System

Unit 2

Automatic Controllers & Control Modes

What Is Control System?
 A Control System is an arrangement of physical components connected/related in such a manner as to command, direct or regulate itself or another system.  A Control System consists of subsystems and processes (or plants) assembled to control the outputs of a process.

Classification Of Control System
1) If the aim is to maintain a physical variable at some fixed value when there are disturbances, this is called as regulator. Example: speed-control system on the ac generators of power utility companies. 2) The second class is the servomechanism. This is a control system in which a physical variable is required to follow (track) some desired time function. Example: an automatic aircraft landing system, or a robot arm designed to follow a required path in space.

 Processes controlled only by set-point commands without feedback are open-loop. Set Point Controller Process Block Diagram of open loop control system .Open-Loop Control System  Process control operations are performed automatically by either openloop or closed-loop systems.  Open-loop systems are used in applications where simple processes are performed.  Open-loop systems are relatively inexpensive.


II. The control signal V.  With the addition of a feedback loop they become self-regulating. The primary element – sensor The controlled variable III. The measured variable IV.  Components of a closed-loop system include: I. The final correcting element .Closed-Loop Control System  Closed-loop control systems are more effective than open-loop systems.




Process Based on variables to be controlled Single variable process Based on operation Continuous process Batch(sequential) Multi variable process process . some of which have to be controlled. It utilizes the resources to produce certain product.  Many variables may be involved in such a process.Process  Complex assembly of phenomenon that refers to some manufacturing sequence.  Classification of processes.

 Single-variable control loops consist of the following elements: o Measuring device o Transducer/transmitter o Controller o Final Control Element . A disturbance appears 2.Process Behavior  The objective of process control is to cause a controlled variable to remain at a constant value at or near some desired set-point.  Usually.  The controlled variable changes because of: 1. Load demands varies or 3. only one individual feedback loop is required to control each variable.  Several process variables are controlled at once in a typical production machine. Set points are adjusted.

.  Valve position is the set point.  Variance in upstream pressure is the disturbance.  Demand for the fluid downstream is the load.  Fluid flow rate is the controlled variable.Process Behavior Example  Flow through the pipe is the process.

Bellows etc. Thermistor. Phototransistor. Thermocouple etc. .  Optical sensors based on LED.  Examples of sensors used in process control are—  Thermal sensors like RTD. LASER and Photodiode.  Level sensors like Ultrasonic.  Pressure sensors like Diaphragm.  Produces output that represents the status of the controlled variable. Bourdon tube.  The output of the sensor is called as feedback. magnetic flow meter etc. Radiation sensor etc.Sensor (Feedback Element)  It is the eye of the system. Float.  Flow sensors like Ventury meter.

venturi) Coriolis Mass.Feedback Elements(Sensors) Strain gauge Piezo-electric Capacitance Bourdon Tube Mechanical Floats Guided Wave Weight (load cell) Ultrasonic Static Pressure Type of Signals Transmitters Pneumatic 3-15 PSI Electrical Current 4 – 20 mA 0 – 20 mA 10 – 50 mA Voltage 0–5V 1–5V 0 – 10 V Digital Thermocouples RTDs / Thermistors Filled Systems Bi-metallic ON/OFF Field Bus ModBus ProfiBus Pressure Level Pressure Transmitter Level Transmitter Differential Pressure Cell Flow Transmitter Flow Temperature pH Humidity Density Speed Head meters (orifice. Temperature Transmitter . velocity.

 Produces error signal for the controller. .  Error = Set point – feedback signal  Examples of devices used as error detector are—  OP-AMP based differential amplifier for analog signals.  Comparison soft wares for digital signals.Error Detector  Compares set point(reference signal) with the feedback signal.

 Receives error signal and develops output that causes the controlled variable to become equal to the set point value.  Different modes of controller are— Controller modes Discontinuous mode ● Two position controller ● Multiposition controller ● Floating controller Continuous mode ● Proportional controller ● Proportional Integral controller ● Proportional Derivative controller ● Proportional Integral Derivative controller . OP-AMP based controller.Controller  The controller is the brain of the system.  Examples of controller PLC. Microprocessor.

Each of these modes has specific characteristics to provide different types of control actions. On/Off 2. Proportional 3.  These control modes are: 1. Derivative  The mode or combination of modes which is selected by the designer is determined by the requirement of the process .Selection of a Controller  Controllers are designed to operate by using different control modes. Integral 4.

 Dead band refers to the differing levels at which a controller switches on and off .  On-off differential or hysteresis is programmed into the controller to reduce cycling.  Final correcting element is either fully-on or fully-off.  The primary drawback of on-off control is the rapid switching of the final control element.On-Off Controller (2 position controller)  Used for slow acting operations where lag is unavoidable.

Liquid bath temperature control 3.On-Off Controller (2 position controller)  The analytical equation for On-Off controller is given as P= 0 % Ep < 0 P= 100 % Ep > 0  Applications of On-Off controller: It is best adapted to large scale systems with relatively slow process rates. Examples of such process are 1. Room heating or air conditioning system 2. Level control in large volume tanks. .

 For processes where the variable needs to be kept at particular set point level. proportional control is used.Continuous Control  On/Off control is acceptable for process where the variable is set between two limits.  Proportional action can be accomplished in two ways: – Time Proportioning Method – Amplitude Proportional Method .

 Here the ratio of On time to Off time called as duty cycle is varied as per the changes in the feedback signal. This method is also called as PWM(Pulse Width Modulation).  On versus off times are varied dependent upon process requirements.  Example: Speed control of DC Motor .Time Proportioning  Is a method whereby the output of the controller is continually switched on and off. .

 The control signal is proportional in amplitude to the error signal. .  The signal may be amplified and the amplification may be referred to as proportional gain and proportional band.Amplitude Proportional  Most common technique to produce a proportional signal.

Proportional Control  Smooth relationship exists between the controller output and the error.Proportional gain between error and the controller output Po. PB = 100/ Kp  Disadvantage of proportional controller is offset or SSE or residual error.  P= Kp Ep + Po Where Kp.Controller output without error  The range of error to cover 0% to 100% controller output is called as proportional band. .  The offset error limits use of proportional mode to only a few cases particularly where manual reset of the operating point is available to reset the offset.  It is generally used in process where large load changes are unlikely or with moderate to small process lag times.

Characteristics of Proportional Controller .

Offset Error .

proportional control alone is not used.  Offset is the difference between set point and the measured value after corrective action has taken place.Integral Control  Because of the introduction of offset in a control process. . It is often used in conjunction with Integral control.

 The Integral mode eliminates this problem by allowing the controller to adapt to changing external conditions by changing zero error output.Integral Control  The offset error of the proportional mode occurs because the controller can not adapt to changing external conditions i. changing loads.  Integral action is provided by summing the error over time.  . In other words the zero error output is a fixed value.e. multiplying that sum by a gain and adding the result to present controller output.

. Integral mode controller action the rate of output change depends on the error.

Characteristics of Integral Controller .

Derivative Mode  For rapid load changes. but in combination with other modes.  Derivative mode is never used by itself. the derivative mode is typically used to prevent oscillation in a process system.  P(t) = KD (dEp / dt) .  Derivative action cannot remove offset.  The derivative mode responds to the rate of change of the error signal rather than its amplitude.

 Derivative controller is not used alone because it provides no output when the error is constant. The Derivative mode must be used with great care and usually with a small gain.  It is also called as rate controller or anticipatory control as it can take an action in advance depending upon the rate of error change. because a rapid change of error can cause very large. sudden changes of controller output which can lead to instability. .

Characteristics Of Derivative Controller .

 In analog system Inverse Derivative control mode is often used. .  The control algorithm can be altered so that derivative acts on the measurement and not on the error.  It tends to react to sudden set point changes and will amplify noise.  DCS system provides software with adjustable filters for each variable.  Excessive noise and step changes in the measurements can be corrected by filtering out any change in the measurement that occurs faster than the maximum speed of response of the process.  The time constant of these filters is usually adjusted from 0 to 100 seconds. This will reduce upsets.Limitations of Derivative Control  The derivative mode acts upon the rate of error signal change and it may cause unnecessary upsets.

Inverse Derivative Control Mode
 This control action is used on fast processes. The inverse derivative mode is opposite of the derivative mode.
 While the output of Derivative mode is directly proportional to the rate of change in error, the output of inverse derivative mode is inversely proportional to the rate of change in the error.  Inverse derivative is used to reduce the gain of the controller at high frequencies and is useful in stabilizing the control loop.  The dynamic gain of the derivative function is selected to be 0.5 or less.  The gain of the inverse derivative controller decreases from the proportional gain at low frequency to the limiting value of the proportional gain divided by this factor at high frequency.  A proportional plus inverse derivative controller provides high gain to minimize offset at low frequency and low gain to stabilize the loop at high frequency.

 Inverse derivative can be added to PI Controller to stabilize the loops requiring very low proportional gains for stability.  Inverse derivative should only be added when the loop is unstable at the minimum gain setting of the PI Controller.  It is available in the separate unit can be added to the loop when stability problem occurs.

 The addition of inverse derivative when proportionally tuned has little effect on the natural frequency of the loop.

Proportional Integral (PI) Control
 Combines proportional and integral mode together and eliminates the offset inherent in proportional controller.  However makes the action sluggish and increases the response time.  Another disadvantage of this system is that during start up of the batch process the integral action causes a considerable overshoot of the error and the output before settling to the operation point.

Characteristics of PI Controller .

 The analytical expression for this mode is given as  This controller cannot eliminate the offset of proportional controllers . .Proportional Derivative (PD) Control  It involves the serial (cascaded) use of the proportional and derivative modes. however it can handle fast process load changes.

Characteristics of PD Control .

.Proportional Integral and Derivative (PID) control  One of the most powerful but complex controller mode operations combines the proportional. integral and derivative modes.  The analytical expression is  This mode eliminates the offset of the proportional mode and still provides fast response.  The system can be used for virtually any process condition.

PID controller characteristics .

Control Mode Summary .

Control System Design Process .

On Off Controller with dead band  Here VH = Vsp and VL = Vsp.(R1/R2) Vo .Electronic Controllers 1.

2. Proportional Controller  We know that for proportional mode p = KP EP + PO  For implementation of electronic controller we have Vout = Gp Ve + VO Where GP = R2/R1 = Gain of the controller .

Application of proportional control for Furnace temperature control .

Application of proportional control for Robot Arm control .

3.C . Proportional Integral Controller  We know that the control mode equation for this mode is given as  For electronic implementation we have  Where Proportional gain = R2/R1 Integral gain = 1/ R2.

Proportional Integral Controller .

Application of Proportional Integral Controller to Robot arm control .

C . Proportional Derivative Controller  We know that for the PD Control mode the equation is given as  For electronic implementation we have  Where Proportional gain = R2/(R1+R3) Derivative gain = R3.4.

Proportional Derivative Controller .

5. Proportional Integral Derivative Controller  We know that for PID the analytical expression is given as  For electronic implementation we have  Where Proportional gain= R2/R1 Integral gain = 1/RI. CI Derivative gain = RD . CD .

Proportional Integral Derivative Controller .

Application of Proportional Integral Derivative Controller for Robot Arm Control .

Pneumatic Relay  Also called as pneumatic amplifier or booster. . It raises the pressure and /or air flow volume by some linearly proportional amount from the input signal.

Nozzle/Flapper system  It is used to convert the pressure to mechanical motion and vice versa. .

Current to pressure converters  The I/P Converter is an important element in process control and used to signal condition the output of controller to equivalent pressure signal. .

Pneumatic Controllers  The pneumatic controller is based on the nozzle/flapper system.  Here also we can implement different control modes.  1. Proportional Controller Pout= (x1/x2)* (A1/A2)*(Pin-Psp) + Po Where Kp= (x1/x2)* (A1/A2) .

Pneumatic Proportional mode .

Proportional Integral controller .2.

3. Proportional Derivative Controller .

Proportional Integral Derivative Controller .4.

Final Control Operation Control signal Signal conditioning Actuator (motor) Process Final control element (valve) .

Control Systems in Robotics Perspective .

The Future of Control Systems .

Tuning the Controller  Fine-tuning is the process to optimize the controller operation by adjusting the following settings: Gain setting (proportional mode) Reset rate (integral mode) Rate (derivative mode)  Three steps are taken when tuning a systems 1. 3. Study the control loop Obtain clearance for tuning procedures Confirm the correction operation of the system components . 2.

Reaction curve method . Ziegler-Nichols Tuning Methods  Two formal procedures for tuning control loops: 1. Trial-and-error tuning is very time consuming and requires considerable experience on the part of the technician or operator. Continuous cycling method 2.Trial-and-Error Tuning Does not use mathematical methods. instead a chart recorder is used and several bump tests are made in the proportional and integral modes.

. The proportional setting that causes the cycling is called the ultimate proportional value.Continuous Cycling Method The continuous cycling method analyzes the process by forcing the controlled variable to oscillate in even. The time duration of one cycle is called an ultimate period. continuous cycles. These two values are then used in mathematical formulas to calculate the controller settings.

The graph produces three different values used in mathematical calculations to determine the proper controller settings. . This method uses step changes and the rate at which the process reacts is recorded. Cycling should be avoided if the process is hazardous or critical.  From the response curve the following parameters are calculated L: Lag time in minutes Δ Cp : Controlled variable change in % T : Process reaction time in minutes N = Δ Cp / T = Process reaction rate in % / min.  This method is applicable only to processes with self regulation characteristics.Ziegler-Nichols Reaction Curve Tuning Method This method avoids the forced oscillations that are found in the continuous cycle tuning method.


5 L . The calculations for Ziegler Nichols Process reaction method are Mode Proportional Proportional Integral (PI) Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Kp Δ P/ NL 0.9 Δ P/ NL 1.33 L 2L 0.2 Δ P/ NL Ti = 1/ Ki Td = 1/ Kd 3.

integral time and derivative time have on the Bode plot. This is then 5 dB gain margin.  Tuning : The operations of tuning using frequency response method involve adjustments of the controller parameters until the stability is proved by the appropriate phase and gain margins.  Bode plot stability criterion 1. If the gain is 5 dB below unity when the phase lag is 180 degrees the system is stable. 2.Frequency Response Method  This method involves use of Bode Plot for the process and control loops. Integral Action : Integral gain= Ki/ω and Integral phase = . This then is 40 degrees phase margin from the limiting value of 180 degrees . Proportional Action : Multiplies gain curve by a constant and no effect on phase.  The method is based on the application of the Bode plot stability criterion and the effects that the proportional gain. If the phase is less than 140 degrees at the unity gain frequency the system is stable.90 degrees (lag) Derivative Action : Derivative gain = Kd*ω and Derivative phase=90 degrees (lead) .

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